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Aging Adult by Mind Map: Aging Adult

1. Pressure ulcers

1.1. Tissue anoxia/ ischemia resulting from pressure

1.2. Risk factors

1.2.1. Poor nutritional intake

1.2.2. Fragile skin

1.2.3. Reduced sensation

1.2.4. Immobility

1.3. Nursing interventions

1.3.1. Educate about high protein diet

1.3.2. Change positions frequently

1.3.3. Frequent skin assessments

2. Skin cancer

2.1. Risk factors

2.1.1. Sun exposure

2.1.2. UV radiation

2.1.3. Radiation therapy

2.2. Treatment

2.2.1. Evaluate and biopsy lesions

2.2.1.1. Removal

2.3. Nursing interventions

2.3.1. Teach about self inspection

2.3.2. Teach about suspicious lesion criteria

3. Pruritis

3.1. Itching caused by the drying of a persons skin

3.2. S/S

3.2.1. Itching

3.2.2. Irritation

3.3. Treatment

3.3.1. Antihistamine

3.3.2. Topical steroids

3.4. Nursing interventions

3.4.1. Educate about excessive bathing

3.4.2. Educate about water temperature

3.4.3. Instruct not to scratch excessively b/c leads to infection

4. Hyperthyroidism

4.1. Thyroid gland excretes excess amounts of thyroid hormone

4.2. S/S

4.2.1. Diaphoresis

4.2.2. Tachycardia

4.2.3. Palpitation

4.2.4. Hypertension

4.2.5. Tremors

4.2.6. Diarrhea

4.3. Treatment

4.3.1. Anti thyroid medication

4.3.2. Surgery

4.4. Nursing interventions

4.4.1. Monitor V

4.4.2. ECG for HR and rhythm

4.4.3. Weigh daily

5. Hypothyroidism

5.1. Subnormal concentrations of thyroid hormone

5.2. S/S

5.2.1. Fatigue

5.2.2. Weakness

5.2.3. Anorexia

5.2.4. Constipation

5.2.5. Weight gain

5.3. Treatment

5.3.1. Replacement of thyroid hormone

5.4. Nursing interventions

5.4.1. Prevent constipation

5.4.2. Advise about dressing in warm clothing

6. Diabetes

6.1. Body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it efficiently

6.2. S/S

6.2.1. Fatigue

6.2.2. Confusion

6.2.3. Blurry vision

6.3. Treatment

6.3.1. Drug therapy

6.3.2. Diet and exercise

6.4. Nursing interventions

6.4.1. Monitor blood glucose before and after meals

6.4.2. Assess for hyper & hypoglycemia

6.4.3. Monitor VS

7. Glomerulonephritis

7.1. Patho

7.1.1. Inflammation of glomeruli

7.2. S/S

7.2.1. Fever

7.2.2. Fatigue

7.2.3. Edema

7.2.4. Abdominal pain

7.2.5. Proteinuria

7.2.6. Hematuria

7.3. Treatment

7.3.1. Antibiotics

7.3.2. Restrict sodium and protein

7.3.3. Strict I+Os

7.4. Nursing interventions

7.4.1. Close observation for accumulation of medications

7.4.2. Evaluate patient for renal failure often

7.4.3. Monitor input and output

8. Renal Calculi

8.1. Patho

8.1.1. Stone formation of crystals that adhere to the urothelium

8.2. Causes

8.2.1. Immobilization

8.2.2. Infection

8.2.3. Changes in pH of urine

8.2.4. Chronic diarrhea

8.2.5. Dehydration

8.2.6. Hypercalemia

8.3. S/S

8.3.1. Pain

8.3.2. Hematuria

8.3.3. UTI symptoms

8.3.4. Upset GI system

8.4. Treatment

8.4.1. Small stones

8.4.1.1. Increase water intake

8.4.1.2. Pain relievers

8.4.1.3. Medications-alpha blockers relax ureters

8.4.2. Large stones

8.4.2.1. Sound waves to break up stones

8.4.2.2. Surgery to remove

8.5. Nursing interventions

8.5.1. Prevent urinary stasis

8.5.2. Provide ample fluids

8.5.3. Facilitate prompt UTI treatments

9. Incontinence

9.1. Types

9.1.1. Stress

9.1.1.1. Caused by intra abdominal pressure- cough, sneezing, laughing

9.1.2. Overflow

9.1.2.1. Caused by bladder neck obstructions/ medication

9.1.3. Urgency

9.1.3.1. Caused by UTI, BPH, irritation or spasms of bladder

9.1.4. Neurogenic

9.1.4.1. Arising from cortex lesions, MS, or other disturbances in neural pathway

