Elder Adult

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Elder Adult by Mind Map: Elder Adult

1. Reproductive System

1.1. Age related changes

1.1.1. Thinning of cervix

1.1.2. Erectile disfunction

1.1.3. Hormonal changes Flatten labia Vulva atropy Increased risk of infection Less natural lubrication Alkaline vagina

1.1.4. Menopause

1.1.5. Painful sex Lower drive Less secretions

1.2. Abnormal

1.2.1. Cervical cancer Atrophy Shorter canal Alkaline Increased yeast infection

1.2.2. Prostatic hypertrophy Thickening of membrane Narrowing of lumen Fibrosis

2. Respiratory system

2.1. Age related changes

2.1.1. Cartilage calcifies Ribs become more brittle Reduced lung function

2.1.2. Trachea calcifies

2.1.3. Reduced reflexes of throat Less productive cough

2.1.4. Increased risk for infections

2.2. Abnormal

2.2.1. Disease/ infection Pneumonia Increased fluid in lungs COPD Bronchitis Emphysema Asthma Lung cancer

3. GI system

3.1. Age related changes

3.1.1. Decreased taste sensation Less taste of salt=increased amount added/ used with foods

3.1.2. Decreased esophageal motility

3.1.3. Atrophy of intestines

3.1.4. Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion, constipation

3.1.5. Gastric changes Alters drug absorption GERD Maldigestion NSAID ulcers

3.1.6. Decreased appetite Reduced food intake Weight loss

3.2. Abnormal

3.2.1. Hiatal hernia

3.2.2. Esophageal cancer

3.2.3. Ulceration Indigestion

3.2.4. Colon cancer Bloody stools Constipation

4. Musculoskeletal system

4.1. Age related changes

4.1.1. Shortening of intervertebral disk Shorter vertebrae

4.1.2. Reduced muscle mass Less muscle movements Decreased muscle strength

4.1.3. Impaired calcium absorption

4.1.4. Less bone mass and vitamin/ mineral absorption

4.2. Abnormal

4.2.1. Frailty syndrome Weakness Muscle wasting Instability Less endurance Occurs 20-30% elders

4.2.2. Sarcopenia Increased risk of disability of falls and unstable gait Broken hips, wrists, shoulders

4.2.3. Arthritis Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Osteoporosis Gout

5. Endocrine/Immune system

5.1. Age real aged changes

5.1.1. Slowed immune system Increased risk of infection Reduced antibodies response

5.1.2. Thinning of skin

5.1.3. Decreased langerhans cells

5.1.4. Decreased circulation

5.1.5. Immunizations Inactive only Healthy Pneumococcal/ flu vaccine yearly 65+yo

5.2. Abnormal

5.2.1. Diseases Diabetes Type 2 Thyroid abnormalities Hashimoto syndrome HIV A, B, C Common manifestations Fever Chills Pain Delirium

6. Cardiovascular system

6.1. Age related changes

6.1.1. Loss of muscle contraction strength Less pump efficency

6.1.2. Decreased cardiac output

6.1.3. Thickening of valves

6.1.4. Blood vessels become less elastic Hypertension

6.1.5. Decreased oxygen saturation

6.2. Abnormal

6.2.1. Aneurysm Narrowing of aorta Can rupture lead to fatality

6.2.2. Cardiomyopathy Increase in size Swelling of heart and vessels

6.2.3. Coronary Artery Disease

6.2.4. HTN High incidence in older adults

6.2.5. Vascular disease

6.2.6. Atherosclerosis Risk embloi Leading to MI

7. Urinary system

7.1. Age related changes

7.1.1. Decreased renal blood supply

7.1.2. Decreased glomerular filtration rate

7.1.3. Reduced men sperm count/ menopause in women Atrophy of Fallopian tubes Atrophy of testies

7.1.4. Decreased bladder capacity Increased urinary frequency Increased urgency Nocturia

7.2. Abnormal

7.2.1. Incontinence

7.2.2. UTIs Pyelonephritis Cystitis

7.2.3. Cervical cancer women/ benign prostatic hypertrophy men Enlargement of prostate blocks urinary pathway Most common cancer in men

7.2.4. Renal disease

8. Nervous system

8.1. Age related changes

8.1.1. Decreased blood flow to brain

8.1.2. Reductions in neurons and nerve fibers Forgetfulness

8.1.3. Sleep changes Less REM sleep “Light sleeper”

8.1.4. Hypothalamus decreased temp regulation Normal low body temp/ cold feeling

8.2. Abnormal

8.2.1. Sensory impairments Visual Decreased/ slow reaction to light changes Smaller/ constricted pupils Presbyopia Hearing Presbycusis

8.2.2. ICU delerium Long stays No visitation daily Poor reorientation Not set routines Restlessness

9. Integumentary system

9.1. Age related changes

9.1.1. Hair Thins Turns grey/ white

9.1.2. Decreased tissue elasticity Droopy eyes Lengthening of ears Increased chin fat/ roll

9.1.3. Wrinkles

9.1.4. Decreased body fat

9.2. Abnormal

9.2.1. Pruritus

9.2.2. Pitting edema

9.2.3. Purpura

9.2.4. Venous insufficiency Pooling of blood in extremities Inability of blood to return to the heart

9.2.5. Skin tears

9.2.6. Pressure ulcers

10. Physical appearance

10.1. Posture

10.1.1. Kyphosis Forward curvature of spin

10.2. Height

10.2.1. Shortened stature Less carilage Shorter vertebrae Tissue changes Less elastic

10.3. Medication

10.3.1. Polypharmacy

10.3.2. Extended drug half-lives Decrease liver function Decrease renal function

10.3.3. Altered pharmacodynamics Increase myocardial sensitivity Increased nerve receptors