Age Related Changes

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Age Related Changes by Mind Map: Age Related Changes

1. Skin

1.1. long term exposure to UV rays

1.1.1. Skin cancer

1.1.2. Photoaging

1.1.3. Skin spots

1.2. increased fragility of skin

1.2.1. increased risk for pressure injuries, infection, tears

1.3. Reduced thickness and vascularity

1.3.1. Vascular lesions

1.3.2. Varicose veins

1.3.3. Stasis dermatitis

1.3.4. Stasis ulcers

1.4. Increased coarseness of collagen

1.5. Decreased epidermal turnover

1.5.1. Delayed wound healing

2. Sleep

2.1. Phase advance

2.1.1. less REM sleep

2.2. Nocturnal myoclonus

2.2.1. related to use of anti depressants & renal failure

2.3. Restless leg syndrome

2.3.1. related to iron deficiency anemia, uremia, Parkinson’s, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, neuro lesions

2.4. Sleep Apnea

2.4.1. can be caused by COPD

3. Sexuality

3.1. Adropause

3.1.1. Decline in testosterone

3.1.1.1. Can lead to erectile dysfunction, decrease in muscle mass, osteoporosis

3.2. Menopause

3.2.1. Cessation of menses

3.3. Erectile dysfunction

3.3.1. can be caused by diabetes, hypertension, MS, thyroid dysfunction, alcoholism, renal failure

4. Reproductive- Women

4.1. Vulva atrophy

4.1.1. Senile Vulvitis

4.2. Flattening labia

4.3. vaginal epithelium thins

4.3.1. less lubrication

4.3.1.1. May lead to painful intercourse

4.4. Cervix, uterus, ovaries and Fallopian tubes atrophy

4.4.1. Increased risk for cervical cancer

4.5. decreased estrogen production

4.5.1. more alkaline pH

4.6. Breast cancer risk increases

5. Reproductive- Men

5.1. seminal vesicles develop thinner epithelium

5.1.1. less live sperm in ejaculation

5.2. Muscle tissue replaced with connective tissue

5.3. Testicle atrophy

5.4. Prostate enlargement

5.4.1. BPH

5.4.1.1. hard time initiating flow of urine

5.4.1.2. Increased risk for prostate cancer

5.4.1.2.1. Frequent digital rectal exams

6. Respiratory

6.1. Decrease in lung size

6.2. Decreased elastic recoil

6.3. Decrease in vital capacity

6.4. COPD

6.4.1. Asthma

6.4.1.1. overuse of bronchodilator nebulizers increase risk for arrhythmias

6.4.2. Chronic bronchitis

6.4.2.1. Scarring that restricts air flow

6.4.2.1.1. Recurrent inflammation and mucus production

6.4.2.2. Emphysema may develop

6.4.3. Emphysema

6.4.3.1. Long term exposure to smoke, chronic bronchitis, chronic irritation, dissension of alveolar sacs

6.4.4. Lung cancer

6.4.4.1. related to smoking

6.4.4.2. Chronic exposure to coal gas, radioactive dusts, and chromates

6.4.5. Lung abscess

6.4.5.1. Can be caused by pneumonia, TB, malignancy,, trauma and aspiration

6.5. reduced submucosal gland secretion

6.5.1. mucus is thicker and harder to expel

6.6. Trachea calcifies

6.7. Coughing reduced

6.8. Gag reflex becomes weaker

6.8.1. At risk for aspiration

6.9. Loss of skeletal muscle strength in thorax

6.9.1. Kyphosis

6.9.2. Barrel chest

6.10. Pneumonia

6.10.1. poor chest expansion

6.10.2. decreased immune function

6.10.3. reduced sensitivity of pharyngeal reflexes

6.10.4. Important to get pneumococcal vaccine recommended every 5 years

6.11. Influenza

6.11.1. recommended to go the flu shot, annually

7. Circulation

7.1. Valves become thick and rigid

7.2. Aorta dilation

7.2.1. Ventricular hypertrophy

7.3. Myocardial tissue less effective

7.3.1. Decreased cardiac output

7.4. decreased baroreceptor sensitivity

7.4.1. blood pressure less regulated

7.4.1.1. Hypertension

7.4.1.1.1. Older adults have a higher risk for adverse effects from antihypertensives

7.4.1.2. Hypotension

7.4.1.2.1. can increase risk of falls

7.5. Congestive Heart Failure

7.5.1. related to coronary artery disease

7.5.2. Contributing factors: diabetes, dyslipidemia, albuminuria, anemia, chronic kidney disease, substance abuse, stress and sedentary lifestyle

7.5.3. other causes: decreased elasticity of vessels, and increase in BP

7.6. Hyperlipidemia

7.6.1. can contribute to plaque build up in the heart

7.6.1.1. dietary factors

7.6.2. Diabetes, hypothyroid, uremia, nephrotic syndrome can contribute

7.7. Arrhythmias

7.7.1. can be caused by low potassium, infection, hemorrhage, and coronary insufficiency