9.2. Treatment

9.2.1. Medications

9.2.2. Track voids

9.2.3. Bladder training

9.2.4. Fluid management

9.3. Nursing interventions

9.3.1. Toileting schedule

9.3.2. Keel exercises

9.3.3. Biofeedback

9.3.4. Medications

10. Colorectal cancer

10.1. Patho

10.1.1. Cancer that forms in colon or rectum

10.1.1.1. Cells proliferate out of control

10.2. Risk factors

10.2.1. Inflammatory bowel disease

10.2.2. Family history

10.2.3. Lack of physical activity

10.2.4. Low fiber diet

10.2.5. Diet low in fruits and vegetables

10.2.6. Overweight

10.2.7. Alcohol consumption

10.2.8. Smoking

10.3. S/S

10.3.1. Rectal bleeding-bloody stools

10.3.2. Change in bowel pattern

10.3.3. Anorexia

10.3.4. Nausea

10.3.5. Abdominal discomfort

10.3.6. Weakness

10.3.7. Anemia

10.4. Treatment

10.4.1. Chemotherapy

10.4.2. Colectomy

10.5. Nursing interventions

10.5.1. Counseling for adjustment to bodily changes

10.5.2. Education of colostomy care

10.5.2.1. Warm water and pat dry

11. Peptic ulcer disease

11.1. Patho

11.1.1. Open sore or raw area in lining of stomach or intestines

11.1.1.1. Lining broken down by: irritants, infection

11.2. Risk factors

11.2.1. Smoking

11.2.2. Heavy alcohol

11.2.3. Stress

11.2.4. Caffeine

11.2.5. H.pylori infection

11.3. S/S

11.3.1. Pain

11.3.2. Bleeding

11.3.3. Obstruction

11.3.4. Perforation

11.4. Treatment

11.4.1. Medication to decrease stomach acid production

11.4.1.1. Antacid

11.4.1.2. Proton pump inhibitors

11.4.2. Antibiotics if caused by bacteria

11.4.2.1. Penicillin

11.5. Nursing interventions

11.5.1. Assess pain and location

11.5.2. Instruct pt. To avoid NSAIDS

11.5.3. Encourage smoking cessation

11.5.4. Small frequent meals

12. Esophageal cancer

12.1. Patho

12.1.1. Cancer originated in squamous cell or columnar cells that line the esophageal lumen

12.2. Causes

12.2.1. Alcohol use

12.2.2. Heavy smoking

12.2.3. Poor oral hygiene

12.3. S/S

12.3.1. Dysphasia

12.3.2. Weight loss

12.3.3. Excessive salvation

12.3.4. Thirst hi

12.3.5. Hiccups

12.3.6. Anemia c

12.3.7. Chronic bleeding

12.4. Treatment

12.4.1. Surgical resection

12.4.2. Radiation

12.4.3. Chemotherapy

12.4.4. Laser therapy

12.4.5. Photodynamic therapy

12.5. Nursing intervemtions

12.5.1. Smoking cessation

12.5.2. Assess ability for pt. to swallow

12.5.3. Check for coughing while eating

12.5.4. Instruct pt. to sit up right while eating

13. Arrhythmias

13.1. Patho

13.1.1. Disturbance of normal heart rhythm conduction

13.2. Causes

13.2.1. Digitalis toxicity

13.2.2. Hypokalemia

13.2.3. Acute infections

13.2.4. Hemorrhage

13.2.5. Coronary insufficiency

13.3. S/S

13.3.1. Weaknessf

13.3.2. Fatigue

13.3.3. Palpitationsc

13.3.4. Confusion

13.3.5. Dizziness

13.3.6. Hypotension

13.3.7. Bradycardias

13.3.8. syncope

13.4. Treatment

13.4.1. Medication

13.4.1.1. Beta blocker

13.4.1.2. Calcium channel blocker

13.4.1.3. Anti arrhythmic

13.4.2. Pacemaker

13.4.3. ICD

13.4.4. Cardioversion

13.5. Nursing interventions

13.5.1. Monitor HR and rhythm

13.5.2. Palpate pulses

13.5.3. Continuous cardiac monitor

14. Pulmonary embolism

14.1. Patho

14.2. Risk factors

14.2.1. Fractures

14.2.2. CHF

14.2.3. Arrhythmias

14.2.4. History of thrombosis

14.2.5. Immobilization

14.3. S/S

14.3.1. Confusion

14.3.2. Apprehension

14.3.3. SOB

14.3.4. Elevated temperature

14.3.5. Elevated ESR

14.4. Treatment

14.4.1. Blood thinners/ anticoagulants

14.4.2. Catheter to remove/ dissolve clot

14.4.3. Compression stockings

14.5. Nursing interventions

14.5.1. Assess skin color/ cap refill

