world war 1

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world war 1 by Mind Map: world war 1

1. German backing for austria was crucially important

2. divided europe into states which wanted to revise the settlement

3. Italy felt cheated as she did not received territory promised to her in 1915

4. why USA entered war?

4.1. German U boat Compaign

4.2. German encouragement to Mexico to attack USA

5. Impact of of USA entry

5.1. contribution to allied victory

5.2. supplied Britain and France food, merchant ships and credit

5.3. psychological boost which American potential in resources of men and materials gave to allies and corresponding blow it gave to German morale

6. causes

6.1. the alliance systems

6.2. colonial rivalry in africa and far east

6.3. the naval race between Britain and germany

6.4. Economic rivalry

6.5. Russia made war more likely by supporting Serbia

6.6. Mobilisation plans of great powers

6.7. a tragedy of miscalculations

7. why war lasted so long?

7.1. two sides were fairly evenly balanced

7.2. other countries not part of original alliance system also joined the wa

7.2.1. in hope of gaining new territories

7.2.2. turkey bulgaria joined the central powers

7.2.3. USA, Japan joined the allied powers

7.3. to make it more complex troops form british empire also played part in the fighting

7.4. individual strategic causes of nations

7.4.1. Germany aimed to take territory poland in east and beligum in west to make it buffer zones against russia and france

7.4.2. french were obsessed with taking back Alsace-Lorraine

7.4.3. Austria Hungry was desperate to protect their empire against ambitions odd Serbia

7.4.4. Britain didn't want belgium to be controlled by Germany

7.5. propaganda helped to motivate and encourage general public as well as military through media, films etc.

7.6. defeat of Russia encouraged the german generals to continue struggle

8. why did central power lose the war?

8.1. Schlieffen Plan failed= Germany has to face war on two fronts

8.2. Allies sea power was decisive = enforced deadly blocked = desperate food shortage among civilian population and  crippled exports

8.3. german submarine campaign failed in the face of convoys protected by British, American and Japanese destroyers

8.3.1. also brought USA into war

8.4. Entry of USA

8.5. allied political leaders more competent then of Central powers

8.6. continuous strain of heavy losses on germans

8.6.1. also epidemic of deadly spanish flue

8.7. Germany was badly let down by her allies and was constantly having to help out the Austrians and Bulgarians

9. effects of war

9.1. women had to take places of men in factories and other positions as most men were away in armed forces

9.2. appalling death toll among armed forces

9.2.1. 2 million germans

9.2.2. 1.7  million russians

9.2.3. 1.5 million French

9.3. Germany= hardship and defeat caused revolution=Wiemar republic came = scio-eco-pol problem== Hitler became chancellor

9.4. Habsburg empire collapsed completely

9.5. Pressure of war caused two revolutions in Russia

9.5.1. Feb revolution overthrew Tsar

9.5.2. October revolution brought Lenin and Bolsheviks to power

9.6. Italy= war caused drain of resources ==heavily debt==Mussolini took advantage of govt situation and took over control==first fascist dictatorship

9.7. Japan, China and USA took advantage of war in Europe and expanded their their trade==japan and china began their own programme of industrialization

9.8. US President Woodrow Wilson= League of Nations==collective security

10. problems of making a peace settlement

10.1. war aims

10.1.1. Woodrow Wilson declared war aims in his 14 points

10.1.2. when war started none of the participants had definite idea about what they wanted to achieve except Austria -Hungry

10.2. differing allied views about how to treat the defeated powers

10.2.1. france wanted harsh peace to destroy germany

10.2.2. Britain was in favor of less severe settlement

10.2.3. USA was in favour of lenient peace= wanted just peace

11. Treaty of Versailles

11.1. terms

11.1.1. Germany had to loose territory in Europe Alsace lorraine to france North schleswig to Denmark West prussia and posen to Poland Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia given to germany by Russia were taken back from germany. Self determination implemented and these three territories were made independent

11.1.2. Germany's african territories were taken away and became mandate under league of nations

11.1.3. German armaments were strictly limited to 1 lac troops and no conscription, no tanks, no armoured cars etc

11.1.4. war guilt clause

11.1.5. germany was to pay reparations for damage done to allies= 6600 million pounds

11.1.6. A league of nations was formed

11.2. Problems

11.2.1. dictated peace

11.2.2. many provisions not based on 14 points

11.2.3. loss of territory in europe Principle of ""all nationalities should have right to choose which country they want to belong"" was violated for Germans as a million germans were under Polish rule and 3 million under Czechoslovakia unification was forbidden because that would have made germany larger and more powerful even than in 1914

11.2.4. loss of germany's african colonies

11.2.5. disarmament clauses were deeply resented

11.2.6. war guilt clause

11.2.7. reparations too much impossible to pay for germans actually done by allies to pay back war debts to USA

12. peace treaties with austria and hungry

12.1. treaty of st germain to deal with Austria

12.1.1. Austria lost many territories

12.2. treaty of Trianon dealing with hungry

12.3. both treaties contained league of nations convent

12.4. this treaty followed spirit of self determination

12.4.1. people were placed under the government of their own nationality a

12.4.2. although not as Wilson would have liked ; in Hungry and Poland

12.5. Problems

12.5.1. Austria Its population was reduced from 22 mn to 6.5 mn its industrial wealth lost to czechokoslovakia and poland austria went in economic crisis had to take load from League of nations

12.5.2. Hungry population reduced from 21 mn to 7.5 mn richest corn land lost to romania new industrial introduced tariffs which=hampered flow of trade= hampered economic recovery of austria

13. treaty of Sevres dealing with Turkey

13.1. Terms

13.1.1. lost many territory regions to Italy

13.1.2. strait were to be permanently open

13.2. Problems

13.2.1. loss of so much territory to greece specially Smyrna outraged Turkish national feeling Turks rejected treaty and chased Greece out of Smyrna

13.2.2. Treaty was revised through New treaty of Lausanne Turkey was first state to challenge paris settlement successfully turkey gained eastern thrace and Constantinople

14. Treaty of Neuilly , dealing with Bulgaria

14.1. Terms

14.1.1. lost territory to greece, romania and yugoslavia

15. verdict of peace settlement

15.1. treaty was not a conspicuous success

15.2. USA failed to ratify settlement and never joined league of nations

15.3. Russia was ignored as powers did't want to negotiate with its Bolsheviks government

15.4. Left the germans with a sense of resentment and grievance but did not leave them too weak to retaliate an seek revenge!!

16. events leading to outbreak of war

16.1. Moroccan crisis 1905-06

16.2. British Government with Russia

16.2.1. Antagonized Germany with its belief of encirclement

16.3. Bosnia crisis 1908

16.3.1. serbia remained bitterly hostile to austria

16.3.2. russian were determined to avoid any further humiliation and embarked upon massive military buildup and modernisation of army

16.4. the agadir crisis 1911

16.5. the first Balkan war 1912

16.6. second balkan war 1913

16.7. Assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand