The Effective Change Managers Handbook (Richard Smith/ David King/ Ranjit Sidhu & Dan Skelsey) Ko...

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The Effective Change Managers Handbook (Richard Smith/ David King/ Ranjit Sidhu & Dan Skelsey) Kogan Page 2015 by Mind Map: The Effective Change Managers Handbook (Richard Smith/ David King/ Ranjit Sidhu & Dan Skelsey) Kogan Page 2015

1. Change Management perspective

1.1. Why change management matters

1.1.1. Organisational experience of change

1.1.1.1. 70% - 80% failure if change initiatives - King and Peterson, 2007

1.1.1.1.1. Success can be improved by

1.1.1.2. Change and the organisational context - Balogun and Hope Hailey 2008

1.1.1.2.1. Design choices

1.1.1.2.2. Context

1.2. Change and the individual

1.2.1. Impact of the change curve- Elizabeth Kubler Ross 1969

1.2.1.1. Originally used to understand bereavement

1.2.1.2. People have to go through these stages

1.2.1.2.1. Management and leaders of change may be farther along than the people asked to deliver change

1.2.1.3. Stages

1.2.1.3.1. Shock and denial

1.2.1.3.2. Anger and Blame

1.2.1.3.3. Bargaining and Self Blame

1.2.1.3.4. Depression and Confusion

1.2.1.3.5. Acceptance and problem solving

1.2.1.4. Practical observations

1.2.1.4.1. People can get stuck or oscillate between two stages

1.2.1.4.2. Can be short or long often depending on

1.2.1.4.3. Apparent resistance may be caused by people being at different points on the curve

1.2.1.4.4. Anger and blame is really people trying to adjust to the change

1.2.1.4.5. Stages of the change curve happen for positive changes as well

1.2.2. Start with Endings

1.2.2.1. Change is a project plan/ transition is a personal psychological process - Bridges

1.2.2.1.1. Letting go of the old - endings

1.2.2.1.2. Neutral Zone - before the new is proven

1.2.2.1.3. New beginning- embracing the new

1.2.3. Why people embrace or resits change

1.2.3.1. Motivation

1.2.3.1.1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

1.2.3.1.2. Rewards and punishments

1.2.3.1.3. Expectancy theory

1.2.3.1.4. Satisfaction and Growth - Herzberg 2003

1.2.3.1.5. Theory X and theory Y- Douglas McGregor

1.2.3.1.6. Survival and learning anxieties

1.2.3.1.7. Personal Growth - Carl Rogers

1.2.3.2. Individual differences

1.2.3.2.1. Different types

1.2.3.2.2. Different learning styles Honey and Mumford

1.2.3.3. Neuroscience

1.2.3.3.1. Routine (basal ganglia takes little energy - change (Cortex) takes a lot of energy

1.2.3.3.2. Encountering the unexpected is recorded in area of the brain near fight or flight

1.2.3.3.3. The brain is deeply social - change can disrupt social patterns

1.2.3.3.4. Change means changing mental maps which the person has to do themselves

1.2.3.3.5. We become what we pay attention to - attention density over time re wires the brain

1.2.3.4. Making sense of change - Cameron and Green 2012 - individual openness to change will depend on

1.2.3.4.1. The nature of the change - purpose/speed

1.2.3.4.2. Consequences of change for the person

1.2.3.4.3. Organizational history - in implementing change

1.2.3.4.4. Type of Individual experiencing change

1.2.3.4.5. Individual history of change

1.2.4. Applying the theory

1.2.4.1. If you involve people in change they will find it easier to accept

1.2.4.2. People need help letting go of the old

1.2.4.3. Peoples reaction to change will depend on how they think about their situation

1.2.4.4. Past rewards and punishments may have conditioned people to behave a certain way

1.2.4.5. Change that impacts job satisfaction will have the greatest impact on resistance

1.2.4.6. Resistance is reduced by giving the people involved respect

1.2.4.7. People want to grow but need congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard

1.2.4.8. You need to overcome peoples anxiety about learning new things

1.2.4.9. But people are different and some just will take more time to absorb change

1.3. Change and the organisation

1.3.1. Metaphors for Change

1.3.1.1. Different Metaphors for change - Morgan

1.3.1.1.1. Organisations are machines

1.3.1.1.2. Organisms

1.3.1.1.3. Brains

1.3.1.1.4. Cultures

1.3.1.1.5. Political systems

1.3.1.1.6. Psychic Prisons

1.3.1.1.7. Flux and Transformation

1.3.1.1.8. Instruments of domination

1.3.1.1.9. Architecture

1.3.1.2. How these can be used

1.3.1.2.1. Listening to what people say can identify how they think about the organisation

1.3.1.2.2. Different metaphors provide different insights -

1.3.1.2.3. Different metaphors offer different approaches to change

1.3.2. Models of the change process

1.3.2.1. Lewins 3 stages

1.3.2.1.1. Unfreeze - collaborating with the people affected makes this more powerful

1.3.2.1.2. Change

1.3.2.1.3. Refreeze

1.3.2.2. Kotters 8 Steps

1.3.2.2.1. Establish a sense of urgency - 75% of employees believe change is essential

1.3.2.2.2. Create a guiding coalition

1.3.2.2.3. Developing a vision - something people can really imagine - head and heart

1.3.2.2.4. Communicating the change vision - lived out by leaders

1.3.2.2.5. Empowering employees to broad based action - willing effort of empowered employees

1.3.2.2.6. Generate short term wins - momentum of succes

1.3.2.2.7. Consolidating gains and producing more change - requires ongoing effort over the long term

1.3.2.2.8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture - surface and align the culture with the change

1.3.2.3. Senges - systems thinking - nurturing and growing change

1.3.2.3.1. Change has to be nurtured like a tree - self reinforcing processes/ Positive feedback loops

1.3.2.3.2. Profound change through nurturing small scale local change and enabling it to grow

1.3.2.3.3. Challenges for change that need to be overcome - negative feedback loops

1.3.3. Types of organizational change

1.3.3.1. Determined by

1.3.3.1.1. How widely they affect the organisation

1.3.3.1.2. How deep the change is

1.3.3.1.3. What the change is about - structure, technology

1.3.3.1.4. Nature - emergent or tight management

1.3.3.1.5. Impact on culture

1.3.3.1.6. Time available

1.3.3.2. Transforming the way we do business - Senge model and over a long time - nurture

1.3.3.3. Changing Structure - carefully managed along Kotter lines

1.3.3.4. Forming a new team - local - Kotter would be excessive but could be a pilot that might be nurtured - Senge

1.3.4. Factors that help/hinder

1.3.4.1. Organizational Culture

1.3.4.2. Organisational Structure

1.3.4.2.1. Hierarchical is good for BAU but not so good for change

1.3.4.2.2. Autonomous units may produce too much change

1.3.4.2.3. Kotter proposes a separate strategic operating system

1.4. Key Roles in Organisational Change

1.4.1. Life Cycle of successful change

1.4.1.1. Idea Generator

1.4.1.1.1. Has the original idea and is able to get senior sponsorship for it

1.4.1.2. Sponsor

1.4.1.2.1. Authority to overcome resistance and identifies outcomes and objectives

1.4.1.2.2. Creates the vision and strategy - walks the walk and communicates - Kotter

1.4.1.2.3. Creates the environment to succeed and teaches , mentors and supports - Senge

1.4.1.3. Line Manager

1.4.1.3.1. Facilitates in own area

1.4.1.3.2. Local leadership, project management and translates vision into practice - Kotter

1.4.1.3.3. Committed to local team, local decision making and accountable for results - Senge

1.4.1.4. Targets

1.4.1.4.1. People who must actually change

1.4.1.5. Change Agents

1.4.1.5.1. Has influence but not authority and works with sponsors to facilitate change

1.4.1.5.2. Builds broad connections across the organisations which they use to facilitate and nurture change - Senge

1.4.2. What makes a good sponsor

1.4.2.1. Provides a clear vision of a future that furthers the organisations objectives/ purpose

1.4.2.2. Getting buy in from line managers who will implement the vision

1.4.2.3. Explaining why the change is urgent and must happen now

1.4.2.4. The influence and power to remove obstacles to the change

1.4.2.5. Authentic role model who walks the walk

1.4.2.6. Good communicator

1.4.2.7. Accessible by and supportive of line managers

1.4.2.8. Provide the conditions for success e.g., resources

1.4.2.9. Able to align the organisational structure to support change

1.4.2.10. Able to align the change with the overall business plan

1.4.3. What makes a good change agent

1.4.3.1. Functions of a change agent

1.4.3.1.1. Build strong networks

1.4.3.1.2. Connect people

1.4.3.1.3. Communication up and down the hierarchy

1.4.3.1.4. Spread ideas information and initiatives

1.4.3.1.5. Advise others involved - sponsors, line managers and targets

1.4.3.1.6. Know where to go to to get the resources needed

1.4.3.1.7. Help others fulfil their roles as - sponsors, line managers and targets

1.4.3.2. Change agents and line managers

1.4.3.2.1. Contract between the agent and line manager - both have needs

1.4.3.3. Change agents and sources of power

1.4.3.3.1. Personal Power rather than Positional Power

1.4.4. Change management and job titles

1.4.4.1. Linked to organisational change maturity

1.4.4.1.1. Can be included within the project and report to the project manager

1.4.4.1.2. Can have a separate role with direct report to the sponsor

1.4.4.1.3. MSP - Managing Successful Programs - give the change manager equal status to program manager

1.4.5. Key role of Line Managers

1.4.5.1. Facilitate communication between the targets of change and the sponsors of change

1.4.5.2. Local facilitation of change

1.4.5.3. Local role models and leaders of change

1.4.6. Team structures can be beneficial or can be the cause of resistance to change - understanding the structure is important

1.4.6.1. Management teams - lead and operate organisation

1.4.6.2. Work Teams - within a function

1.4.6.3. Project teams- assembled for a specific project

1.4.6.4. Change teams - run a particular change initiative

1.4.6.5. Matrix teams - cut across functions

1.4.6.6. Parallel teams - work across structures such as quality circles

1.4.6.7. Network Teams - based on communities of interest

1.4.6.8. Virtual teams

1.5. Organisational cultural change

1.5.1. What we mean by organisational culture

1.5.1.1. Trompennars and Hampden-Turner - 3 levels

1.5.1.1.1. Surface - physical artefacts and products

1.5.1.1.2. Norms and values - formally through a rule book and less formally by social control - what is acceptable behaviour

1.5.1.1.3. Basic assumptions - un articulated beliefs which underpin norms and values

1.5.1.2. How culture develops Schein 1985

1.5.1.2.1. Start with values and norms of leaders - what really matters

1.5.1.2.2. May need to bring these values to the surface

1.5.1.2.3. Requires collaboration between someone external and people embedded in the culture

1.5.1.3. How culture is shaped - managing messages Carolyn Taylor 2005

1.5.1.3.1. Behaviours of Leaders

1.5.1.3.2. Symbols - how leaders use time and resources, Rituals, Story telling about defining moments

1.5.1.3.3. Systems - how people are rewarded, promoted, processes etc

1.5.1.4. Culture and climate

1.5.1.4.1. Climate - feelings of stakeholders is more transitory than culture

1.5.1.4.2. Climate influenced by underlying culture as well as current climactic conditions

1.5.2. Key dimensions of culture

1.5.2.1. Categorizing culture

1.5.2.1.1. Taylor - what they focus on

1.5.2.1.2. Trompenaars and Hampden-Taylor

1.5.3. Relating Culture to Types of Change

1.5.3.1. Office move - surface symbols of culture

1.5.3.2. Company merger or acquisition - need to surface and align different cultures

1.5.3.3. IT Implementations

1.5.3.3.1. Simple e.g., upgrades may not have cultural impact

1.5.3.3.2. Full scale

1.5.4. Leadership and Culture

1.5.4.1. Schein - the only role of leadership is to set, maintain and evolve a culture that enables the organisation to perform effectively

1.6. Emergent Change

1.6.1. Roots of emergent change

1.6.1.1. Chaos theory - small local differences can have a disproportionate affect

1.6.1.1.1. The success of a change plan may not be even in principle be predictable

1.6.1.2. Complex adaptive systems - Holland 2006 - change bubbles up over time to which people contribute knowingly or unknowingly