7.7.2. Atrial Fibrilation

7.8. Peripheral vascular disease

7.8.1. Diabetics most affected

7.8.1.1. Affects small vessels furthest from heart

7.8.1.1.1. Daily foot inspection

7.9. Pulmonary embolism

7.9.1. Risk with fractured hip, CHF, arrhythmias, hx of thrombosis,immobilization, and malnutrition

7.10. Coronary artery disease

7.10.1. Angina

7.10.2. Myocardial infarction

7.10.2.1. hx of hypertension and arteriosclerosis

8. Digestion and Bowel Elimination

8.1. Tongue atrophy

8.1.1. affects taste sensation

8.1.1.1. dry mouth

8.2. Saliva production decreases

8.3. Presbyesophagus

8.3.1. Increased aspiration risk

8.4. Increased stomach pH

8.4.1. increase in gastric irritation

8.4.2. decrease in hydrochloride acid and pepsin

8.4.2.1. decrease absorption in Ca, Iron, folic acid, B12

8.5. Increased constipation

8.5.1. decreased peristalsis, inactivity, decreased intake, drugs, low fiber diet

8.6. pancreases atrophies

8.6.1. Affects fat digestion

8.7. Hiatal hernia

8.7.1. Low fiber diet

8.8. Esophageal Cancer

8.8.1. Exposure to smoke, alcohol, poor oral hygiene contribute

8.9. Peptic Ulcers

8.9.1. Risk factors: smoking, alcohol, stress, H. Pylori infection

8.10. Diverticular disease

8.10.1. Diverticulitis

8.10.1.1. overeating, straining with a BM, alcohol and irritating food

8.10.2. Chronic constipation, obesity, hernia, atrophy of intestinal walls, and low fiber diet

8.11. Colorectal Cancer

8.11.1. annual stool occult blood and digital rectal exams

8.12. Chronic constipation

8.12.1. Inactive, low fiber, low fluid, depression, laxative use, dulled sensations, incomplete bowel emptying

8.13. Intestinal obstruction

8.13.1. caused by diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, hypokalemia, vascular problems, and paralytic ileus

9. Urinary Elimination

9.1. hypertrophy of bladder muscle

9.1.1. increase in frequency

9.2. Urinary retention

9.2.1. prostatic hypertrophy in men

9.3. Insufficient neurological control of bladder

9.4. Filtration efficiency of kidneys decreases

9.4.1. hard to eliminate drugs

9.4.1.1. Increased risk for toxic levels of medications

9.5. Reduced ability to concentrate and dilute urine

9.6. UTIs

9.6.1. risk factors: neurogenic bladders, arteriosclerosis, diabetes

9.6.1.1. Foley catheters increase risk

9.7. Incontinence

9.7.1. Stress

9.7.1.1. weak pelvic muscles, obesity

9.7.2. Urgency

9.7.2.1. UTI, BPH, diverticulitis, irritation or spasm

9.7.3. Overflow

9.7.3.1. Bladder neck obstruction, medications

9.7.4. Neurogenic

9.7.4.1. cerebral cortex lesions, MS

9.7.5. Functional

9.7.5.1. Dementia, or disability

9.7.6. Mixed

9.8. Bladder cancer

9.8.1. Chronic irritation, exposure to dyes, and cigarettes

9.9. Renal Calculi

9.9.1. Immobilization, infection, change in pH, diarrhea, dehydration, hypercalcemia

10. Neuro

10.1. Loss of nerve cell mass

10.1.1. atrophy of brain and spinal cord

10.2. number of nerve cells decline

10.2.1. slower nerve conduction

10.2.1.1. response time decreases

10.3. free radicals accumulate

10.4. cerebral BF decreases

10.4.1. increase risk for stroke

10.4.1.1. Increased risk with diabetes and HTN

10.5. Ability to come back after injury decreases

10.5.1. making brain or spinal injuries hard to come back from

10.6. number and sensitivity of sensory receptors, dermatomee and neurons decrease

10.6.1. Decreased sensation

10.7. Decline in function of cranial nerves

10.7.1. Affects taste and smell perception

10.8. Neurovascular disease

10.8.1. RF: diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, high stress, high cholesterol

10.9. Parkinson’s

10.9.1. cause: Impaired basal ganglia

10.9.1.1. Dopamine producing neurons die or are impaired

10.9.1.1.1. more common in men

10.9.2. RF: exposure to toxins, encephalitis, cerebrovascular disease, and arteriosclerosis

10.10. Transient Ischemic Attacks

10.10.1. hyperextension and flexion of head

10.10.2. Impaired cerebral BF

10.10.3. reduced blood pressure

10.10.4. anemia

10.10.5. some medications

10.10.6. Cigarette smoking

10.11. Cerebrovascular Accidents

10.11.1. RF: HTN, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, gout, anemia, hypothyroidism, silent myocardial infarction, TIAs, dehydration and cigarette smoking

