Introducing Knowledge Management

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Introducing Knowledge Management by Mind Map: Introducing Knowledge Management

1. 80% - Organizational processes and human factors 20% - Technology

2. “Knowledge has become the key resource, …we need systematic work on the quality of knowledge and the productivity of knowledge

3. Learning by example: more efficient than learning by experience

4. Procedural (repetitive, stepwise) versus Episodical (grouped by episodes or cases)

4.1. Data Processing versus Knowledge-based Systems

5. KM practices must first identify ways to encourage and stimulate the ability of employees to develop new knowledge

6. KM focuses on organizing and making available important knowledge, wherever and whenever it is needed.

7. Knowledge Discovery Systems

8. Leading-edge information technologies (e.g., Web-based conferencing) to support KM mechanisms.

9. Related to the concept of intellectual capital (both human and structural).

10. Knowledge management systems (KMS): the synergy between social/structural mechanisms and latest technologies

11. Knowledge is first created in the people’s minds.

12. KM is important for organizations that continually face downsizing or a high turnover percentage due to the nature of the industry

13. Knowledge as Key Resource

14. What is Knowledge Management (KM)?

14.1. Knowledge management (KM) may be defined simply as doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources.

15. driving forces

15.1. Diminishing Individual Experience

15.2. Increasing Domain Complexity

15.3. Accelerating Market Volatility

15.4. Intensified Speed of Responsiveness

16. Role of KM in today’s organization

17. Knowledge Management System (KMS)?

17.1. Social/Structural mechanisms (e.g., mentoring and retreats, etc.) for promoting knowledge sharing.

18. Classification of Knowledge Management Systems

18.1. Knowledge Capture Systems

18.2. Knowledge Application Systems

18.3. Knowledge Sharing Systems

19. Effective Knowledge Management

19.1. KM methodologies and technologies must enable effective ways to elicit, represent, organize, re-use, and renew this knowledge

19.2. KM should not distance itself from the knowledge owners, but instead celebrate and recognize their position as experts in the organization

20. Understanding Knowledge

20.1. Basic Knowledge-related Definitions

20.1.1. Common Sense The knowledge and experience which most people already have, or which the person using the term believes that they do or should have Some related concepts include intuitions, pre-theoretic belief, ordinary language, foundational beliefs, axioms, wisdom, folk wisdom, folklore, and public opinion. "the basic level of practical knowledge and judgment that we all need to help us live in a reasonable and safe way“. Common-sense ideas tend to relate to events within human experience and appear commensurate with human scale.

20.1.2. Fact A fact (derived from the Latin factum) is something that has really occurred or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability, which is whether it can be proven to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Scientific facts are verified by repeatable experiments.:Sunrise and sunset.

20.1.3. Heuristic Heuristic ("find" or "discover") refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery. Where the exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Examples of this method include using a rule of thumb, an educated guess, an intuitive judgment, or common sense. The most fundamental heuristic is trial and error, which can be used in everything from matching nuts and bolts to finding the values of variables in algebra problems. If you are having difficulty understanding a problem, try drawing a picture. If you can't find a solution, try assuming that you have a solution and seeing what you can derive from that ("working backward"). Heuristic Virus.

20.1.4. Knowledge Understanding gained through experience; familiarity with the way to perform a task; an accumulation of facts, procedural rules, or heuristics

20.1.5. Intelligence The capacity to acquire and apply knowledge

20.2. For example, someone with common sense would know not to touch a red stove eye.

20.3. Data, Information and Knowledge

20.3.1. Data: Unorganized and unprocessed facts; static; a set of discrete facts about events Information: Aggregation of data that makes decision making easier

20.4. Types of Knowledge

20.4.1. Shallow (readily recalled) and deep (acquired through years of experience)

20.4.2. Explicit (already codified) and tacit (embedded in the mind) Explicit (knowing-that) knowledge: knowledge codified and digitized in books, documents, reports, memos, etc. Tacit (knowing-how) knowledge: knowledge embedded in the human mind through experience and jobs

20.5. What makes someone an expert (knowledge worker)?

20.5.1. An expert in a specialized area masters the requisite knowledge

20.5.2. The unique performance of a knowledgeable expert is clearly noticeable in decision-making quality

20.5.3. Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information is derived from data; it is a person’s range of information

20.5.4. Knowledgeable experts are more selective in the information they acquire

20.5.5. Experts are beneficiaries of the knowledge that comes from experience

20.6. Expert’s Reasoning Methods

20.6.1. Reasoning by analogy: relating one concept to another

20.6.2. Case-based reasoning: reasoning from relevant past cases

20.6.3. Formal reasoning: using deductive or inductive methods Deductive reasoning: exact reasoning. It deals with exact facts and exact conclusions Inductive reasoning: reasoning from a set of facts or individual cases to a general conclusion

21. Human’s Learning Models

21.1. Learning by experience: a function of time and talent

21.2. Learning by discovery: undirected approach in which humans explore a problem area with no advance knowledge of what their objective is