This is a structured overview on the topic Ecology. It involves the branches of ecology, pollution, environmental issues and science, such as global warming and climate change.

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1. Definition of Ecology

1.1. The study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical environment.

1.2. The distribution and abundance of organisms on Earth is shaped by both biotic, living-organism-related, and abiotic, nonliving or physical, factors.

1.3. Ecology is studied at many levels, including organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.

1.4. Goal

1.4.1. One core goal of ecology is to understand the distribution and abundance of living things in the physical environment.

2. Branches of Ecology

2.1. 5 Broad Levels

2.1.1. Organism Organismal ecologists study adaptations, beneficial features arising by natural selection, that allow organisms to live in specific habitats. These adaptations can be morphological, physiological, or behavioral.

2.1.2. Population A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time. Population ecologists study the size, density, and structure of populations and how they change over time.

2.1.3. Community A biological community consists of all the populations of different species that live in a given area. Community ecologists focus on interactions between populations and how these interactions shape the community.

2.1.4. Ecosystem An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in an area, the community, and the abiotic factors that influence that community. Ecosystem ecologists often focus on flow of energy and recycling of nutrients.

2.1.5. Biosphere The biosphere is planet Earth, viewed as an ecological system. Ecologists working at the biosphere level may study global patterns interactions among ecosystems, and phenomena that affect the entire globe, such as climate change.

2.2. Habitat ecology

2.2.1. It deals with ecological study of different habitats on planet earth and their effects on the organisms living there. According to the kind of habitat, ecology is subdivided into marine ecology (oceanography), estuarine ecology”, fresh water ecology (limnology), and terrestrial ecology. The terrestrial ecology in its turn is classified into forest ecology, cropland ecology, grassland ecology, desert ecology, etc., according to the kinds of study of its different habitats.

2.3. Evolutionary ecology

2.3.1. Problems of niche segregation and speciation.

2.4. Taxonomic ecology

2.4.1. It is concerned with the ecology of different taxonomic groups of living organisms and eventually in­cludes following divisions of ecology: microbial ecology, mammalian ecology, avian ecology, insect ecology, parasitological, human ecology and so on.

2.5. Human ecology

2.5.1. It involves population ecology or man and man s relation to the environment Especially man’s effects on the biosphere and the implication of these effects for man

2.6. Applied ecology

2.6.1. The application of ecological concepts to human needs and thus, it includes following applications of ecology: Wild-life management, range management, forestry, con­servation, insect control, epidemiology, animal husbandry, aquacultare, agriculture, horticulture, and land use and pollution ecology.

2.7. Ecosystem dynamics

2.7.1. The ecological study of the processes of soil formation, nutrient cycline energy flow, and productivity.

2.8. Production ecology

2.8.1. The gross and net pro­duction of different ecosystems Fresh water, sea water, agriculture, horticulture, ctc., tries to do proper management of these eco­systems so that maximum yield can be get from them

2.9. Ecological energetic

2.9.1. Energy conservation and its flow in the organisms within the ecosystem. In it thermody­namics has its significant contribution.

2.10. Physiological ecology (ecophysiology)

2.10.1. The factors of environment have a direct bearing on the functional aspects of organ­isms. The survival of populations as a result of functional adjustments of organisms with different ecological conditions.

2.11. Chemical ecology

2.11.1. The adaptations of animals of preferences of particular organisms like insects to parti­cular chemical substances.

2.12. Ecological genetics (gcnecology)

2.12.1. An ecologist recognized kind of genetic spasticity in the case of every organism. In any environment only those organisms that are favored by the environ­ment can survive. Genecology deals with the study of varia­tions of species based upon their genetic potentialities.

2.13. Palaeoecology

2.13.1. The study of environmental conditions, and life of the past ages, to which palynology, palaeontology, and radioactive dating methods have made significant contribution.

2.14. Geographic ecology (ecogeography)

2.14.1. The study of geographical distribution of animals (zoogeography) and plants (phytogeography), and also of palaeoecology and biomes.

2.15. Space ecology

2.15.1. It is a modern subdivision of ecology The development of partially or completely regene­rating ecosystems for supporting life of man during long space flights or during extended exploration of extra-terrestrial environments.

2.16. Pedology

2.16.1. It is a branch of terrestrial ecology The study of soils, in particular their acidity, alkalinity, humus contents, mineral contents, soil-types, etc., and their influence on the organisms.

2.17. Radiation ecology

2.17.1. The study of gross effects of radiations and radioactive substances over the environment and living organisms.

2.18. Ethology

2.18.1. It is the interpretation of animal behaviour under natural conditions. In it, often, detailed life history studies of particular species are amassed.