1.6.1.2.1. Organisations consist of many agents

1.6.1.2.2. Organisations are complex

1.6.1.2.3. Organisations adapt

1.6.1.3. Complex response process Stacey 2001

1.6.1.3.1. Interactions between people create organisational life

1.6.1.4. VUCA

1.6.1.4.1. Leaders need to take action to

1.6.2. When an emergent approach is required

1.6.2.1. Where complex but not uncertain or ambiguous - rapid change is possible

1.6.2.1.1. Swift and sudden

1.6.2.2. Desired route is clear but precis route is uncertain- requires a cultural journey

1.6.2.2.1. Developmental and Deliberate

1.6.3. Defining and moving to a future state

1.6.3.1. Describing and defining the future

1.6.3.1.1. Decide on the big picture change

1.6.3.1.2. Look at the organisation now and what the consequences of the change not being made and list them

1.6.3.1.3. Step into the new world and describe all the changes seen and list them

1.6.3.1.4. Compare the two lists in numerical and measurement terms

1.6.3.2. Force field approach - Lewin

1.6.3.2.1. what are the forces that will drive and resist change to the status quo

1.6.3.3. Kotters dual operating system

2. Defining Change

2.1. Aligning Change with Strategy

2.1.1. Background to strategy development

2.1.1.1. What is strategy

2.1.1.1.1. Porter - unique proposition and unique actions to deliver it

2.1.2. Far Environment - What business are we in

2.1.2.1. Tools

2.1.2.1.1. PESTLE Analysis

2.1.2.2. Porters five forces

2.1.2.2.1. Threat of new entrants

2.1.2.2.2. Threat of new substiutes

2.1.2.2.3. Bargaining power of new buyers

2.1.2.2.4. Bargaining Power of new suppliers

2.1.2.2.5. Rivalry amongst competitors

2.1.3. Near Environment - how do we compare

2.1.3.1. Overall cost leadership - some way that cost of production is low

2.1.3.2. Differentiation - something that no competitors can offer in a way that makes a difference to customers

2.1.3.3. Focus - advantageous access to a specific customer sector

2.1.4. Business Model

2.1.4.1. How different parts of the organisation work together

2.1.4.1.1. At least as good so that they don't prevent people buying

2.1.4.1.2. Differentiators e.g., cost leadership

2.1.5. Strategic Delivery Model

2.1.5.1. Process - Bradley 2012

2.1.5.1.1. Search for innovative ideas to deliver value to customers

2.1.5.1.2. A vision or story that integrate these

2.1.5.1.3. mechanism for making choices between options

2.1.5.1.4. implementing strategy by making changes

2.1.5.1.5. Regular review of the above

2.1.5.2. Scenario thinking - Heijden 2004

2.1.5.2.1. Develop a range of possible futures

2.1.5.2.2. Compare their benefits and disbenefits and the strategy to achieve them

2.1.5.3. What if Models e.g Ishikawa

2.1.5.3.1. What if our main competitor attacked our main market

2.1.5.3.2. What made that market attractive

2.1.5.3.3. How easy was it for them

2.1.5.3.4. How did we make it easy for them

2.1.5.3.5. What did they do first

2.1.6. Strategy and change

2.1.6.1. Align operating capability with strategy

2.1.6.1.1. Where we are now

2.1.6.1.2. Where we need to be

2.1.6.1.3. What are the differences

2.2. Drivers of Change

2.2.1. Strategic Context

2.2.1.1. Emergent Change

2.2.1.1.1. Responding to the external environment

2.2.1.1.2. Different responses from different areas of the business that then need to be aligned

2.2.1.1.3. Alignment can lead to a new vision and business model

2.2.1.2. Cascading decisions and designs

2.2.1.2.1. Strategic objectives - Vision and scorecard

2.2.1.2.2. Portfolio - decisions about how to achieve the vision

2.2.1.2.3. Change initiatives

2.2.1.2.4. Initiatives implemented

2.2.1.2.5. Outcomes of initiatives compared with the required result

2.2.1.3. Implementing strategy through portfolios, programmes and projects

2.2.1.3.1. Portfolio = achievement of strategic vision with available resources - permanent

2.2.1.3.2. Programme = manage a group of inter related projects - temproray

2.2.1.3.3. Project = delivery of specific change within a time frame - short term temprorary

2.2.2. Change analysis

2.2.2.1. SWOT

2.2.2.2. Force Field Analysis - Kurt Lewin 1951

2.2.2.2.1. Current equilibrium maintained by a network of forces - for change and against change

2.2.2.2.2. Increase in driver creates an increase in resistance

2.2.2.2.3. For change to happen

2.2.2.2.4. How to do this

2.2.3. Strategic Change Plan

2.2.3.1. What are the drivers for this change

2.2.3.2. What areas of the business will be impacted

2.2.3.3. What are the objectives and risks

2.2.3.4. Who are the stakeholders

2.2.3.5. When does this need to happen by

2.2.3.6. SWOT

2.2.3.7. How will you measure delivery

2.3. Developing a Vision

2.3.1. Viewpoints and perspectives of change

2.3.1.1. What is vision

2.3.1.1.1. The force that moulds meaning for the people of an organisation

2.3.1.1.2. Mission - fundamental purpose of an organisation - why it exists

2.3.1.2. Explore different view points about what the idea might look like - scenarios

2.3.1.2.1. Use Soft Systems Methods

2.3.1.3. Identify those that might be of most value to the organisation in the idea

2.3.1.3.1. Find those scenarios that best describe the change

2.3.1.3.2. Compare this scenario with what is happening now

2.3.1.3.3. Get some initial ideas about how this scenario will need to be brought about

2.3.1.4. Get some consensus amongst the stakeholders about what the idea might look like

2.3.2. Develop a vision statement

2.3.2.1. Take this idea and develop a clear vision for change in a statement

2.3.2.1.1. Elements of a Business Systems Definition

2.4. Change Definition

2.4.1. Conceptual models of future state

2.4.1.1. Business Activity Model

2.4.1.1.1. Comes out of the Business Systems Definition

2.4.1.1.2. Commonly feature

2.4.1.1.3. How to do this

2.4.2. Change Requirements - capability analysis (KOPE)

2.4.2.1. Aspects of KOPE

2.4.2.1.1. Knowledge - what do we need to know and what data do we need

2.4.2.1.2. Organisation and People - organisational skills etc to perform the action

2.4.2.1.3. Process and procedures - what processes and procedures will be needed

2.4.2.1.4. Environmental factors that need to be satisfied

2.4.2.2. How to do this

2.4.2.2.1. Take each activity in the BAM

2.4.2.2.2. Analyse each against the KOPE criteria

2.4.2.2.3. This captures future state capability

2.4.2.2.4. Highlight total new capability

2.4.3. Assessing the impact of change

2.4.3.1. Gap Analysis

2.4.3.1.1. Are the activities in BAM being doneeffectively/at all

2.4.3.1.2. How are you measuring the shortfall

2.4.3.1.3. What are the benefits of closing this shortfall

2.4.3.2. How to

2.4.3.2.1. Workshop with stakeholders to identify differences - future and now

2.4.3.2.2. Map on the BAM model - use RAG

2.4.3.2.3. Create a differences table

2.4.3.2.4. Use KOPE to analyse the differences

2.4.3.2.5. Priotize the changes

2.4.3.2.6. Capture risks as they arise

2.4.4. Problems and concerns arising out o f change

2.4.4.1. Hotspot analysis around connections on the BAM diagram

2.4.4.2. Use Ishikawa to ask five questions to get to the route cause of any issues

3. Managing Benefits - Ensuring Value is delivered

3.1. Benefits management principles and processes

3.1.1. Optimising the benefit from change by

3.1.1.1. Benefits are forecast and obtainable

3.1.1.2. Forecast benefits are achieved in practice

3.1.1.3. Benefits are realised as soon as possible

3.1.1.4. Emergent benefits are captured

3.1.1.5. This can all be demonstrated

3.1.2. Benefits management process

3.1.2.1. Identify and quantify the likely benefits

3.1.2.2. Value and appraise - allocate resources to those programs that give the best return

3.1.2.3. Plan to realise them in a way which is transparent and accountable

3.1.2.4. Realize the benefits through active managemen

3.1.2.5. Review

3.1.2.5.1. Continue to be good value for money

3.1.2.5.2. They are being monitored and evealuated

3.1.2.5.3. Effective management

3.1.2.5.4. Lessons are learnt

3.1.3. Benefit management principles

3.1.3.1. Align benefits with the business strategy

3.1.3.1.1. Value chain analysis which link benefits to specific business outcomes

3.1.3.2. Start with the end in mind - benefits lead change initiative

3.1.3.2.1. Identification of measurable short term benefits

3.1.3.2.2. atmosphere of being impatient for benefits

3.1.3.2.3. Progress measured by benefits realised

3.1.3.2.4. Lead by business managers

3.1.3.2.5. Incremental and modular approaches

3.1.3.2.6. Driven by evidence of what works

3.1.3.3. Utilise successful delivery methods

3.1.3.3.1. Use agile delivery of the benefits - dolphins not whales

3.1.3.3.2. Be super clear about where you are starting from

3.1.3.3.3. Invest as each phase is completed - stage release funding

3.1.3.3.4. On going stakeholder engagement

3.1.3.3.5. Being consistent about change management

3.1.3.3.6. Spend less time holding people to account and more time identifying emergent benefits

3.1.3.4. Integrate benefits with performance management

3.1.3.4.1. Operational performance management -

3.1.3.4.2. HR Performance Managemen

3.1.3.5. Manage benefits from a portfolio perspective

3.1.3.5.1. Why?

3.1.3.5.2. Main elements

3.1.3.6. Apply effective governance

3.1.3.6.1. Clear governance - defines accountability and roles

3.1.3.6.2. Aligned Governance - through all levels from portfolio, program and project

3.1.3.6.3. Consistence

3.1.3.6.4. Active governance

3.1.3.7. Develop a value culture

3.1.3.7.1. Primary focus is delivering value rather than capability (functionality)

3.2. Benefits identification mapping and analysis

3.2.1. Benefit identification

3.2.1.1. Benefit discovery workshop - benefits dependency network

3.2.1.1.1. Identify the Strategic drivers - what must occur to increase market share/ reduce costs

3.2.1.1.2. Identify the changes that will enable the benefits to be achieved

3.2.1.2. Quantifying benefits

3.2.1.2.1. Cognitive bias - delusional optimism

3.2.1.2.2. Organizational pressure

3.2.1.2.3. More reliable forecasting

3.2.1.3. Completing the benefit profile

3.2.1.3.1. Document key details of each benefit which can then form the basis of a benefits realisation plan

3.2.1.4. Business case

3.2.1.4.1. Strategic Case - is there a case for change

3.2.1.4.2. Economic Case - is it prioritised on value for money

3.2.1.4.3. Financial - is this affordable

3.2.1.4.4. Commercial - is it commercially viable

3.2.1.4.5. Management Case - can it be delivered successfully

3.2.2. Planning benefit realisation

3.2.2.1. Benefits often expressed financially

3.2.2.1.1. Easier to compare benefits

3.2.2.1.2. Non financial benefits can be given a financial value

3.2.2.1.3. Cost effectiveness analysis

3.2.2.2. Multi criteria analysis

3.2.2.2.1. Consider factors in making the decision - attractiveness/ achievability

3.2.2.2.2. Weighting the factors for importance

3.2.2.2.3. Scoring initiatives

3.2.3. Benefits validation

3.2.3.1. Check that supposed benefits have been corrected for bias

3.2.3.2. Check for dependencies on other initiatives - portfolio approach

3.2.3.3. Validate each benefit with the recipient

3.2.3.4. Book the benefit with the relevant department

3.2.3.4.1. Reflect cost saving in the budgets of the department

3.2.3.4.2. Reflect increased revenue in the sales targets

3.2.3.4.3. Book in peoples individual performance targets

3.2.4. Benefit Prioritisation

3.2.4.1. Take an average of the scores

3.2.4.2. Assess the contribution of each assessment for each objective

3.2.5. Baselining

3.2.5.1. Use current metrics to create baseline - as is scores

3.2.5.2. Start benefit tracking as soon as possible

3.2.5.3. Baseline against forecast performance where appropriate

3.2.6. Assess change readyness

3.2.7. Identify any threats to benefits optimization

3.2.7.1. Forecasting Failure - benefits aren't identified (emergent)

3.2.7.2. Delivery failure - impacting on the scale and timing

3.2.7.3. Business and behavioural change - change doesn't occur

3.2.7.4. Benefits management failure - emergent benefits and disbenefits

3.2.7.5. Value for money - realised but excessive cost

3.2.8. Benefits realisation plan spreadsheet

3.2.8.1. Benefit Category

3.2.8.2. Benefit Description

3.2.8.3. Key assumptions and dependencies

3.2.8.4. Benefit Quantification

3.2.8.4.1. Scale of impact

3.2.8.4.2. Period over which the realization will last

3.2.8.4.3. Measure and indicators to be used

3.2.8.4.4. Frequency of measure

3.2.8.5. Benefit owner

3.2.8.6. Benefit booked in a performance or KPI

3.2.8.7. Benefit realised this year

3.2.8.7.1. Quarter 1

3.2.8.7.2. Quarter 2

3.2.8.7.3. Quarter 3

3.2.8.7.4. Quarter 4

4. Stakeholder Strategy

4.1. Leadership Behaviours

4.1.1. Things tasks and documents and processes are less important than people

4.1.1.1. All the things in a methodology

4.1.1.1.1. Resource allocation

4.1.1.1.2. Logic

4.1.1.1.3. Requirements

4.1.1.1.4. Reason

4.1.1.1.5. Process

4.1.1.1.6. Tasks

4.1.1.1.7. Deliverable products - outputs

4.1.1.1.8. Features - functionality

4.1.1.1.9. Risks and threats

4.1.1.2. All the things that are important in relationships

4.1.1.2.1. People as unique individuals

4.1.1.2.2. Collaboration

4.1.1.2.3. Realtionships

4.1.1.2.4. Motives

4.1.1.2.5. Power

4.1.1.2.6. Trust

4.1.1.2.7. Outcomes

4.1.1.2.8. Energy and tempo

4.1.1.2.9. Iterative working

4.1.1.2.10. Benefits

4.1.1.2.11. Opportunitites

4.1.2. Leading the change

4.1.2.1. The process

4.1.2.1.1. Something new is delivered

4.1.2.1.2. People use the knew through a period of incompetence

4.1.2.1.3. The change is embedded

4.1.2.2. Supported by

4.1.2.2.1. Leaning to people - reaching out to and engaging with stakeholders