10.11.2. Ischemic

10.11.2.1. from a thrombus

10.11.3. hemorrhagic

10.11.3.1. ruptured cerebral blood vessels

11. Vision and hearing

11.1. Reduced elasticity, stiffening of muscle fibers of lens

11.1.1. Inability to focus

11.1.1.1. Begins in fourth decade

11.1.1.1.1. Need for corrective lenses

11.2. Decrease pupil size, loss of photoreceptors cells

11.2.1. Visual acuity declines

11.3. light perception decreases

11.3.1. Difficulty seeing at night

11.4. Sensitivity to glare

11.4.1. Cataract formation

11.4.1.1. Clouding of lens

11.4.1.2. Causes: exposure to UV rays, diabetes, smoking, alcohol, eye injury

11.4.1.2.1. Importance of wearing sunglasses

11.5. inaccurate depth perception

11.5.1. Increased risk for injuries/falls

11.6. Decreased peripheral vision

11.7. Eyes produce fewer tears

11.7.1. Dry eyes

11.8. Arteriosclerosis, and diabetes can damage the retina

11.9. Glaucoma

11.9.1. Optic nerve damage

11.9.1.1. results from increased intraocular pressure

11.9.2. Occurs in fourth decade

11.9.2.1. Women more affected

11.9.3. assoc. with: increased lens size, iritis, allergy, endocrine imbalance, emotional instability and family hx

11.9.4. Acute

11.9.4.1. Closed angle/ Narrow angle

11.9.4.1.1. Medical emergency

11.9.5. Chronic

11.9.5.1. Open angle

11.9.5.1.1. Gradual

11.10. Macular degeneration

11.10.1. Most common cause of blindness over 65

11.10.1.1. damage of macula

11.10.1.1.1. loss of central vision

11.11. Detached retina

11.11.1. Prompt treatment required

11.12. Corneal ulcer

11.12.1. RF: fever, irritation, nutrition deficiency, and stroke

11.13. Hearing loss

11.13.1. long time exposure to loud noises: music, jets, machinery, etc.

11.13.2. Ototxic drugs

11.13.3. Recurrent infection/irritation

11.13.4. diabetes, tumors of nasopharyngeal, hypothyroidism, and syphillis

11.14. Inner ear damage

11.14.1. Vascular problems, viral infections, presbycusis

11.15. Otosclerosis

11.15.1. Middle ear problem

11.15.1.1. Affects more women

11.15.1.1.1. Osseous growth

11.16. Tinnitus

11.16.1. Ringing in ears

11.16.1.1. Hearing loss, ear injury, medication, cardiovascular disease

12. Endocrine

12.1. thyroid gland atrophy

12.1.1. Decreased basal metabolic rate

12.1.1.1. less secretion and release of thyrotropin

12.2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone decreases

12.2.1. Decreases activity of adrenal gland

12.2.1.1. Decreases secretion of estrogen, progesterone, androgen, ketosteroids, and glucocorticoids

12.3. Pituitary gland decreases

12.4. Insufficient insulin release

12.4.1. Reduced tissue sensitivity to insulin

12.4.1.1. Reduced ability to metabolize glucose

12.5. Diabetes

12.5.1. increased incidence between 65-74

12.5.2. Glucose intolerance

12.5.3. RF: obesity, inactivity, family hx

12.5.4. Fasting blood sugar screenings every 3 years over 45

12.5.5. Thyroid gland atrophies, fibrosis, increased colloid nodules, and lymphocytic infiltration

12.5.6. Renal threshold for glucose increases

12.5.6.1. older adults hyperglycemia without symptoms

12.5.7. Risk for metabolic syndrome with diabetes

12.5.8. Hypoglycemia risk to older adults

12.5.8.1. Uncorrected can cause tachycardia, arrhythmias, MIs, cerebrovascular accident, death

12.5.9. PVD common complication

12.5.9.1. Retinopathy

12.5.9.1.1. Cognitive impairment

12.6. Hypothyroid

12.6.1. production of T4 declines

12.6.2. More common in women

12.6.3. Primary

12.6.3.1. Disease process that destroys gland

12.6.3.2. Low T4, elevated TSH

12.6.4. Secondary

12.6.4.1. Insufficient secretion of TSH

12.6.4.2. low T4

12.7. Hyperthyroid

12.7.1. thyroid gland secretes excessive thyroid hormone

12.7.2. affects women more

12.7.3. Use of amiodarone potential cause

12.7.4. Goiter

12.7.5. Graves’ disease

12.7.5.1. autoimmune

12.7.6. Risk for thyroid storm

13. Immunity

13.1. Decreased immune response

13.2. Thymus gland decreases

13.2.1. T cell function declines

13.2.1.1. Less able to fight infection and illness

13.3. Decreased antibody response

13.4. More susceptible to influenza and pneumonia