2.19. Sociology

2.19.1. The study of ecology and ethology of mankind.

2.20. Systems ecology

2.20.1. The modern branch of ecology which is particularly concerned with the analysis and understanding of the function and structure of ecosystem By the use of applied mathematics, such as advanced statistical techniques, mathematical models, characteristics of computer sciences

3. Climate Change

3.1. Effects of Climate Change

3.1.1. Global temperature rise The planet's average surface temperature has risen about 1.62 degrees Fahrenheit (0.9 degrees Celsius) since the late 19th century A change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide and other human-made emissions into the atmosphere

3.1.2. Warming oceans The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat With the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of more than 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969

3.1.3. Shrinking ice sheets The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass Data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost an average of 286 billion tons of ice per year between 1993 and 2016

3.1.4. Glacial retreat Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world Including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.8

3.1.5. Decreased snow cover Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and that the snow is melting earlier.

3.1.6. Sea level rise Global sea level rose about 8 inches in the last century The rate in the last two decades, however, is nearly double that of the last century and is accelerating slightly every year.

3.1.7. Declining Arctic sea ice Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades

3.1.8. Extreme events The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing The number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since 1950.

3.1.9. Ocean acidification Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans.

3.2. Evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution

4. Global Warming

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate.

4.2. Causes

4.2.1. Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the "greenhouse effect"1 Warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Certain gases in the atmosphere block heat from escaping. Long-lived gases that remain semi-permanently in the atmosphere and do not respond physically or chemically to changes in temperature are described as "forcing" climate change. Gases, such as water vapor, which respond physically or chemically to changes in temperature are seen as "feedbacks."

4.3. A layer of greenhouse gases

5. Environmental Issues

5.1. The environmental problems like global warming, acid rain, air pollution, urban sprawl, waste disposal, ozone layer depletion, water pollution, climate change and many more affect every human, animal and nation on this planet.

5.2. Major Current Environmental Problems

5.2.1. Pollution Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years to recoup Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one pollutants.

5.2.2. Global Warming Climate changes like global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the oceans and the earth’ surface Causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods, excessive snow or desertification.

5.2.3. Overpopulation The population of the planet is reaching unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like water, fuel and food Population explosion in less developed and developing countries is straining the already scarce resources

5.2.4. Natural Resource Depletio Natural resource depletion is another crucial current environmental problems Globally, people are taking efforts to shift to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, biogas and geothermal energy

5.2.5. Waste Disposal The over consumption of resources and creation of plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal Developed countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans and, less developed countries

5.2.6. Climate Change It occurs due to rise in global warming which occurs due to increase in temperature of atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels and release of harmful gases by industries.

5.2.7. Loss of Biodiversity Human activity is leading to the extinction of species and habitats and and loss of bio-diversity Eco systems, which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger when any species population is decimating.

5.2.8. Deforestation Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and produce fresh oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature and rainfall Deforestation simply means clearing of green cover and make that land available for residential, industrial or commercial purpose.

5.2.9. Ocean Acidification It is a direct impact of excessive production of CO2. 25% of CO2 produced by humans

5.2.10. Ozone Layer Depletion The ozone layer is an invisible layer of protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful rays epletion of the crucial Ozone layer of the atmosphere is attributed to pollution caused by Chlorine and Bromide found in Chloro-floro carbons (CFC’s)

5.2.11. Acid Rain Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere Can be caused due to combustion of fossil fuels or erupting volcanoes or rotting vegetation which release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere

5.2.12. Urban Sprawl Refers to migration of population from high density urban areas to low density rural areas which results in spreading of city over more and more rural land

5.2.13. Public Health Issues The current environmental problems pose a lot of risk to health of humans, and animals Dirty water is the biggest health risk of the world and poses threat to the quality of life and public health

5.2.14. Genetic Engineering Genetic modification of food using biotechnology is called genetic engineering Genetic modification of food results in increased toxins and diseases as genes from an allergic plant can transfer to target plant

6. Pollution

6.1. Also called environmental pollution

6.2. Definition

6.2.1. The addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form

6.3. The major kinds of pollution

6.3.1. Air Pollution Air Pollution 101 | National Geographic

6.3.2. Water Pollution

6.3.3. Land Pollution

6.3.4. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants Noise Pollution Light Pollution Plastic Pollution How We Can Keep Plastics Out of Our Ocean | National Geographic

6.3.5. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being.

6.4. Causes

6.4.1. Natural events Forest fires Active volcanoes

6.4.2. Anthropogenic A source created by human activities Pollution has accompanied humankind ever since groups of people first congregated and remained for a long time in any one place

6.5. Pollution Control

6.5.1. Great efforts are made to limit the release of harmful substances into the environment through Air pollution control Wastewater treatment Solid-waste management Hazardous-waste management Recycling

7. Environmental Science

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Environmental science is the study of the effects of natural and unnatural processes, and of interactions of the physical components of the planet on the environment.

7.2. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary subject, so involves studying elements of biology, chemistry, physics, geography and social sciences

7.3. Environmental Science Careers

7.3.1. What Does an Environmental Scientist Do? Environmental scientists conduct research to identify, control, or eliminate sources of pollutants or hazards affecting the environment or public health. Their research generally involves determining data collection methods Collecting and analyzing air, water, and soil samples; analyzing environmental data gathered by others; and analyzing for correlations to human activity. Environmental scientists also develop plans to prevent, control, or fix environmental problems like air pollution.

7.4. What is Environmental Science? Definition and Scope of the Field