4.1.2.2.2. Leaning to action - change manager takes risky action and observes the results

4.1.3. 7 Principles of stakeholder engagement

4.1.3.1. Identifying and segmenting stakeholders

4.1.3.1.1. You can forget about important stakeholders but they wont forget you

4.1.3.1.2. Stakeholder identification is a continuous process - they change

4.1.3.1.3. Segmenting stakeholders reflects a moment in time

4.1.3.2. Managing relationships and mobilizing stakeholders

4.1.3.2.1. Some stakeholders are better engaged by others

4.1.3.2.2. Seek first to understand and then be understood

4.1.3.2.3. Emotion trumps reasoin

4.1.3.2.4. Demonstration trumps argument

4.2. Identifying and segmenting stakeholders

4.2.1. You can forget important stakeholders, but they wont forget you.

4.2.1.1. A stakeholder is anyone who has an interest in the change and its outcomes

4.2.1.1.1. Identifying Stakeholders

4.2.2. Identification is a continuous practice - new stakeholders emerge during a change and old ones can fade away

4.2.2.1. This identification process needs to be repeated and confirmed

4.2.2.2. Rapid listing

4.2.2.2.1. Personal list

4.2.2.2.2. Pair list

4.2.2.2.3. Group list

4.2.3. Prioritizing and segmenting stakeholders is in a moment in time

4.2.3.1. Segmenting stakeholders

4.2.3.1.1. The importance of stakeholders will change over time

4.2.3.1.2. Different segments may require different analysis

4.2.3.1.3. There may be different engagement strategies for different people

4.2.3.2. Scoping - who should be included

4.2.3.2.1. Impact and duration of the change

4.2.3.2.2. How power is distributed - formal and informal

4.2.3.2.3. Those identified by the vision of what the change is

4.2.3.2.4. Whether the culture of the organisation embraces change

4.2.3.2.5. Organisational reputation

4.3. Stakeholder Mapping and strategy

4.3.1. Stakeholder characteristics e.g.

4.3.1.1. Use mind mapping to organise stakeholders in terms of relevant factors

4.3.1.1.1. Power v Impact

4.3.1.1.2. Formal position in change

4.3.1.1.3. Nature and level of interest

4.3.1.1.4. Likely resistance

4.3.1.1.5. etc

4.3.2. Map Stakeholder interests using a spread sheet

4.3.2.1. Stakeholders as rows

4.3.2.1.1. There can be groups as stakeholders then individuals within this group

4.3.2.2. Interest as columns

4.3.2.3. Rate their level of anticipated engagement both positive and negative with each interest

4.3.3. Power Mapping identifies where the real power lies

4.3.3.1. Write down the stakeholders on a white board in a circle

4.3.3.2. Draw cause and affect relationships they have with each other - cause ->effect NO TWO HEADED ARROWS

4.3.3.3. Tally the ingoing and outgoing arrows

4.3.3.4. Person with the most outgoings are likely to have the most influence

4.3.4. Attitude to change

4.3.4.1. You can group stakeholders into

4.3.4.1.1. Partners - supportive

4.3.4.1.2. Allies - support with encouragement

4.3.4.1.3. Fellow travellers - passive supporters

4.3.4.1.4. Fence sitters - not clear

4.3.4.1.5. Loose Canonnons - no direct interest but can say no

4.3.4.1.6. Opponents - players who oppose your agenda

4.3.4.1.7. Adversaries - oppose you and the agenda

4.3.4.1.8. Bedfellows - support the agenda but not you

4.3.4.1.9. Voiceless - stakeholders with little power

4.3.4.2. Journey of stake holder - Kubbkler -Ross

4.3.4.2.1. People may be at different points in their change journey - may appear resistant

4.3.4.2.2. Overlay this with a grid showing Focus and Energy

4.3.5. Wins and Losses

4.3.5.1. It is important to analyse the benefits and disbenefits for the stakeholders

4.3.5.2. What are benefits for some may be disbenefits for others

4.3.5.2.1. Reduced head count could benefit senior management but not the people losing their jobs

4.3.6. Readiness and resistance

4.3.6.1. This uses the change formula Beckhard and Harris to gauge change readiness of stakeholders

4.3.6.1.1. C=[ABD]>x

4.3.7. Measuring Ability

4.3.7.1. The DREAM model - Mayfield tracks the position of stakeholders on a scale

4.3.7.1.1. Disengage

4.3.7.1.2. Resistant

4.3.7.1.3. Exploring

4.3.7.1.4. Able

4.3.7.1.5. Model

4.3.8. Profiling Stakeholders

4.3.8.1. Use a mix of the techniques above to create a profile for stakeholders

4.3.8.2. Can use a CRM to do that - worth exploring if ZOHO could be configured to do this?

4.3.9. Personas and Empathy Maps

4.3.9.1. Provide a deeper understanding and way of thinking about the stakeholders

4.3.9.2. Empathy Maping

4.3.9.2.1. Think and Feel

4.3.9.2.2. Hear

4.3.9.2.3. See

4.3.9.2.4. Say and Do

4.3.9.2.5. Pain

4.3.9.2.6. Gain

4.3.10. Stakeholder Radar

4.3.10.1. Like a target with the circles standing for

4.3.10.1.1. V - Vital to engage

4.3.10.1.2. N - necessary to engage

4.3.10.1.3. G - good to engage

4.3.10.1.4. C - courtesy to inform

4.3.10.2. Plot stakeholders on this target

4.3.11. Mapping in two dimensions

4.3.11.1. Power/Influence - Interest

4.3.11.1.1. High Power and High Interest - Engage and Key Players

4.3.11.1.2. High power and Low Interest - influential observers

4.3.11.1.3. Low Power and Low Interest - spectators

4.3.11.1.4. Low Power and High Interest - Active Players

4.3.12. Determining engagement roles and responsibilities

4.3.12.1. Creating a grid which compares a Team Role with Stakeholders

4.3.12.1.1. RACI

4.3.12.2. Team roles

4.3.12.2.1. Programme Manager

4.3.12.2.2. Business Division Change Manager

4.3.12.2.3. Business Unit Change Manager

4.3.12.2.4. Change agents

4.3.12.2.5. Super Users

4.3.12.2.6. Comms Analyst - PMO

4.3.12.2.7. Benefits Manager

4.3.13. Stakeholder strategy document

4.3.13.1. Consistent message

4.3.13.2. Consistent engagement

4.3.13.3. Have an informed way to reprioritize stakeholders

4.3.13.4. Defining different engagement startegies

4.3.13.5. Don't try and engage with everyone on your own

4.3.13.5.1. Share with the team

4.3.13.5.2. Leverage people who are in a better position

4.3.13.5.3. Need to engage with the wider community

4.4. Managing relationships and mobilizing stakeholders

4.4.1. re-energizing and motivating stakeholders is vital

4.4.1.1. Build trust and confidence from stakeholders through seeking opinions

4.4.1.2. Listening to stakeholders

4.4.1.3. Encourage collaboration and sharing of ideas through new technologies

4.4.1.4. Identifying and nurturing advocates while diminishing resistors

4.4.1.5. Stimulate desire to take positive action

4.5. Some stakeholders are best engaged by others

4.5.1. Change managers may not be the best people to engage with all stakeholders

4.5.2. Everett Rogers adoption model

4.5.2.1. Identify an nurture early adopters as champions

4.5.2.2. Get them to recruit the Early Majority

4.5.2.3. Monitor the late majority

4.6. Seek first to understand then be understood

4.6.1. Be interested in the stakeholders and listen to them and their fears

4.6.2. Empathetic listening

4.6.3. never start and engagement with a solution

4.6.3.1. Busyness - so intent on giving our solution we don't have time to appreciate the problem

4.6.3.2. Pride - we need humility to learn

4.6.3.3. Power and Control - believing we know best instead of bringing people on board

4.6.4. The power of empathy and the other- perspective

4.6.4.1. Empathy with someone else not sympathy

4.6.4.1.1. Sympathy is taking on the perspective of othrs

4.6.5. Inertia and discomfort

4.6.5.1. Comes from habits which need to be broken

4.6.5.1.1. This is the most difficult thing to do - because it means shattering your world

4.7. Emotion trumps reason

4.7.1. Vital to connect stakeholders with the meaning of the change

4.7.2. Need to make an emotional connection

4.7.3. Resistance o change often can't be met head on - need to find ways to weaken it

4.7.4. Collaboration and getting people on board is key

4.8. Demonstration trumps argument

4.8.1. Demonstrating that change is working and delivering - Agile

5. Communication and engagement

5.1. Theory of effective communication

5.1.1. Aims of communication

5.1.1.1. Share information

5.1.1.2. Allow an exchange of ideas

5.1.1.3. Influence the behaviour of others

5.1.2. Basic of communication theory

5.1.2.1. Shannon and Weaver

5.1.2.1.1. Sender prepares and sends a message by converting thoughts into symbols

5.1.2.1.2. There is noise across the communication channel

5.1.2.1.3. Person receiving the message interprets it

5.1.2.1.4. Feedback to sender to check that the message has been received as intended

5.1.2.2. Cognitive biases - human dimension in communication

5.1.2.2.1. People aren't passive receivers of information

5.1.2.3. Need for feedback mechanisms

5.1.2.3.1. Two way processes enables meaningful exchange

5.1.2.3.2. Check the message has been received as intended

5.1.2.4. Interpersonal and Mass communication

5.1.2.4.1. Interpersonal = face to face meetings - two way and rich

5.1.2.4.2. Mass Communication = organisation wide announcements - one way and less rich

5.1.2.5. One-way versus two way communication - you need a mix

5.1.2.5.1. One way

5.1.2.5.2. Two way

5.1.2.6. Role of communication to achieve engagement

5.1.2.6.1. Based on marketing concepts

5.1.2.6.2. Helps people to move along the change curve

5.2. Communicating change

5.2.1. Essential to

5.2.1.1. Build awareness for the need for change

5.2.1.2. Achieve a shared understanding across stakeholder groups

5.2.1.3. Gain peoples commitment to change

5.2.1.4. Engage hearts and minds & make personal connections

5.2.2. Need to be aware of the Emotional impact of change

5.2.2.1. Threat versus Reward

5.2.2.1.1. The brain can be deeply affected by the expectation of reward or threat

5.2.2.1.2. Uncertainty and lack of control can increase anxiety

5.2.2.1.3. More information can make people feel more in control - two way coms

5.2.2.2. Where people are on a change journey

5.2.2.2.1. Communication needs to be aligned with where people are in their change journey

5.2.2.2.2. The targets of change may be at a different place from managers leading change

5.2.3. Maintaining a people-focused approach to communciation

5.2.3.1. Factors affecting engagement

5.2.3.1.1. Don't wait for full information - lack will be filled with rumours

5.2.3.1.2. Focus on two way coms where more engagement required

5.2.3.1.3. Consider impact of change on people

5.2.3.1.4. Use segmentation to target specific audiences

5.2.3.1.5. Allow plenty of time

5.2.3.1.6. Encourage feedback AND act on it

5.2.3.2. Barriers to effective communication

5.2.3.2.1. This is the noise that gets in the way

5.2.3.2.2. Emotions, attitudes and perceptions

5.2.3.2.3. Type and amount of information

5.2.3.3. Improving communication effectiveness

5.2.3.3.1. coms are often designed from the perspective of the sender

5.2.3.3.2. Identify clear messages appropriate for the audience

5.2.3.3.3. Simple clear and easy to negotiate

5.2.3.3.4. Appropriate tone and style

5.2.3.3.5. Cater for different personality preferences

5.2.3.3.6. Include actions required from people and where they can get support

5.2.4. Encouraging engagement by appealing to hearts and minds

5.2.4.1. Symbolic actions and symbolism

5.2.4.1.1. Consistency in actions which should be congruent with the messaging

5.2.4.2. Use of metaphors

5.2.4.2.1. Explaining what is happening in visual images

5.2.4.3. Use of narrative and story telling

5.2.4.3.1. Describe a story and a route to get there

5.3. Communication channels

5.3.1. Should be chosen from the perspective of the receiver not the sender

5.3.1.1. Push

5.3.1.1.1. One way with no opportunity for feedback - announcements

5.3.1.2. Pull

5.3.1.2.1. Pull information when they want it - intranets and information portals

5.3.2. Lean and rich communication

5.3.2.1. Interactivity

5.3.2.1.1. Conversation and opportunity to respond

5.3.2.2. Multiple cues

5.3.2.2.1. Does it allow multiple (including non verbal) cues

5.3.2.3. Variety and format of information

5.3.2.3.1. People take on board information in different formats

5.3.2.4. Choice depends on purpose

5.3.2.4.1. Lean may not give enough

5.3.2.4.2. Rich may be overkill - there may bot be time

5.3.3. Three most essential channels

5.3.3.1. Verbal

5.3.3.1.1. Includes written and spoken - words chosen are important

5.3.3.2. Listening

5.3.3.2.1. ACTIVE listening builds rapport and connecting

5.3.3.3. Visual

5.3.3.3.1. Picture is worth a thousand words

5.3.4. Fostering Collaboration

5.3.4.1. Larger Group Gatherings

5.3.4.1.1. These tend to be Push

5.3.4.1.2. Alternatives

5.3.4.2. Smaller face2face comms

5.3.4.2.1. Share of views

5.3.4.2.2. But remember cultural setting

5.3.4.3. Social Media and Community building channels

5.3.4.3.1. Enable wider cross functional and geographical sharing

5.3.4.3.2. Potential strengths

5.3.4.3.3. Weaknesses

5.3.4.3.4. best practice

5.4. Communication planning

5.4.1. Intro

5.4.1.1. People need to understand

5.4.1.1.1. Why change is necessary

5.4.1.1.2. What is involved

5.4.1.1.3. How it will impact them

5.4.1.1.4. What role they can play

5.4.1.1.5. What happens next

5.4.1.2. needs to

5.4.1.2.1. Provide information

5.4.1.2.2. Give people a context for the change

5.4.1.2.3. Engage them in the change

5.4.1.2.4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the communication

5.4.1.3. Planning

5.4.1.3.1. Agree an overall Strategy - objectives, audience, key messages

5.4.1.3.2. Plan - how the strategy will be implemented

5.4.1.3.3. Action - carry out the planned activities

5.4.1.3.4. Measure - evaluate how effective the communication is going to be

5.4.2. 7 steps - Developing a communication strategy

5.4.2.1. Why we are doing it

5.4.2.1.1. what is the change and the culture within which it is taking place - 7s