14.5.2. Monitor VS

14.5.3. Assess for s/s of hypoxia

14.5.3.1. Confusionh

14.5.3.2. Headache

14.5.3.3. Restlessness

14.5.3.4. Tachycardia

14.5.3.5. Pale skin

14.5.4. Auscultation of lung sounds

14.5.5. Asses for calf swelling, pain, redness, hardened areas

15. Pneumonia

15.1. Patho

15.1.1. Breakdown in body’s natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within the lungs

15.2. Risk factors

15.2.1. Immobility

15.2.2. Smoking

15.2.3. Lung disease

15.2.4. Asthma

15.2.5. Being hospitalized

15.3. S/S

15.3.1. Chest pain

15.3.2. Cough

15.3.3. Fever

15.3.4. Fatigue

15.3.5. SOB

15.4. Treatment

15.4.1. Antibiotics

15.4.2. Oral rehydration

15.4.3. Oxygen

15.4.4. IV fluids

15.5. Nursing interventions

15.5.1. Assess for cough productivity

15.5.2. Auscultate lung sounds and airflow

15.5.3. Observe sputum color, consistency, odor

15.5.4. Assess patients hydration statue

15.5.5. Elevate head of bed

15.5.6. Change position frequently

15.5.7. Encourage adequate fluids

16. Cancer of prostate

16.1. Patho

16.1.1. Adenocarcinoma that develops in prostate gland

16.2. S/S

16.2.1. Blood in urine

16.2.2. Decrease force of stream

16.2.3. Decreased stream

16.2.4. Dribbling

16.3. Risk factors

16.3.1. Increased age

16.3.2. Obesity

16.3.3. Family history

16.4. Treatment

16.4.1. Diagnosed by digital rectal exam

16.4.1.1. Hormone therapy

16.4.1.2. Chemotherapy

16.4.1.3. Radiation

16.4.1.4. Surgery

16.5. Nursing interventions

16.5.1. Educate about maintaining healthy diet

16.5.2. Exercise education

16.5.3. Counseling about diagnosis

17. Erectile dysfunction

17.1. Patho

17.1.1. Metabolic imbalance between relaxatory and contractile processes within smooth muscle of penis

17.2. S/S

17.2.1. Inability to achieve and sustain erection

17.3. Risk factors

17.3.1. Diabetes

17.3.2. Smoking

17.3.3. Obesity

17.3.4. Hypertension

17.4. Treatment

17.4.1. Silendafil (viagra)

17.4.2. Vardenifil

17.4.3. Taladafil (cialis)

17.5. Nursing interventions

17.5.1. Smoking cessation education

17.5.2. Education about controlling blood pressure

17.5.3. Counseling about self-image

18. Tumor of vulva

18.1. 4th most common malignancy

18.2. S/S

18.2.1. Pain and irritation

18.2.2. Pruritis

18.3. Patho

18.3.1. DNA mutation causes cells to grow and divide rapidly

18.3.1.1. Squamous cell carcinoma

18.3.1.1.1. Cancer of thin, flat cells that line the surface of vulva

18.3.1.2. Vulva melanoma

18.3.1.2.1. Cancer of the pigment-producing cells in skin of vulva

18.4. Treatment

18.4.1. Radical vulvectomy

18.4.2. Radiation

18.5. Nursing interventions

18.5.1. Educate about HPV vaccine

18.5.2. Counseling about self-image

18.5.3. Body practice education

18.5.4. Sexual activity education

18.6. Risk factors

18.6.1. Increased age

18.6.2. Smoking

18.6.3. Exposure to HPV

18.6.4. Weakened immune system

19. BPH

19.1. S/S

19.1.1. Nocturia

19.1.2. Dribbling

19.1.3. Decreased stream

19.1.4. Hesitancy

19.2. Risk factors

19.2.1. Overweight

19.2.2. Increased age

19.2.3. Diabetes

19.2.4. Heart disease

19.2.5. Inactivity

19.3. Treatment

19.3.1. Alpha blockers

19.3.2. TURP

19.3.3. Prostatectomy

19.4. Nursing interventions

19.4.1. Encourage voiding every 2-4 hours

19.4.2. Ask patient about stress incontinence: coughing, sneezing,lifting objects

19.4.3. Have patient document voiding

19.4.4. Encourage fluids

19.4.5. Watch closely for signs of obstruction

19.4.6. Sitz baths for comfort

19.5. Patho

19.5.1. Proliferation of cells in prostate

20. Breast cancer

20.1. Patho

20.1.1. Proliferation of cells, invading other structures

