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Psychology by Mind Map: Psychology

1. Experiments

1.1. population: all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

1.2. operational definition: a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.

1.3. hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

1.4. experiment: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variables.

2. Neurons

2.1. dendrites: a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

2.2. axon: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

2.3. myelin sheath: a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one sausage-like node to the next

2.4. synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.

3. Brain Testing Tools

3.1. EEG: an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

3.2. CT: series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain’s structure

3.3. PET Scan: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

3.4. MRI: a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue

3.5. fMRI: a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as its structure

4. Ears

4.1. middle ear: chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window

4.2. cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses

4.3. inner ear: the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

5. Branches

5.1. behavioral psychology: the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

5.2. biological psychology: the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes.

5.3. cognitive psychology: the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

5.4. evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection

5.5. psychometrics: the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

5.6. social-cultural psychology the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

6. Biases

6.1. hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

6.2. sampling bias: a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample

7. Eyes

7.1. pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

7.2. iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

7.3. lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

7.4. retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information