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Emulsifier by Mind Map: Emulsifier

1. What is it ?

1.1. A substances which reduce the surface tension at the interface of two normally immiscible phases , allowing them to mix and form an emulsion

2. Function ?

2.1. To promote emulsion stability

2.2. Stabilize aerated system

2.3. Control agglomeration of fat globules

2.4. To modify texture, shelf life and rheological properties

2.4.1. By complexing with strach and protein components

2.5. To improve the texture of fat-based foods

2.5.1. By controlling the polymorphism of fats

3. How it works?

3.1. Reduce tension between two immiscible phases due to their molecular structure

3.1.1. Emulsifier orient themselves at the phase interface and lower the interfacial enerrgy

3.1.2. Monomolecular interfacial film Prevent the coalescence

3.1.3. Formation of steric

3.1.4. Formation of electrical barrier

4. Where it is used?

4.1. In a emulsion

4.1.1. Emulsion Consist of two phase that are immiscible under normal condition Dispersed phase Continuous phase Consist of two type water in oil (w/o) oil in water (o/w) On phase is dispersed in the other in the form of fine droplets The dispersed droplets medium which the droplets are dispersed

5. Structure ?

5.1. Hydophilic

5.1.1. Affinity for water Consists of Anionic cationic Amphoteric Nonionic functional group

5.2. Lipophilic

5.2.1. Affinity for oil Consists of C16 (palmatic) Longer fatty acid

6. Types

6.1. Cationic

6.1.1. Posses positive charge amine compound

6.1.2. Not used as food additive

6.1.3. Toxic

6.2. Amphoteric

6.2.1. Posses both positive and negative charges variuos lecithin

6.2.2. Act as anionic or cationic emulsifier depending on pH of system

6.3. Nonionic

6.3.1. Uncharged molecules monoglycerides polyoxyethene glycol oleates polysorbates sucrose ester diglycerides

6.3.2. Influenced by pH Salt content

6.4. Anionic

6.4.1. Posses a negative electrical charges stearoyl lactylates Diethyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides succinylated monoglycerides

6.4.2. Influenced by pH Ionic strenght

7. How to classified ?

7.1. Throug HLB

7.1.1. What is HLB ? Expresses the balance size and strength of the hydrophilic and lipophilic group in the emulsifier 3-6 HLB Good O/W emulsifier 7-9 HLB Good wetting agent Can be used for o/w or w/o 10-18 HLB Good o/w emulsifier

8. Application ?

8.1. Emulsification

8.2. Antistaling

8.3. Texture modification

8.4. Aeration/ foaming

8.5. Emulsion stabilization

8.6. Solid fluidization

8.7. Crystal modification

8.8. Palatability improvement

8.9. Defoaming

8.10. Wetting

8.11. Solubilizing

9. Function in bread

9.1. Divide into two main group

9.1.1. Dough conditioner/ dough strengtheners Aid development of less tacky , extensible dough hat are processed through machinery without tearing or sticking Exerts their effect during fermentation ,mechanical handling , shaping and transports as well as proofing and the first part of baking time .

9.1.2. Crumb softener Aionic emulsifier Complex with starch which referred to as crumb softeners Interact with flour components in creating longer lasting softness in the crumb of finished goods Emulsifier-starch complex Retard crystallization or retrogradation which is responsible for staling Most effective softerners Lactylates SMG Plastic mono and diglycerides Hydrated distilledmono glycerides DATEM Typically used about 0.5-1.0% of flour weight

10. How to select?

10.1. Evaluate different combination of two or more emulsifier to determine which gives the most stable emulsion

10.1.1. Example , do not blend anionic and cationic emulsifier as these may neutralize each other

10.2. Use only approved emulsifier

10.3. Select an emulsifier after considering

10.3.1. the functional requirement of the food system

10.3.2. The method of processing

10.3.3. The form of finished product

10.4. Consult the supplier for

10.4.1. Approximate usage levels

10.4.2. methods of incorporating the emulsifier into the food

10.5. Determine HLB requirement for the foodsystem

10.5.1. Involves screening emulsifier over a range of the HLB values and several concentrations To determine approximate requirement then verify through experimentation

11. Function in ice cream

11.1. Stabilize the foam by destabilizing the product's emulsion

11.2. Displace the protein from the fat globules surface to the aqueous phase

11.2.1. Increase the liquid cream's viscosity and allows the fat globules to agglomerate

11.2.2. The increase viscosity promotes aeration while the agglomeration stabilize the air cells once air is incorporated

12. Function in Noodle and pasta

12.1. Make rigid complex with starch to protect starch granules and improve quality of starchy foods

12.2. Fresh noodles

12.2.1. Make easy to handle dough

12.2.2. Increases the water absorption rate by 1 to 2 % Surface of noodle becomes smooth, uniform and less sticky Improved for production

12.3. Instant noodles

12.3.1. Improve adsorption

12.3.2. decrease cooking time

12.4. Macaroni and spaghetti

12.4.1. Provides feeling elassticity

12.4.2. Smooth uniform surface which inhibit sticking after boiling

13. Function in cakes

13.1. Emulsifier added to fat-containing batter function

13.1.1. Stabilize the aerated structure

13.1.2. Promote a finer distribution of fat droplets

13.2. Alpha tending emulsifier

13.2.1. Example Acetic acid esters of monoglycerides Lactic acid esters of monoglycerides Propylene glycol esters

13.2.2. Contributes to a higher volume and more uniform cell structure in the finished product

13.2.3. Promote finer distribution of fat droplets

13.2.4. Increased viscosity of water phase

14. Function in confectionery product and coatings

14.1. Inhibit bloom

14.1.1. Bloom ? Occurs when fat crystal undergo transition to form most stable crystalline form Causing the cocoa butter to separate fromthe brown nonfat phase Can be retarded with use of emulsifier functioning as the crystalmodifiers They stabilize the intermediate form of the fat Example of emulsifier

14.2. Stabilize gloss

14.3. improve patability