20.1.1.1. Epithelial tumors that develop from cell lining ducts or lobules

20.2. Risk factors

20.2.1. Increased age

20.2.2. Overweight

20.2.3. Smoking

20.2.4. Hormone treatment

20.2.5. Alcohol consumption

20.3. S/S

20.3.1. Lump on breast

20.3.2. Bloody discharge from nipples

20.3.3. Change in shape or texture of nipple or breast

20.4. Treatment

20.4.1. Radiation

20.4.2. Surgery

20.4.2.1. Mastectomy

20.4.2.2. Lumpectomy

20.5. Nursing interventions

20.5.1. Regular breast exams

20.5.1.1. Yearly mamograms

20.5.2. Education about self breast exams

21. Atrophic vaginitis

21.1. Risk factors

21.1.1. Post menopause

21.1.2. Cancer treatments

21.1.3. Immunologic disorders

21.2. S/S

21.2.1. Itching and burning

21.2.1.1. Increase fragility and alkaline

21.3. Patho

21.3.1. Low estrogen production leads to atrophy of vulvar epthelium

21.4. Treatment

21.4.1. Estrogen replacement

21.4.2. OTC moisturizer/ water-based lubricant

21.5. Nursing interventions

21.5.1. Assess pain

21.5.2. Assess sexual desires

21.5.3. Instruct about water-soluble lubricant to decrease pain

22. Preventing complications

22.1. Promote circulation

22.2. Adequate fluid intake

22.3. Avoid smoking

22.4. Frequent position changes

22.5. Proper diet

22.6. Exercise

23. CHF

23.1. S/S

23.1.1. SOB

23.1.2. dyspnea

23.1.3. Confusion

23.1.4. Insomnia

23.2. Patho

23.2.1. Heart muscle does not pump blood efficiently d/t narrowed blood vessels or hypertension

23.3. Risk factors

23.3.1. High blood pressure

23.3.2. Heart attack

23.3.3. Diabetes

23.3.4. Smoking

23.3.5. Obesity

23.4. Treatment

23.4.1. Blood pressure medication

23.4.2. ICD

23.4.3. Surgery

23.4.3.1. Coronary artery bypass

23.5. Nursing interventions

23.5.1. Smoking cessation education

23.5.2. Encourage physical exercise

23.5.3. Auscultation of heart sounds

23.5.4. Palpate peripheral pulses

23.5.5. Monitor BP

23.5.6. Inspect skin for pallor/ cyanosis

23.5.7. Monitor urine output

24. COPD

24.1. Smoking

24.2. Chronic bronchitis

24.2.1. Persistent cough, URI, SOB

24.2.1.1. Remove secretions

24.2.1.2. Prevent airway obstruction

24.2.1.3. Adequate fluid intake

24.3. Emphysema

24.3.1. Postural drainage

24.3.2. Bronchodilators

24.3.3. Avoid stress

24.3.4. Breathing exercises

24.4. Treatment

24.4.1. Steroids

24.4.2. Bronchodilators

24.4.3. Oxygen therapy

24.5. Nursing interventions

24.5.1. Encourage physical exercise

24.5.2. Smoking cessation

24.5.3. Instruct to modify diet

25. Alzheimer’s

25.1. Neurotic plaques of beta-amyloid protein

25.1.1. Changes in neurotransmitter systems

26. Cellular changes

26.1. Functional cell number decreases

26.2. Lean body mass decreases

26.3. Total body fat increases

26.4. Extracellular fluid constant, intracellular fluid reduces= less total body fluid

27. Respiratory changes

27.1. Connective tissue cause relaxation at lower edge of septum

27.2. Submucosal glands decrease secretions

27.2.1. Reduced ability to dilute mucous/ difficult to remove

27.3. Calcification of costal cartilage

27.4. Anterior-posterior chest diameter increases

27.5. Inspiratory/exploratory muscles weaken

27.6. Decrease in number of cilia

27.6.1. Hard to remove mucous

27.7. Alveoli decrease

27.7.1. Loss of elasticity

27.7.1.1. Lungs smaller,more rigid,firmer, less recoil

27.8. Reduction in cough and laryngeal reflexes

27.9. Less lung expansion/ decreased ability to expel foreign matter

27.10. Increase residual capacity and reduced vital capacity

27.11. High risk for respiratory infection

28. Sarcopenia

