Topic 2 : Data and Data Representation

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Topic 2 : Data and Data Representation by Mind Map: Topic 2 : Data and Data Representation

1. Data Formats

1.1. - Computers -> Process & store data in binary formats

1.2. - Human communication -> languages, sounds & images

2. Information processing cycles

2.1. - Input , process , output

3. Processing

3.1. - Data encoding

3.2. - Data storage & Compression

3.3. - Data Integrity ( Quality of data )

4. Bits , Bytes and Words

4.1. Number Bases

4.1.1. Radix

4.1.1.1. - A single lower case letter appended to the end of each number to identify its type

4.1.2. Base

4.1.2.1. - Different symbols required to represent any given numbers

4.2. Binary System

4.2.1. - Early computers design was decimal

4.2.2. - ENIAC (computer)

4.2.3. - Stores both instruction & data as individual electronics

4.2.4. - Base number is 2

4.2.5. - Instruction and data computer stores sequentially

4.3. Octal System

4.3.1. - Base number is 8

4.3.2. - 8 digit numbers available (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

4.4. Decimal System

4.4.1. - Base number is 10

4.4.2. - System based on decimal digits to represents numbers

4.4.3. - Each digit multiple by 10

4.5. Hexadecimal System

4.5.1. - Base 16 numbering system

4.5.2. - Not only to represent integers

4.5.3. - Represent sequence of binary digits

5. ASCII Codes , Unicode

5.1. The Alphaneumeric Representation

5.1.1. - Characters , number digits and punctuation known as alphaneumeric data .

5.1.2. - 3 Alphaneumeric codes common use in

5.1.2.1. * Unicode

5.1.2.2. * ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

5.1.2.3. * EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)

5.2. ASCII

5.2.1. - Standard 7-bit code

5.2.2. - To provide a standard to code various symbols (visible / invisible symbols)

5.2.3. - Each binary value between 0 & 127 represents specific characters

5.2.4. - Assigning standard numeric values to letters , numbers , punctuation marks and control codes

5.3. Unicode

5.3.1. - Worldwide character-encoding standard

5.3.2. - Enable single unique character set that capable of supporting all characters from all scripts , symbols , commonly utilized for computing processing the globe .

5.3.3. - 16-bit standard

5.3.4. - Superset of ASCII

5.4. Usage of ASCII

5.4.1. - Encode text for creation of passwords

5.4.2. - Encode characters to display on all webpages

5.4.3. - Encode characters used in email settings

5.4.4. - Modify characters used in documents

5.5. EBCDIC

5.5.1. - Characters code from different from ASCII

5.5.2. - Developed by IBM