5.4.2.2. Who are we communicating with

5.4.2.2.1. Who are the stakeholders and where are they in their change journey

5.4.2.3. What we want to happen

5.4.2.3.1. What changes in behaviour, attitudes and perceptions

5.4.2.3.2. What to they need to know

5.4.2.3.3. How will we measure this

5.4.2.4. How we'll go about it

5.4.2.4.1. What is the best way of achieving these objectives

5.4.2.5. What we're going to say

5.4.2.5.1. Consistent messages from multiple sources and from all players

5.4.2.5.2. Focus on needs of each audience

5.4.2.5.3. Narrative to tell a story

5.4.2.5.4. Variety of formats - most appropriate for purpose

5.4.2.6. Who needs to deliver messages

5.4.2.6.1. Choosing the right champions and ambassadors who have formal and informal influence

5.4.2.6.2. Who is the right person at each stage of change

5.4.2.6.3. Agree key roles

5.4.2.7. How the message will get there

5.4.2.7.1. Which is the best channel for each method to achieve the purpose

5.4.3. Developing a communication plan

5.4.3.1. Who is the target audience

5.4.3.2. What is the objective

5.4.3.3. What are the key messages

5.4.3.4. What activities are needed

5.4.3.5. Who will do this

5.4.3.6. When - timing

5.4.3.7. Measures

5.5. Monitoring and evaluating communication effectiveness

5.5.1. What needs to be measured

5.5.1.1. What will people be doing differently as a result

5.5.1.2. What messages should they be aware of understood and acted on

5.5.1.3. Which channels will be used

5.5.2. Capturing data

5.5.2.1. What is the baseline starting point

5.5.2.2. Surveys , focus groups, observation, interviews

5.5.2.2.1. Improved response if

5.5.3. Monitoring and evaluating data

5.5.3.1. Impacted by where people are on their change curve

5.5.4. Reporting results and improving engagement

5.5.4.1. People need to know what happens to their feedback

5.5.4.2. How will the information be presented to different audiences

5.5.4.3. Timeliness - how quickly can the information be reported back

6. Change Impact

6.1. Introcuction

6.1.1. Change has consequences which you need to understand to make it happen

6.2. Assessing the impact of change - Change impact assessment

6.2.1. Identifying change impacts

6.2.1.1. Categories of impact

6.2.1.1.1. Intended change

6.2.1.1.2. Potential unintended /unplanned outcomes - risks

6.2.1.1.3. Change Management Activities

6.2.1.1.4. Key inputs

6.2.1.2. Models

6.2.1.2.1. 7S Model

6.2.1.3. Implementation Approach Nohria and Khurana 1993

6.2.1.3.1. Based on 7s

6.2.1.3.2. Strategic Intent - vision

6.2.1.3.3. Substance - hard (Systems/Structure/Strategy

6.2.1.3.4. Sequence - staggered or big bang

6.2.1.3.5. Style - management style top down/ borrom up

6.2.1.3.6. Scale - How many impacted and what is the cost

6.2.1.3.7. Scope - organizational/ industry wide/ specific department

6.2.1.3.8. Speed - fast or long term

6.2.1.4. Stakeholder Impact Assessment

6.2.1.4.1. Conduct a high level impact assessment

6.2.1.4.2. Determine specific impacts on different stakeholder groups

6.2.1.4.3. Analyse the impacts in more detail for each area

6.2.1.4.4. Validate stakeholder impacts

6.2.1.4.5. Assess severity of impacts

6.2.1.5. Change severity assessment

6.2.1.5.1. The Environment

6.2.1.5.2. The change ability of the organization

6.2.1.5.3. The history of change in the organization

6.2.1.5.4. The individual response to change

6.2.2. Assessing and managing the risk of change

6.2.2.1. Introduction

6.2.2.1.1. Three key area of risk

6.2.2.1.2. How to analyse

6.2.2.2. Organizational risk management

6.2.2.2.1. What are the consequences of something going wrong

6.2.2.2.2. How likely is this to happen

6.2.2.2.3. Monitor and report on risks

6.2.2.3. Change risk register

6.2.2.3.1. Identify

6.2.2.3.2. Assess

6.2.2.3.3. Plan

6.2.2.3.4. Implement

6.2.2.3.5. Communicate

6.2.2.4. Risk Analysis - using above

6.2.2.4.1. Identified through Impact Assessment

6.2.2.4.2. Categorised under strategic/Business/Project

6.2.2.4.3. Do this in a workshop?

6.2.2.5. Mitigating actions

6.2.2.5.1. Generally these are reported monthly

6.2.2.5.2. Responses to risk are

6.2.2.6. Communicating change risks

6.2.2.6.1. Helps senior management relate to change management - seen as controling risk

6.2.3. Business continuity and contingency during change

6.2.3.1. Greatest risk of change is to Business as Usual

6.2.3.1.1. Review key business processes

6.2.3.1.2. Confirm impacts

6.2.3.1.3. Provide input for changes

6.2.3.1.4. advise managers of the changes

6.2.3.2. Business Continuity planning

6.2.3.2.1. Understand risks and consequences

6.2.3.2.2. Plans to mitigate fit the business size, resources etc

6.2.3.2.3. Everyone buys in to the idea of BC and know their role

6.2.3.2.4. Constant review and whenever

6.2.3.3. BCP and the change process

6.2.3.3.1. Demotivating staff during downsizing and mergers = affects customer experience

6.2.3.3.2. Loss of key knowledge

6.2.3.3.3. Breaking processes

6.2.3.3.4. Systems outages caused by new software

6.2.3.3.5. New systems, premises not factored into the BCP

7. Change readiness, planning and measurement

7.1. Building individual motivation for change - hearts and minds

7.1.1. Why work with individuals

7.1.1.1. The reaction to change is individual

7.1.2. Expectancy theory and change

7.1.2.1. People will be motivated if

7.1.2.1.1. Strong effort will lead to good performance

7.1.2.1.2. Good performance will lead to rewards

7.1.2.1.3. Rewards are desirable

7.1.3. Increasing motivation for change

7.1.3.1. Change formula

7.1.3.1.1. C=[ABD]>X

7.1.3.1.2. Raising levels of A B D will reduce resistance

7.1.3.2. Appreciative enquiry - instead of burning bridges - building on the positives - Cooperidder and Whitney, 2005

7.1.3.2.1. 4D cycle

7.1.3.2.2. Premise

7.1.4. How to work with individuals in large changes

7.1.4.1. Can be impossible for change manager to interact with every individual

7.1.4.2. Network

7.1.4.2.1. Change agent networks

7.1.4.2.2. Use of middle managers

7.1.4.2.3. Size of network

7.1.4.3. Working with Innovators, Majority and Laggards - Rogesr

7.1.4.3.1. Innovators ad early adopters

7.1.4.3.2. Majorities

7.1.4.3.3. Laggards

7.2. Building organizational readiness for change

7.2.1. Factors that influence readiness for change and how to assess them

7.2.1.1. Environmental factors - understand the organisation at work

7.2.1.1.1. Culture -

7.2.1.1.2. Values -

7.2.1.1.3. Management Styles

7.2.1.2. Competencies in change-related disciplines

7.2.1.2.1. Working with other departments e.g.,

7.2.1.2.2. Helped by

7.2.1.3. Organizational policy

7.2.1.3.1. Amend policies when you know what the change is - prevents continual tweaking

7.2.1.3.2. Check what the current policies are

7.2.1.4. Lessons learnt from past initiatives

7.2.1.4.1. What has gone well or badly in the past - workshop?

7.2.1.4.2. Create a pledge document to take what has gone well

7.2.2. Laying the foundations for successful change

7.2.2.1. Building awareness for the need to change

7.2.2.1.1. Burning platform - but there can't be too many of these

7.2.2.1.2. Focus on benefits for the individuals - WIIFM

7.2.2.2. Ensuring participation and building support

7.2.2.2.1. Involving stakeholders in developing the business case

7.2.2.2.2. Involving affected users (targets of change) when looking at future states

7.2.2.2.3. If not the above then communicate the work that is being done

7.2.2.3. Assessing and developing stakeholder skills

7.2.2.3.1. Skills to operate in the new world

7.2.2.3.2. Skills to transition to the new world

7.2.2.4. Building a change team

7.2.2.4.1. Can be recruited from inside or outside

7.2.3. Developing a change management plan

7.2.3.1. Stakeholders : who they are and how to engage

7.2.3.2. Communications: How targeted and what channels

7.2.3.3. Developing Skills: How people we be supported in implementing and embedding change

7.2.3.4. Building support - communicating the need for change

7.2.3.5. Resistance: expected types and reasons

7.2.3.6. Feedback: How can this be given

7.2.3.7. Measurement: How will we know that the initiatives have worked

7.3. Preparing for resistance

7.3.1. Psychological Contract

7.3.1.1. The perception of the two parties, employee and employer, on what their mutual obligations are to each other

7.3.1.2. Change can affect a positive psychological contract

7.3.1.2.1. Mitigated by

7.3.2. Common Causes

7.3.2.1. Loss of control over territory

7.3.2.2. Excessive uncertainty during the change

7.3.2.3. Sprung on people as a surprise

7.3.2.4. Too many differences at once to take in

7.3.2.5. Loss of face for those associated with the current state

7.3.2.6. Concerns about if they will be competent

7.3.2.7. Change is more work

7.3.2.8. Ripple affect - impacts other areas

7.3.2.9. Past resentments

7.3.2.10. Resisted because it really does hurt - loss of jobs etc

7.3.3. Likely areas - Lewins forces

7.4. Types of resistance and things to look out for

7.4.1. Audible unhappiness

7.4.1.1. Work one to one as much as possible

7.4.1.2. Identify with them benefits as well as disbenefits

7.4.2. Dissengagement

7.4.2.1. Identify reason

7.4.2.2. Arrange one to one meetings

7.4.2.3. Get their involvement as much as possible

7.4.3. Sabotage

7.4.3.1. Identify saboteurs and let them know they have been identified

7.4.3.2. Give people responsibility and get their buy in.

7.5. Common Considerations for building a strategy to manage resistance

7.5.1. Analyse four situational factors

7.5.1.1. Amount and kind of resistance

7.5.1.2. How powerful the initiator is compared to the resisters

7.5.1.3. Who are the people who have the energy to design and implement the change

7.5.1.4. Whats the risk to the organization if the change doesn't happen

7.5.2. What is the optimal speed of the change - slower the better but may need to be fast

7.6. Supporting managers and supervisors

7.6.1. Translate policy into action

7.6.2. If they aren't used to change they may need support

7.6.3. May require informal coaching

7.7. Building and sustaining momentum

7.7.1. Make sure that momentum isn't built too early

7.7.2. Four strategies that are useful

7.7.2.1. Timing communciations - gradually increasing the frequency

7.7.2.2. Phased approach - generating good news stories

7.7.2.3. Keep visibility high in long roll out periods when nothing much seems to be happening

7.7.2.4. Task managers with delivery - build implementation into their targets

7.8. Measuring change effectiveness

7.8.1. Quite challenging

7.8.2. Measures of engagement

7.8.2.1. ADKAR Model by Hyatt 2006 - if one element missing change will fail

7.8.2.1.1. A - awareness of the need for change

7.8.2.1.2. D- desire to participate in change

7.8.2.1.3. K - knowledge of how to change

7.8.2.1.4. A - ability to implement the required skills and behaviours

7.8.2.1.5. R - reinforcement to sustain the change

7.8.3. Methods of capturing information

7.8.3.1. Pulse Surveys

7.8.3.1.1. One question to gauge opinion e.g., voting tokens

7.8.3.2. One off surveys

7.8.3.2.1. Needs to be completed in five minutes

7.8.3.2.2. Large enough survey size

7.8.3.2.3. High enough response rate

7.8.3.2.4. Beware of self selecting samples

7.8.3.3. Focus groups

7.8.3.3.1. About an hour

7.8.3.3.2. 5 - 10 people

7.8.3.3.3. Make sure they feel comfortable - people may not feel comfortable in front of their manager

7.8.3.3.4. May be biased so need to do more than one

7.8.3.4. Individual Interviews

7.8.3.4.1. Normally with key stakeholders

7.8.3.4.2. Time consuming but rich data

7.8.3.4.3. Good idea to send questions in advance

7.8.3.4.4. About 30 mins

7.8.3.4.5. Ask them how they would like the information managed - happy to be quoted?

7.8.4. Presenting Data on employee engagement

7.8.4.1. Use diagrams where possible

8. Education Learning and Support

8.1. Learning theory and skills development

8.1.1. Learning is - a qualitative change in a persons way of seeing, experiencing, understanding, conceptualising something in the real world

8.1.2. Roots of learning theory

8.1.2.1. Behavioural theory

8.1.2.1.1. Rewarded behaviour is repeated

8.1.2.1.2. If the reward is associated with something this can produce the behaviour

8.1.2.1.3. But learning isn't always visible in behaviour

8.1.2.1.4. The behavioural change took longer to acquire but lasted longer if reward was intermittent

8.1.2.1.5. Punishment was less effective than reward but did reduce behaviour

8.1.2.2. Humans to animals

8.1.2.2.1. Expectancy theory

8.1.2.2.2. Hertzberg

8.1.2.2.3. Hawthorne

8.1.3. Learning and effective instruction

8.1.3.1. Learning physical skills

8.1.3.1.1. Practice doesn't make perfect - it makes consitent

8.1.3.1.2. To be perfect you need feedback as well as practice

8.1.3.2. Using the senses to process information

8.1.3.2.1. Senses used

8.1.3.2.2. Use of senses

8.1.3.3. Memory and Learning

8.1.3.3.1. Repetition - learning tables at school

8.1.3.3.2. Mnemonics - verbal tricks - Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain - for rainbow

8.1.3.3.3. Structure

8.1.3.3.4. Images

8.1.3.4. Nine events of instruction

8.1.3.4.1. Gain attention

8.1.3.4.2. Describe the Goal - what people will be able to do after the learning

8.1.3.4.3. Recall prior knowledge - gives confidence if the new is an extension of the old

8.1.3.4.4. Easily accessible presentation

8.1.3.4.5. Teach people how to learn

8.1.3.4.6. Get the user to do something with the new knowledge as soon as possible

8.1.3.4.7. Provide informative/constructive feedback

8.1.3.4.8. Assess performance to see if the learning has been effective

8.1.3.4.9. Enhance retention by getting the learner to use knowledge in a new cintext

8.1.4. Learning and the individual learner

8.1.4.1. Learning process and learning styles

8.1.4.1.1. David Kolb 1984 - how learning happens - can start anywhere in cycle but need to do all the stages to be fully effective

8.1.4.1.2. How material is presented - VARK

8.1.5. Learning process, performance and pressure

8.1.5.1. Performance dips as people go through these stages then picks up

8.1.5.1.1. Unconscious competence

8.1.5.1.2. Conscious incompetence

8.1.5.1.3. Conscious competence

8.1.5.1.4. Unconscious competence

8.1.5.2. Pressure to learn

8.1.5.2.1. This is a bell curve - horizontal = pressure/ vertical =performance

8.1.5.2.2. Pressure up to a point is good for learning

8.1.5.2.3. Over the top of the curve pressure has a detrimental affect on learning.

8.1.6. Attitudes - beyond skills and knowledge

8.1.6.1. Attitudinal training - emotional stance towards other people, groups, idea or plan

8.1.6.2. Attitudinal Spectrum

8.1.6.2.1. Some ones attitude to something is on a spectrum - zone of tolerance

8.1.6.3. Attitude Triangle

8.1.6.3.1. People seek congruence

8.2. Identify and meeting learning needs

8.2.1. Identifying and analysing the needs KSA's

8.2.1.1. What is needed

8.2.1.1.1. How are things now

8.2.1.1.2. What K(knowledge) S(skills) A(attitudes) are needed by each stakeholder

8.2.1.1.3. What are the Gaps

8.2.1.1.4. Plan to meet them

8.2.1.1.5. This can apply to external stakeholders like customers and suppliers

8.2.1.2. Single and double loop learning Revans 1979

8.2.1.2.1. L = P+Q

8.2.1.2.2. This Reflective practioner uses this equation to double loop

8.2.1.2.3. Safe situation to experiment in etc

8.2.1.3. Finding the information in HR

8.2.1.3.1. Builds a picture of the organisations Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes

8.2.2. Job analysis

8.2.2.1. Can use KSA's to analyse the impacts of change in personnel

8.2.2.1.1. Jobs as columns

8.2.2.1.2. People as rows

8.2.2.1.3. Cells as KSA status

8.2.2.2. KSA charts

8.2.2.2.1. What are the key accountables for each future role /job

8.2.2.2.2. KSA's needed

8.2.2.2.3. KSA's currently got

8.2.2.2.4. Gaps

8.2.3. Training planning

8.2.3.1. Who needs what?

8.2.3.1.1. By looking at the KSA gaps and people - can organise learning modules

8.2.3.1.2. Training should be closely aligned with the way the job is actually done

8.2.3.2. Defining what is to be learned - learning objectives

8.2.3.2.1. "At the end of this learning the learners will be able to..….."