28.1. Reduction in protein synthesis

28.2. Increase in muscle protein degeneration

28.2.1. Can lead to disabilities

28.2.1.1. Promote good nutrition

29. Cardiovascular changes

29.1. Slight left ventricular hypertrophy, aorta dilated and elongated

29.2. AV valves thick and rigid

29.2.1. Sclerosis and fibrosis

29.2.1.1. Systolic/diastolic murmur

29.3. Heart muscle loses efficiency and contractile strength

29.3.1. Reduced carduac output

29.3.1.1. Compensate with SV

29.3.1.2. Raise plasma drug levels

29.4. Pacemaker cells decrease in number

29.5. Blood vessels reduce elasticity

29.5.1. More prominent vessels in head and neck

29.6. Oxygen used less efficiently

29.7. SV decrease by 1% each year

29.8. Heart pigmented with lipofuscin granules

30. Gastrointestinal changes

30.1. Less acute taste sensations

30.1.1. Lose sweet

30.2. Decreased esophageal motility

30.3. Reduced saliva and digestive enzymes

30.3.1. Reduced piddlin

30.3.1.1. Cannot break down carbohydrates as well

30.4. Liver is smaller

30.5. Reduced intestinal blood flow

30.5.1. Absorption of drugs

30.5.1.1. Slower absorption/metabolism

30.6. Atrophy of gastric muscles

30.7. Decreased stomach motility

30.8. Atrophy of small and large intestine

30.8.1. Fewer cells to absorb nutrients

30.9. Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion, constipation

30.10. Decreased production of acid

30.10.1. Difficulty breaking down iron, B12 and B6

30.11. Decreased pepsin, lipase, pancreatic enzymes

30.12. Slower peristalsis

30.13. Less acute taste sensations

30.13.1. Lose sweet

30.14. Decreased esophageal motility

30.15. Reduced saliva and digestive enzymes

30.15.1. Reduced piddlin

30.15.1.1. Cannot break down carbohydrates as well

30.16. Liver is smaller

30.16.1. Decrease in size and function

30.16.1.1. Affects metabolism of drugs

30.16.1.1.1. Longer metabolism

30.17. Reduced intestinal blood flow

30.18. Atrophy of gastric muscles

30.19. Decreased stomach motility

30.20. Atrophy of small and large intestine

30.20.1. Fewer cells to absorb nutrients

30.21. Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion, constipation

30.22. Decreased production of acid

30.22.1. Difficulty breaking down iron, B12 and B6

30.23. Decreased pepsin, lipase, pancreatic enzymes

30.24. Slower peristalsis

31. Renal

31.1. Decline in renal blood flow and GFR by 50% by age 90

31.2. Decrease in erythropoietin

31.3. Atrophy of kidney

31.4. Decrease tubular function

31.5. Decrease nephrons

31.6. Reduced bladder capacity

31.6.1. Urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia

32. Musculoskeletal changes

32.1. Thinning disks and shortened vertebrae

32.2. Reduced muscle mass, strength and movement

32.3. Decreased bone mineral mass

32.4. Diminished calcium absorption

32.5. Increased risk of fractures

32.6. Tendons shrink and harden

32.6.1. Tendon jerk

32.7. Reflexes lessen in arms, lost in abdomen and maintained in knee

32.8. Muscle cramping common

33. Reproductive changes

33.1. Male

33.1.1. Seminal vesicles thin and reduce fluid-retaining capacity

33.1.2. Seminiferous tubules=fibrosis

33.1.3. Reduce sperm count

33.1.4. Sclerosis and fibrobelastosis of penis

33.1.5. Prostatic enlargement

33.1.6. Decrease in testosterone levels

33.2. Female

33.2.1. Atrophy of vulva

33.2.2. Vaginal epithelium thin and avascular

33.2.3. Cervix atrophy

33.2.4. Endometrium responds to hormones

33.2.4.1. Postmenopausal bleeding

33.2.5. Uterus ligaments weaken and backwards tilt

33.2.6. Fallopian tubes atrophy and shorten

33.2.7. Ovaries atrophy

