Aplastic Anemia

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Aplastic Anemia by Mind Map: Aplastic Anemia

1. Pregnancy

2. Pathophysiology

2.1. Loss of hematopoietic stem cells

2.1.1. Bone marrow HPCs are the source of mature cells in peripheral blood and tissues

2.2. Cells are replaced with fat

3. Diagnostic Tests

3.1. Bone Marrow Test

3.1.1. Liquid and solid bone marrow samples are tested to confirm a diagnosis

3.2. Complete blood count (CBC) reveals pancytopenia: low WBC, RBC, and platelet counts

3.3. Reticulocyte count shows numbers of young red blood cells

3.3.1. This test determines if bone marrow is producing new RBCs

3.3.2. Low levels are typically seen in AA

3.4. Erythropoietin, iron, vitamin B12, and folate levels rule out other causes of anemia

4. Causes

4.1. Autoimmune Mechanisms

4.1.1. Contributes to most AA cases

4.1.2. Treatments for other autoimmune disorders like Rheumatoid Arthritis and Lupus

4.2. Drugs

4.3. Chemotherapy and Radiation

4.3.1. Top Priorities

4.3.2. Medium Priorities

4.3.3. Low Priorities

4.4. Toxins

4.4.1. Top Priorities

4.4.2. Medium Priorities

4.4.3. Low Priorities

4.5. Viral Infection

4.6. Infectious Disease

5. Types

5.1. Non-severe: Low cell counts, may be asymptomatic, watchful waiting, condition may not change

5.1.1. Materials

5.1.2. Personnel

5.1.3. Services

5.1.4. Duration

5.2. Severe AA: Neutrophil counts < 500, Reticulocyte count < 20.000, platelet count < 20,000

5.3. Very Severe AA: Platelet count < 200; all other blood counts comparable to severe AA

6. Clinical Presentation

6.1. Recurring infections due to neutropenia

6.1.1. Recurrent infections may include fever, bladder infections, lung infections, mouth sores

6.2. Frequent bleeding and mennorhagia due to thrombocytopenia

6.3. Tired, difficulty concentrating

6.4. Palpitations

6.5. Pale Skin

6.6. Shortness of Breath

7. Treatments

7.1. A bone marrow transplant, aka stem cell transplant, often cures bone marrow failure

7.2. Antibiotic therapy for recurring infections

7.3. Blood Transfusions

7.4. Immunosuppresive therapy

8. Definition

8.1. Aplastic Anemia is a rare condition where the bone marrow cannot produce an adequate number of red blood cells.

8.1.1. Can be moderate or severe

8.1.2. Can happen at any age

8.1.3. Between 600-900 people are diagnosed annually in the U.S.