8.2.3.2.2. May be more than one objective

8.2.3.2.3. should include ALL KSA'a

8.2.3.2.4. Outcome measures related to how the job will be done

8.2.3.2.5. Success standards may be different from those set as objective measures

8.2.3.2.6. Level of detail must be appropriate

8.2.3.2.7. Attitudinal objectives = consistent patterns of behaviour

8.2.3.3. Who will provide the training

8.2.4. Learning design and channels

8.2.4.1. learning is a journey where a combination of methods might be used

8.2.4.2. Learning methods and their application

8.2.4.2.1. One to one

8.2.4.2.2. Problem solving groups

8.2.4.2.3. Small group lecture

8.2.4.2.4. Large presentations and lectures

8.2.4.2.5. Formal courses

8.2.4.2.6. Computer aided / based learning

8.2.4.2.7. Computer simulations

8.2.4.2.8. Practical simulations

8.2.4.3. Learning styles and learning methods

8.2.4.3.1. Simulated working environments can be helpful for all learning styles

8.2.4.4. Evaluating learning

8.2.4.4.1. Why Evaluation Matters

8.2.4.4.2. Models of evaluation

8.2.4.4.3. Evaluation methods

8.3. Behavioural Change and coaching

8.3.1. Active listening in coaching and change

8.3.1.1. Purpose and benefits

8.3.1.1.1. Suspend ones own agenda to really understand how another person perceives their situation

8.3.1.1.2. Ensures that options for development have a real starting point

8.3.1.2. Core active listening behaviours

8.3.1.2.1. Clearing the decks - set aside ones onw preoccupations

8.3.1.2.2. Giving attention - body language and affirmation

8.3.1.2.3. Reflecting Content - playing back what the person has said

8.3.1.2.4. Paraphrasing - playing it back in your own words to confirm understanding

8.3.1.2.5. Reflected feelings - reflecting back the persons emotions about something

8.3.1.2.6. Questions - so does that mean you...

8.3.2. The role of feedback in behavioural change

8.3.2.1. Behavioural change

8.3.2.1.1. Double loop model

8.3.2.2. For this to happen people need feedback

8.3.2.2.1. If I observe the feedback I may draw the wrong conclusions

8.3.2.2.2. If I get honest feedback from others I may get more accurate feedback

8.3.2.2.3. Guidelines for giving effective feedback

8.3.2.2.4. Guidelines for receiving feedback

8.3.3. Understanding coaching

8.3.3.1. What we mean by coaching

8.3.3.1.1. Involve the coach and person being coached in a joint diagnosis

8.3.3.1.2. Involve the client in joint goal setting

8.3.3.1.3. Involve the client in a joint analysis of the options

8.3.3.1.4. involve the client in making a real commitment to the next steps

8.3.3.2. Coaching Contract

8.3.3.2.1. How the coach and client will work together

8.3.3.3. GROW

8.3.3.3.1. G - Goal = define a clear and motivating goal

8.3.3.3.2. R - Reality = analysing and specifying current levels of performance and reasons for them

8.3.3.3.3. O - Options = identify the options the client can choose from to get from where they are to the goal

8.3.3.3.4. W - Will = testing the clients will and determination to take the next steps

9. Project Management

9.1. Change within project governance structures

9.1.1. Difference between project manager and change management

9.1.1.1. Project manager - the what of change

9.1.1.2. Change manager - the who and the application of change

9.1.2. Understanding the project environment

9.1.2.1. Projects/Programmes/Portfolios

9.1.2.1.1. Projects are made up of - start, middle and specific end in a specific time

9.1.2.1.2. Programmes = specific change delivered by one or more projects

9.1.2.1.3. Portfolio is a group of programmes and projects to deliver a Business Goal

9.1.2.2. Governance structure

9.1.2.2.1. How the project is managed

9.1.2.2.2. Governance bodies remit defined in the Terms of Referrence

9.1.2.2.3. Portfolio and programme management Office - PMO

9.1.2.3. Project methodologies: considerations for change management

9.1.2.3.1. Waterfall

9.1.2.3.2. Agile

9.1.2.4. Methodology types in Programmes

9.1.2.4.1. Projects can use different methodologies

9.1.3. Project management tools

9.1.3.1. Critical Path Analysis

9.1.3.1.1. What needs to be done when to achieve the objective

9.1.3.1.2. Measured against a time line

9.1.3.2. GANTT Charts

9.1.3.2.1. Links tasks together

9.1.3.2.2. Important to distinguish between effort and duration

9.1.3.2.3. Shows dependencies between tasks

9.1.4. Identifying key roles and owners

9.1.4.1. Project sponsor and project board

9.1.4.1.1. Sponsor may not play an active part day to day

9.1.4.1.2. Project Board

9.1.4.2. Project stakeholders and influencers

9.1.4.2.1. Stakeholders may rotate in and out of roles

9.1.4.3. Change management governance

9.1.4.3.1. Change Managers may have several roles

9.1.4.3.2. Change management structure

9.1.4.4. Understanding the business change landscape

9.1.4.4.1. Provides a context for the project

9.1.4.4.2. Context for change initiative

9.1.4.4.3. Managing scope and expectations

9.2. Establishing a project

9.2.1. Project set-up phase

9.2.1.1. Project Controls are put in place to monitor and control

9.2.1.1.1. Risks

9.2.1.1.2. Issues

9.2.1.1.3. Changes - amendments to the project

9.2.1.1.4. Scope creep

9.2.1.2. Project documentation - artefacts

9.2.1.2.1. Project definition - justification and purpose, objectives/ goals, budget, methodology, governance, controls etc