33.2.7.1. Thicker and smaller

33.2.8. Estrogen depletion

33.2.8.1. Weakening of pelvic floor muscles

33.2.8.1.1. Involuntary release of urine when increase in intra abdominal pressure

33.2.9. Vagina= alkaline and flora/secretions decrease

34. Nervous system

34.1. Decline in blood flow to brain

34.1.1. Does not affect thinking and behavior

34.2. Reduction in neurons, nerve fibers and cerebral blood flow

34.2.1. Nerve conduction slower

34.3. Slower response to balance

34.3.1. Fall risk

34.4. Slower recognition and response to stimuli

34.4.1. Decrease in new axon growth and nerve reinnervation of injured peripheral nerves

34.5. Hypothalamus

34.5.1. Less effective temperature regulation

34.6. Changes in sleep patterns with frequent awakening

35. Sensory changes

35.1. Vision

35.1.1. Presbyopia

35.1.1.1. Inability to focus on close objects clearly

35.1.2. Pupil size reduction and less reactive to light

35.1.3. Narrowing of visual field

35.1.3.1. Decreased peripheral vision

35.1.4. Depth perception distortion

35.1.5. Decline in visual acuity

35.2. Hearing

35.2.1. Presbycusis

35.2.1.1. Progressive loss of hearing

35.2.2. Cerumen increases

35.2.2.1. Affects hearimg

35.2.3. Alteration in equilibrium

35.3. Taste and smell

35.3.1. Sense of small altered with age

35.3.2. Taste acuity dependent on smell

35.3.3. Atrophy of tongue

35.3.4. Decreased saliva

35.3.4.1. Poor oral hygiene

35.3.4.2. Medications

35.4. Touch

35.4.1. Reduced tactile sensation

35.4.2. Reduced ability to sense pressure, discomfort and change in temperature

36. Endocrine

36.1. Thyroid gland activity decrease

36.2. ACTH decrease d/t decrease in pituitary gland

36.3. Insulin release by beta cells is delayed

36.4. Ability to metabolize glucose is reduced

36.5. Higher blood glucose in non diabetic patient

37. Integumentary

37.1. Skin less elastic, dry and fragile

37.2. Decreased subcutaneous fat

37.3. Increased benign skin neoplasms

37.4. Atrophic changes

37.5. Reduced sweat gland activity

38. Immune system

38.1. Depressed immune system

38.2. T-cell activity declines

38.3. Cell-mediated immunity declines

38.3.1. Risk for infection increases

38.3.2. Inflammatory defenses decline

39. Thermoregulation

39.1. Normal body temp lowered

39.1.1. 96.9-98.3

39.2. Ability to respond to cold temperatures is reduced

39.3. Response to heat is altered

40. Personality

40.1. Remains constant

41. Learning

41.1. Ability to learn is usually unchanged

41.2. Best when new information relates to old information

42. Safety Risks

42.1. Accidents are 6th leading cause of death

42.2. Falls leading cause of injury-related death

42.3. Factors that contribute to injuries

42.3.1. Parkinson’s

42.3.1.1. Reduction in dopamine

42.3.1.2. Resting tremors- pill rolling

42.3.1.3. Bradykinesia

42.3.1.4. Shuffling gait

42.3.2. Stroke

42.3.3. Seizures

42.3.4. Dimentia

42.3.4.1. Irreversible and progressive

42.3.4.1.1. Impairment in cognitive function

42.3.5. Depression

42.3.6. Orthostatic hypotension

42.3.6.1. Decline in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg after rising in morning or standing for one minute

42.3.6.1.1. Rise slowly in morningc

42.3.6.1.2. Change positions slowly

42.3.7. Arrhythmias

42.3.7.1. Abnormal heart rate and rhythm

42.3.7.2. S/S

42.3.7.2.1. Weakness

42.3.7.2.2. Fatigue

42.3.7.2.3. Confusion

42.3.7.2.4. Dizziness

42.4. Home safety

42.4.1. Diffuse lighting better than bright lights

42.4.2. Nightlights should be soft

42.4.3. Scattered rugs removed

42.4.4. Arm rests on chairs

42.4.5. Use handrails and side rails