9.2.1.2.2. High level project plan - phases and milestones

9.2.1.2.3. Work breakdown structure - who is doing what

9.2.1.2.4. Scope - agreed scope constraints and assumptions

9.2.1.2.5. Detailed project work plan - milestones, tasks, CPA etc

9.2.1.2.6. Quality assurance plan - product testing approach, checklists, metrics etc

9.2.1.2.7. Risk plan - and mitigations

9.2.1.3. Gathering business requirements

9.2.1.3.1. Interviews or focus groups

9.2.1.3.2. Questionnaires - geographically spread, large numbers

9.2.1.3.3. Prototyping - build something generates more requirements

9.2.1.3.4. Use case - how this needs to work from the users perspective

9.2.1.3.5. Day in the life - describe a day in the life of a user

9.2.1.3.6. Request for Proposals - list of requirements to compare with the suppliers capabilities

9.2.2. Establishing the project team

9.2.2.1. People who can deliver the objectives of the project

9.2.2.1.1. Change manager supports the project manager to develop the teams change capability

9.2.2.1.2. Project people

9.2.2.1.3. Procurement and vendor management

9.2.3. Establish Change Management workstream

9.2.3.1. Change workstream management

9.2.3.1.1. Responsibilities

9.2.3.1.2. Accountability

9.2.3.1.3. initiative and approach

9.2.3.1.4. Change team ways of working

9.3. Delivering a project

9.3.1. Definition

9.3.1.1. Solution Definition

9.3.1.1.1. Clarity of vision

9.3.1.1.2. Common understanding of

9.3.1.1.3. Done through workshops

9.3.1.2. Delivery planning

9.3.1.2.1. Sets out at high level the work packages, resources and budget for each phase

9.3.1.2.2. Contingency planning - wiggle room

9.3.1.2.3. Change manager will look at

9.3.1.3. Plan integration

9.3.1.3.1. In reality each project stream of the programme will decide their own activities

9.3.1.3.2. PMO splice these together so that they are integrated

9.3.2. Delivery

9.3.3. Implementation

9.3.3.1. Milestones and activities

9.3.3.1.1. Marks the completion of and activity or deliverable

9.3.3.2. Dependencies

9.3.3.2.1. One task can't be started until another is completed

9.3.3.3. Delivery reviews

9.3.3.3.1. Done at the end of each phase

9.3.4. Change management delivery

9.3.4.1. Often planned after the project plan so needs to fit in

9.3.4.2. Defining the scope of change management

9.3.4.2.1. From/to analysis - what do people do now

9.3.4.2.2. What will people do after the change

9.3.4.2.3. What needs to happen in the business areas to support this

9.3.4.3. Managing Changes to scope

9.3.4.3.1. Scope may be wider than the project plan

9.3.4.3.2. Changes in scope are caused by

9.3.4.3.3. Developing a change delivery plan

9.3.4.3.4. Executing the change delivery plan

9.4. Project completion and transition

9.4.1. Project completion

9.4.1.1. The project plan should include what happens on completion and how change will be embedded

9.4.1.1.1. Deployment and rollout

9.4.1.1.2. Support for implementation

9.5. Business ownership for change

9.5.1. Closing project activities and handover to the business

9.5.1.1. Workshop reps from project team and business areas

9.5.1.1.1. Identify

9.5.1.2. Planning for handover

9.5.1.2.1. Pass on files of materials and documents

9.5.1.2.2. Documented maintenance process

9.5.1.2.3. Document roles and responsibilities and KPIs

9.5.1.2.4. Knowledge transfer and training sessions

9.5.1.2.5. Tips and lessons learnt from the project

9.5.2. Project close down

9.5.2.1. Closure ritual important

9.5.3. Transition to BAU

9.5.3.1. Transition planning

9.5.3.1.1. Access

9.5.3.1.2. Maintenance

9.5.3.1.3. Continuous improvement

9.5.3.1.4. Development

9.5.3.1.5. Performance

9.5.3.1.6. Ownership

9.5.3.2. Sustaining change

9.5.3.2.1. What project outputs need to be sustained after the project has closed

10. Facilitation

10.1. Role of the Facilitator and the skills required

10.1.1. Role of the facilitator

10.1.1.1. Develops and manages the process and structure of the workshop to be effective

10.1.1.1.1. Understands the objectives

10.1.1.1.2. Prepares the agenda

10.1.1.1.3. Prepares the participants

10.1.1.2. Focuses in agenda, processes and dynamics

10.1.1.2.1. Opens and closes the meeting

10.1.1.2.2. Remains independent

10.1.1.2.3. Manages the group processes

10.1.1.2.4. Looks ahead and predicts how the agenda will unfold

10.1.1.2.5. Will change the agenda if required

10.1.1.3. Doesn't manage the content of the meeting - facilitates others

10.1.2. Techniques of questioning

10.1.2.1. Open and closed questions

10.1.2.1.1. Funnelling using open questions ending in a closed question

10.1.2.2. Asking a group

10.1.2.2.1. Need to make clear how the speaker will be selected

10.1.2.3. Five whys - Ishikawa

10.1.2.3.1. Gets at the root cause

10.1.2.4. Kiplings six servants

10.1.2.4.1. What, why, when, how, where and who

10.1.2.5. What would that look like

10.1.2.5.1. Imagine a future situation

10.1.2.6. ORID

10.1.2.6.1. Objective - to establish relevant facts

10.1.2.6.2. Reflective - establish feelings

10.1.2.6.3. Interpretive - Extrapolate to a bigger picture

10.1.2.6.4. Decisional - to decide next step

10.2. Preparing a group process

10.2.1. Factors in preparing a group meeting

10.2.1.1. Purpose/s - what are they

10.2.1.1.1. What is the history of these objectives

10.2.1.1.2. Is a group process the best way of achieving them

10.2.1.1.3. Will the participants understand the objective

10.2.1.1.4. Can the objective be achieved in the time frame

10.2.1.1.5. What are the priorities

10.2.1.2. Product - What information needs to be captured and organised

10.2.1.2.1. In the session

10.2.1.2.2. After the session

10.2.1.3. Participants - Who should participate

10.2.1.3.1. Who are the stakeholders

10.2.1.3.2. What levels and types of expertise required

10.2.1.3.3. What level of authority

10.2.1.3.4. how many can we fit into the venue

10.2.1.3.5. Would more be justified

10.2.1.3.6. What happens if some stakeholders are left out

10.2.1.4. Process - How will the objective be achieved - broken down into steps

10.2.1.4.1. Break down objective into steps

10.2.1.4.2. Choose technique and structure for each step

10.2.1.4.3. Allocate time to each step

10.2.1.4.4. Add time for breaks

10.2.1.5. Place - place or venue for the meeting

10.2.1.5.1. Is there sufficient floor and wall space

10.2.1.5.2. Is the furniture/ layout appropriate

10.2.1.5.3. Is there access to technology

10.2.1.5.4. Is the environment appropriate

10.2.1.6. Practical Tools - tools required for the process are chosen

10.2.1.6.1. Is the technology accessible

10.2.1.6.2. Is the technology appropriate

10.2.1.6.3. KISS

10.2.1.6.4. What is the back up if the technology fails

10.2.1.6.5. Make sure there is support to set it up

10.2.1.7. Probable issues - what risks are involved and how does this impact the plans

10.2.1.7.1. Technology failure

10.2.1.7.2. Key stakeholders don't attend

10.2.1.7.3. Participants object to the purpose

10.2.1.7.4. Time runs out

10.2.1.7.5. Room turns out to be unsuitable

10.3. Facilitating a group process

10.3.1. Opening the session

10.3.1.1. Acknowledge participants individually

10.3.1.2. State meeting objective

10.3.1.3. State the facilitators role

10.3.1.4. Summarise the agenda

10.3.1.5. Establish the ground rules

10.3.1.5.1. e.g., be on time after breaks

10.3.1.5.2. Mobile phones off

10.3.1.5.3. Listen to others

10.3.1.5.4. Show respect etc

10.3.2. Watching for group dynamics

10.3.2.1. Want

10.3.2.1.1. Free flow of idea

10.3.2.1.2. Willingness to debate without getting personal

10.3.2.1.3. Listen without interrupting

10.3.2.1.4. Positive supportive engagement

10.3.2.2. Watch out for

10.3.2.2.1. Groupthink - desire for consensus

10.3.2.2.2. Negative reactions

10.3.2.2.3. Endless discussions that go nowhere

10.3.2.3. Personality types and how they react in a group

10.3.2.3.1. Quiet ones and talkers

10.3.2.3.2. People who love process and those that don't

10.3.2.3.3. Optimist and pessimist

10.3.2.4. Techniques for intervening

10.3.2.4.1. Observe behaviour

10.3.2.4.2. Deduce meaning - why is this happening

10.3.2.4.3. Decide whether to intervene

10.3.2.5. Changing the agenda

10.3.2.5.1. An agenda is the best plan at the time and should be changed if things change

10.3.2.6. Closing the session

10.3.2.6.1. Can use De Bonos six hats as a technique

10.4. Virtual meetings

10.4.1. Used when people are in multiple locations

10.4.2. Selecting Technology

10.4.2.1. Is it appropriate

10.4.2.2. Is it robust

10.4.2.3. Is it easy to use

10.4.2.4. Does it require a lot of bandwidth

10.4.2.5. Do people know how to use it

10.4.2.6. Is it secure

10.4.2.7. What support is available

10.4.3. Issues

10.4.3.1. Lack of small talk to get people relaxed

10.4.3.2. Knowing who is there

10.4.3.3. Making sure people using different devices have the same access

10.4.3.4. People may be at different ends of the day

10.4.3.5. Technology always breaks down

10.4.3.6. Miss out on body language - 80% of communication

10.4.3.7. People might be secretly multi tasking

10.4.3.8. Background noise

10.4.3.9. Easy to interrupt people as can't get non visual clues as to when to come in

10.4.3.10. Need clear agenda

10.4.3.11. Need to track data - virtual whiteboards are good for this

10.5. Facilitation structures and techniques

10.5.1. Basic Principles

10.5.1.1. Break objective into steps - each with own purpose

10.5.1.2. Steps build the agenda

10.5.1.3. Match technique to steps

10.5.1.4. Combine techniques where appropriate

10.5.1.5. Ensure the venue matches size of the group

10.5.1.6. Allow for different working styles

10.5.1.7. Consider an appropriate structure

10.5.1.8. Vary the structure as the workshop progresses

10.5.1.9. Start with divergent thinking and then move to convergent thinking.

10.5.1.9.1. Divergent - brainstorming

10.5.1.9.2. Convergent - grouping ideas

10.5.2. Structures - how people work together

10.5.2.1. Working as individuals

10.5.2.1.1. Negates the influence of powerful people

10.5.2.2. Working as syndicates - on different issues or ideas

10.5.2.2.1. Saves time where agenda is running over

10.5.2.2.2. Constructive debate of different ideas

10.5.2.2.3. Enables anonymity for different views

10.5.2.2.4. BUT can be dominated by powerful individual

10.5.2.2.5. Needs to be rules about - spying on other syndicates etc

10.5.2.3. Working together

10.5.2.3.1. enables people to bounce off each other

10.5.2.3.2. But some may feel intimidated - compliant

10.5.2.4. Round Robin - people asked to contribute one after the other

10.5.2.4.1. Everyone gets a chance to contribute

10.5.2.4.2. BUT need to manage this carefully

10.5.2.5. Presentations

10.5.2.5.1. Sets the context

10.5.2.5.2. Give expert knowledge

10.5.3. Techniques for building information

10.5.3.1. Divergence

10.5.3.1.1. Brainstorming

10.5.3.1.2. Listing information - who are the stakehllders

10.5.3.2. followed by Convergence

10.5.3.2.1. Putting like with like

10.5.3.2.2. Connecting

10.5.3.3. Parking lot

10.5.3.3.1. ideas that are not part of the topic under discussion

10.5.3.3.2. Keeps the work shop on the agenda

10.5.3.3.3. Try and remove the items at the end of the workshop by agreeing

10.5.3.4. Six Hats - different modes of thinking

10.5.3.4.1. what the colours mean

10.5.3.4.2. Ask the whole group to where one of the hats at one time

10.5.3.5. Acts of God

10.5.3.5.1. Surface complaints and negativity and then categorise them as

10.5.3.6. Action Planning

10.5.3.6.1. What is to be done

10.5.3.6.2. Who buy

10.5.3.6.3. When

10.5.3.6.4. Where

10.5.3.6.5. How

10.5.4. Techniques for prioritising, decision making and reaching consensus

10.5.4.1. Voting - can take different forms

10.5.4.1.1. Like / Not Like each item in a list

10.5.4.1.2. Voting slips with half the number of items

10.5.4.1.3. Each person rate each item on a list - time consuming

10.5.4.2. MoSCoW

10.5.4.2.1. Must have

10.5.4.2.2. Should have

10.5.4.2.3. Could have

10.5.4.2.4. Wont have

10.5.4.3. XY Axis

10.5.4.3.1. Benefit to the customer/Time to implement

10.5.4.3.2. Impact/Urgency

10.5.4.4. Matrix comparison

10.5.4.4.1. compare items across three or more criteria for example

10.5.4.5. Debating teams

10.5.4.5.1. Teams of people to advocate a view

10.5.5. Approaches for larger workshops

10.5.5.1. Wold Cafe's

10.5.5.1.1. Create a café environment with people sitting around tables -

10.5.5.1.2. Explain the process

10.5.5.1.3. Each table discusses a particular issue

10.5.5.1.4. After 20 mins/ 30 mins participants move to the next table

10.5.5.1.5. After several rounds ideas are put on whiteboards or flip charts

10.5.5.2. Open Space Technology

10.5.5.2.1. How this works

10.5.5.2.2. Law of two feet

11. Sustaining Change

11.1. Sustaining change concepts

11.1.1. Concept of fit

11.1.1.1. Preparing the environment ahead of the role out of the change

11.1.1.2. Crafting the change to fit the environment

11.1.2. Systems thinking

11.1.2.1. Change doesn't happen in isolation - has impacts and ripple effects - cause and effect

11.1.2.1.1. Cause and effect are not necessarily close in time - Senge

11.1.2.2. Can flow back in a positive or negative feedback loop

11.1.2.3. Can be two or more loops affected

11.1.2.4. Used to sustain change or remove negative loops

11.1.3. Levers and leverage

11.1.3.1. Small changes can have large affects - senge

11.1.3.1.1. Levers - items that can be used

11.1.3.1.2. Leverage is the use of them

11.1.3.1.3. Change managers play out ripple effect of small changes

11.1.3.2. Types of levers

11.1.3.2.1. Emotional

11.1.3.2.2. Procedural

11.1.3.2.3. Structural

11.1.3.2.4. Lever strategies

11.1.3.3. Environmental levers

11.1.3.3.1. Using the physical environment to force people to sustain the change

11.1.3.4. Leadership levers

11.1.3.4.1. What leaders do impacts the sustainability of change

11.1.3.4.2. Beliefs values and behaviour which exemplify walking the talk

11.1.3.5. Organizational Development Levers -

11.1.3.5.1. Job Design - designing jobs to support the change

11.1.3.5.2. Role descriptions - as above

11.1.3.5.3. Organization structure - how can we design a customer centric rather than functional structure/ matrix structure etc

11.1.3.5.4. Team structure

11.1.3.5.5. Performance management systems and standards - carrot and stick

11.1.3.6. Levels of Adoption - Kelman

11.1.3.6.1. Compliance - tell them what to do

11.1.3.6.2. Identification - they need to understand why they need to do this

11.1.3.6.3. Internalisation - need to make decisions about what, why , when and how to do things

11.1.3.7. Tipping point and critical mass - Gladwell

11.1.3.7.1. There comes a point where the change has a momentum of its own

11.1.3.7.2. Behaviour is contagious

11.1.3.8. Reinforcing Systems

11.1.3.8.1. Vicious and virtuous cycles

11.1.3.9. Measuring adoption

11.1.3.9.1. These should have these criteria

11.1.3.10. Transition management

11.1.3.10.1. Think of this as a separate phase of the change

11.1.3.10.2. people may be at different stages of their personal transition - like the change curve

11.1.3.10.3. Need to enter the ending zone themselves

12. Personal and Professional Management

12.1. Leadership Principles

12.1.1. Personal effectiveness through

12.1.1.1. Knowing what to do with what tools

12.1.1.1.1. Body of knowledge

12.1.1.1.2. Interpreting this knowledge within a local context

12.1.1.2. Flexibility in applying the right skills to overcome blockages

12.1.1.3. Leaving a positive legacy for the future

12.1.2. Self Awareness - what are my strengths and what have I yet to learn

12.1.2.1. Becoming more self aware

12.1.2.1.1. Feedback from tests and inventories

12.1.2.1.2. Learning from reflection

12.1.2.1.3. Exploring your values and beliefs

12.1.3. Leadership and Authenticity

12.1.3.1. Bill George

12.1.3.1.1. Passion for their purpose

12.1.3.1.2. Practice their value consistently

12.1.3.1.3. lead with their hearts

12.1.3.2. Goffee and Jones

12.1.3.2.1. Reveal your weaknesses - be honest about them

12.1.3.2.2. Become a sensor - sensitive about subtle clues of what is going on around you

12.1.3.2.3. Practice tough empathy - giving people what they need not what they want

12.1.3.2.4. Dare to be different - use imagination and creativity to find different solutions

12.1.4. Leadership approaches

12.1.4.1. Visionary leadership

12.1.4.1.1. Unless you know where you are going and why - you can't get there

12.1.4.2. Transformational leadership

12.1.4.2.1. Common sense of purpose between leader and followers

12.1.4.3. Adaptive leadership

12.1.4.3.1. Contrasts with ideas of vision an tranformation

12.1.4.4. Connective leadership

12.1.4.4.1. make connections across boundaries and develop a common purpose

12.1.4.5. Emotionally intelligent leadership - can switch between different styles as required

12.1.4.5.1. Coercive - do what I say

12.1.4.5.2. Authoritative - set goal and leaves it for followers to achieve it

12.1.4.5.3. Affiliative - people come first

12.1.4.5.4. Democratic - gives people a voice

12.1.4.5.5. Pacesetting - exemplifies high performance standards

12.1.4.5.6. Coaching - personal development

12.1.4.6. Flexibility in leadership approach and style

12.1.4.6.1. Can be different at different times through the change cycle

12.1.5. Problem solving and creative approaches

12.1.5.1. Brain storming

12.1.5.2. Force Field analysis

12.1.5.3. Mind maps

12.1.5.4. Fishbone techniques

12.1.5.5. Thinking hats

12.2. Building team effeciveness

12.2.1. Stages of team development Tuckman 1977

12.2.1.1. Forming - team members need direction about what they need to do

12.2.1.2. Storming - a period where team members are uncertain and challenge assumptions - emotions may dominate

12.2.1.3. Norming - team settles down and has found a way of working together - able to make decisions and allocate tasks

12.2.1.4. Performing - unity and shared vision, supportive and the team can work autonomously

12.2.1.5. Adjourning - may feel a sense of loss as the team is disbanded

12.2.1.6. Teams can oscillate between these stages and slide from one to the other

12.2.2. Developing an effective team - Glaser and Glaser

12.2.2.1. Team mission, planning and goal setting

12.2.2.1.1. The team need to be clear about what is happening

12.2.2.2. Team roles

12.2.2.2.1. Members of the team need to be clear about what their role is

12.2.2.3. Team operating procedures

12.2.2.3.1. Need to know how things will happen - how many meetings, when etc

12.2.2.4. Team interpersonal relationships

12.2.2.4.1. Open communication and mutual support is crucial

12.2.2.5. Inter-team relationships

12.2.2.5.1. effective communication with other teams

12.2.3. Balancing focus on results with effective people management - Adair

12.2.3.1. Task

12.2.3.1.1. What needs to be done

12.2.3.2. Team

12.2.3.2.1. Who needs to do this and how

12.2.3.3. Individuals

12.2.3.3.1. Who are these people as people

12.2.4. To be successful a team must overcome 5 possible dysfunctions - Lencioni

12.2.4.1. Absence of trust

12.2.4.1.1. Important to have an open and honest relationship between members of the team - trust may take time

12.2.4.2. Fear of Conflict

12.2.4.2.1. In a trusting open relationship people don't fear conflict and make better decisions

12.2.4.3. Lack of commitment

12.2.4.3.1. The team needs to be behind a shared purpose - otherwise there will be doubts and lack of commitment

12.2.4.4. Avoidance of accountability

12.2.4.4.1. lack of commitment may make team members less likely to feel accountable for what they do

12.2.4.5. Inattention to results

12.2.4.5.1. Just care about their own results and not the success of the team as a whole

12.2.5. When the composition of a team change s need to make sure

12.2.5.1. There is sustain leadership committment

12.2.5.2. There is a consistent sense of urgency

12.2.6. Leading virtual teams

12.2.6.1. May be distracted by local priorities

12.2.6.2. Need real clarity about what the team is doing

12.2.6.3. Coordination and understanding the team operating procedures is crucial

12.2.6.4. Communication is crucial - technologies can be helpful in this

12.3. Emotional Intelligence

12.3.1. Goleman 1998 said it has the following component

12.3.1.1. Self Awareness - who you are

12.3.1.2. Self Regulation - think before acting

12.3.1.3. Motivation - passion to work for things beyond power and money

12.3.1.4. Empathy - understands the emotional make up of others

12.3.1.5. Social skills - find common ground and build rapport

12.3.2. Can it be learnt

12.3.2.1. Need to look with courage at their capabilities

12.3.2.1.1. Requires coaching and feedback

12.3.3. Resilience

12.3.3.1. Awareness of own feelings without being swamped by them

12.3.3.1.1. practising an ability to think positively

12.3.3.1.2. Maintaining perspective

12.3.3.1.3. Strong network of supportive relationships

12.3.3.1.4. taking care of mind and body

12.3.3.1.5. bounce back ability

12.3.4. Emotionally intelligent change manager has the following according to Goleman

12.3.4.1. Centred and grounded

12.3.4.2. Ability to take action - decisiveness

12.3.4.3. Participative management style - hearts and minds

12.3.4.4. Being tough minded - handle pressure well

12.4. Effective influence

12.4.1. French and Raven identified five sources of power

12.4.1.1. Positional power

12.4.1.1.1. Legitimate - by virtue of a formal position which demands compliance - not enough to influence change

12.4.1.1.2. Reward - the power to reward people for complying

12.4.1.1.3. Coercive - power to punish others for not conforming

12.4.1.2. Personal Power

12.4.1.2.1. Expert - superior skill and knowledge - when expertise is shown people tend to trust it

12.4.1.2.2. Referent - personality that makes people feel good - and this gives them influence

12.4.2. Power and influence

12.4.2.1. Power = people will accept decisions without question

12.4.2.2. Influence = convince people of the validity of the decision

12.4.3. Influencing styles and approaches

12.4.3.1. Push - logical and forceful - can get quick results

12.4.3.2. Pull - help others to see their stake in the outcome

12.4.4. Influencing models - affected by the natural style of the change manager and the individual or group

12.4.4.1. Cialdinis 6 principles of influence

12.4.4.1.1. Reciprocity - a bragain

12.4.4.1.2. Commitment/ Consistency - Early commitment

12.4.4.1.3. Social Proof - create excitement around the change

12.4.4.1.4. Liking - liked by stakjeholders

12.4.4.1.5. Authority -

12.4.4.1.6. Scarcity - people missing out if they don't respond quickly

12.4.4.2. Musselwhite and Plouffe five styles

12.4.4.2.1. Rationalizing - facts, logic and past experience

12.4.4.2.2. Asserting - applying pressure to others to convince them

12.4.4.2.3. Negotiating - Compromise and cooperation to achieve goals

12.4.4.2.4. Inspiring - stories and emotional appeals to cerate cooperation

12.4.4.2.5. Bridging - Getting others to see they need to work together to achieve common goals

12.5. Negotiating

12.5.1. 2 way communication to reach an agreement when both parties have a combination of shared and opposing inetrests

12.5.2. Aim is win/win which Covey says has five elements

12.5.2.1. Character - integrity and a belief system that win/win will ultimately deliver better outcomes

12.5.2.2. Relationships - genuine respect for the other person

12.5.2.3. Agreements - and mutual understanding of what will lead to a win/win

12.5.2.4. Systems - which measure and reward cooperation

12.5.2.5. Process - start with seeing the problem from the other persons point of view

12.5.3. Fisher and Ury 99 suggest there are four Phases of negotiation

12.5.3.1. Preparation - get the data and information and look for areas of win/win agreements

12.5.3.1.1. Fall backs need to be prepared

12.5.3.2. Exchange information

12.5.3.3. Bargaining - this is where break down is most likely

12.5.3.4. Closure

12.5.4. Conducting negotiations requires you to

12.5.4.1. Separate people from the problem - focus on the other persons issues and challenges

12.5.4.2. Focus on interests not positions - not what do you want BUT why do you want this

12.5.4.3. Mutual options for mutual gain -

12.5.4.3.1. Don't jump to conclusion too quickly

12.5.4.3.2. don't search for single answers

12.5.4.3.3. don't think solving the problem is their problem

12.5.4.4. Insist on objective criteria

12.5.4.4.1. avoid getting into a battle of wills and focus on objective criteria like values, costs, standards, efficiency

12.5.4.5. Emotionally intelligent negotiating means

12.5.4.5.1. being able to identify your emotions and those of others

12.5.4.5.2. understand how these affect their thinking

12.5.4.5.3. use that to achieve better outcomes

12.5.4.5.4. productively manage emotions to achieve successful outcomes

12.5.4.6. Cultural impacts on negotiating strategies can be important

12.5.4.6.1. Different departments may have different ways they do things around here

12.6. Conflict Management

12.6.1. Handled sensitively conflict can be a good thing

12.6.1.1. Incompatible preferences and objectives

12.6.1.2. Happens when people care enough about their differences they want to communicate them

12.6.2. Bell and Hart recognised 8 sources of conflict

12.6.2.1. Conflicting needs - for scarce resources

12.6.2.1.1. Inevitable in change as resources need to be used in a different way

12.6.2.2. Conflicting styles - in dealing with people and problems

12.6.2.3. Conflicting perceptions - of people about events

12.6.2.4. Conflicting goals - time versus quality is common

12.6.2.5. Conflicting pressures - BAU and change

12.6.2.6. Conflicting roles - where roles and responsibilities aren't clear

12.6.2.7. Different personal values - often tested in change

12.6.2.8. Unpredictable policies - create uncertainty and conflict

12.6.3. Conflict resolution v management

12.6.3.1. Resolution aims to remove conflict

12.6.3.2. Management aims to make conflict functional

12.6.3.2.1. Can result in learning and increased effectiveness

12.6.4. Maximising positive aspects

12.6.4.1. Bring conflicts to the surface so they can b managed and

12.6.4.1.1. Increase understanding - about achieving personal and collective outcomes

12.6.4.1.2. Increase group cohesion - through stronger mutual respect

12.6.4.1.3. Improve self knowledge - by helping people to examine their own objectives and what is important to them

12.6.4.1.4. increasing creativity - in the developing new idea

12.6.4.1.5. Increased trust in the change manager and team mates

12.7. Knowing your preferred style - Thomas and Kilman

12.7.1. Competitive - Firm stand from someone with power - when quick unpopular decision is needed

12.7.1.1. Leaves people feeling bruised

12.7.2. Collaborative - meet the needs of everyone but assertive but cooperative

12.7.3. Compromising - try to satisfy everyone - when equal strength opponents are at a standstill

12.7.4. Accommodating - meet others needs at the expense of ones own - not a successful appraoch

12.7.5. Avoiding - can be appropriate if the decision is trivial - but not a successful strategy

13. Organizational considerations

13.1. Change manager and HR

13.1.1. At the end of the change journey HR processes can help sustain change

13.1.1.1. Pay and Reward - can help to reinforce change

13.1.1.2. Pension - can be important in mergers

13.1.1.3. Recruitment and Selection - can be important for recruitment to the change team or in new roles created

13.1.1.4. Learning and Development - helps through tansition

13.1.1.5. Workforce and Talent Planning - understanding where people work and the skills they need

13.1.1.6. HR Policy - change needs to comply with agreed policies

13.1.1.7. Organizational Design - can sustain change

13.1.1.8. Industrial/employee relationships - important where change in staffing etc is required

13.1.1.9. HR Metrics - can inform change measurement

13.1.1.10. HR Transactions/ Service Centres - signpost people undergoing change to support and welfare centres

13.1.2. Employment legislation may have implications for the change planned

13.1.2.1. Change can have a potential implication for Discrimination legislation

13.1.2.2. Change can be perceived as threatening and that may have implications for legislation as Bullying.

13.1.2.3. Changes to numbers of staff may have implications for Redundancy legislation

13.1.2.4. Change might impact the elements within a contract of employment

13.1.2.5. Where change means relocating people there is legislation which impacts on this

13.1.2.6. Where change involves transferring people between organisation this may involve transfer of their rights

13.1.2.7. Change may include the hours work which may come under the working hours legislation

13.1.2.8. Where change involves the collection and use of personal data of employees this can impact on Data protection legislation

13.1.2.9. Change may make some people unhappy and they may feel there is a case for constructive dismissal

13.1.2.10. Where change happens across different countries there may be different legal frameworks like the need for worker representation

13.1.3. Change management and HR policy - written source of guidance on how issues should be handled, principles, rights and responsibilities

13.1.3.1. Absence Management - as an example a woman on maternity may have rights to apply for jobs creayed

13.1.3.2. Anti Bribery - may be offers of hospitality for those providers bidding for contracts

13.1.3.3. Diversity . Equality and Inclusion - change can be difficult for a specific group of people

13.1.3.4. Learning and Development - people may have expectations around learning

13.1.3.5. Performance Management - change reinforcement may talk about performance so this needs to be compliant

13.1.3.6. Recruitment and Selection - change may need new job roles and require new skills

13.1.3.7. Reward and Recognition - incentivizing people may be required to sustain change

13.1.3.8. Travel and Subsistence - may ne required through delivering change

13.1.4. Employee relations

13.1.4.1. Change managers may need to be conscious of different legislative environments and cultures in different countries

13.1.4.2. Change can disrupt current arrangements and break the psychological contract

13.1.4.3. It is easier to work with employee bodies where these are available - act as a channel of communication

13.1.5. Impact of organizational design

13.1.5.1. 7s model

13.2. Safety health and environment issues

13.2.1. What is SHE to an organization

13.2.1.1. Safety - when people are exposed to potential harm in an episode

13.2.1.2. Health - when people are exposed to some long term risk

13.2.1.3. Environment - exposure of the environment to potential harm

13.2.2. SHE management

13.2.2.1. Management of risk

13.2.2.1.1. Risk = Impact X Probability

13.2.2.1.2. Acceptable risk

13.2.2.2. Managed through

13.2.2.2.1. hardware controls - equipment etc

13.2.2.2.2. Software controls - procedures and standards

13.2.2.2.3. Mindware controls - behaviour of people

13.2.3. How does change management interact with SHE

13.2.3.1. Any change represents a risk and needs to be assessed

13.2.3.1.1. Change can mean people no longer complete the steps needed for SHE

13.2.3.1.2. Stress from change may be at unacceptable levels - this comes under SHE

13.2.3.1.3. Excessive work load may cause excessive stress levels

13.2.4. Managing SHE through change

13.2.4.1. Management of change process - MOC

13.2.4.1.1. Responsible person must make sure change is implemented within SHE boundary conditions

13.2.4.2. Making Moc Work

13.2.4.2.1. Establish a clear scope of change - existing and future and what is going to change

13.2.4.2.2. Convene a risk assessment team - multidisciplinary

13.2.4.2.3. Document the teams work - risk log

13.2.4.2.4. Obtain approval - get sponsors approval

13.2.4.2.5. Produce an action list - must be managed and followed up

13.2.4.2.6. Check controls to make sure they will work

13.2.4.2.7. Review to improve -

13.3. Process optimization in organisations

13.3.1. Need to identify what processes to improve and why

13.3.1.1. identify the process to be improved

13.3.1.2. Does it have a proven impact on the business

13.3.1.3. Do senior management buy in to the processes being mapped

13.3.2. Process mapping activity

13.3.2.1. What the current process looks like

13.3.2.2. How can this be made more efficient and waste removed

13.3.2.3. What the future process will look like

13.3.2.4. Best done with sticky notes and flip charts rather than technology.

13.3.3. Techniques

13.3.3.1. Flow charts - use flow chart symbols

13.3.3.2. Four Field Mapping -

13.3.3.2.1. Process phrases

13.3.3.2.2. Process participants stakeholders - swim lanes

13.3.3.2.3. process timeline and resource time data - delay in each process

13.3.3.2.4. process criteria standards - that must be met in each phase

13.3.3.3. Block diagrams

13.3.3.3.1. Simple and easy to read - blocks show steps and arrows show relationships

13.3.3.3.2. Value stream mapping adds process lead time and maps the transfer of value ultimately to the customer

13.3.4. Interpretations of process maps

13.3.4.1. the purpose is to add value to customers and the business

13.3.4.1.1. Reduce long periods of elapsed time

13.3.4.1.2. Identify bottle necks

13.3.4.1.3. Clarify roles and responsibilities

13.3.4.1.4. single points of failure and risk

13.3.4.1.5. Rework - not doing the job properly the first time

13.3.4.2. Can't rely on the map alone - need to talk to the stakeholders