Geography: Physical Patterns

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Geography: Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Geography: Physical Patterns

1. Natural Disasters

1.1. Tsunamis

1.1.1. Locations

1.1.1.1. They usually occur in the Pacific ocean because of "The ring of Fire" However, they can happen anywhere that has a big body of water.

1.1.1.2. The ring of Fire is an area that surrounds the Pacific Ocean. The ring of fire is an area that has a lot of earthquake and volcanic activity.

1.1.2. What causes a Tsunami

1.1.2.1. Tsunamis occurs when a earthquake shakes the ocean floor causing tremors.

1.1.2.2. Tsunamis are also cause by strong disturbances above and below the surface of water

1.2. Earthquakes

1.2.1. Location

1.2.1.1. Earthquakes usually occur around the Pacific Ocean.

1.2.1.2. This area is also known as "the ring of fire"

1.2.1.3. The ring of fire is an area around the pacific ocean that has a lot of Volcanic and earthquake activity.

1.2.2. What causes an earthquake?

1.2.2.1. Earthquakes are caused by movement between plates in the earth. When the plates get ripped apart, bump into eachother, or dragged together. They cause a enormous amount of energy that is call the epicentre which causes a earthquake.

1.2.3. Damage and Recent earthquakes

1.2.3.1. There are small and weak earthquakes that happen really often. But there are also big and strong earthquakes that wreck a whole country.

1.2.3.2. Earthquakes can also cause Tsunamis if there are large bodies of water close to them. Tsunamis are linked to earthquakes because when an earthquake shakes the ocean floor this causes small tremors that cause waves.

1.2.3.3. Two recent earthquake that happened were the Japanese earthquake in 2011 and the Haiti Earthquake that happened in 2010.

1.2.4. Scale

1.2.4.1. Earthquakes are measured by a scale also known ad the Richter scale.

1.2.4.2. The Japanese and Haiti earthquakes mentioned above were pretty high up on that scale. The Japanese Earthquake was 9.0 and the Haiti earthquake was 7.0.

1.3. Tornadoes

1.3.1. What causes a tornado?

1.3.1.1. When hot or humid air rises and cold air comes down to replace it. Winds start to spiral or wrap around the cold air creating a vortex.

1.3.1.2. Any object in a tornado's way will be lifted upward.

1.3.2. The Doppler radar

1.3.2.1. The Doppler radar measures the speeds, rotation of wind, and wind drafts in a tornado.

1.3.2.2. When it senses a tornado it alerts residents in that area of the coming tornado.

1.3.3. Enhanced Fujita scale

1.3.3.1. A scale that goes from EF0 least strong to EF5 most strong.

1.3.3.2. It measures tornadoes strength from weak to violent.

1.3.3.3. This scale is a new and modified version of the original Fujita Scale.

1.3.4. Tornado Alley

1.3.4.1. Located in the states of Kansas and Oklahoma.

1.3.4.2. A minimum of 12 tornadoes a year.

1.4. Hurricanes

1.4.1. What causes a hurricane?

1.4.1.1. A hurricane is formed from a tropical disturbance.

1.4.1.2. When warm air rises and cold air blows inward creating a spiral.

1.4.2. Saffir-Simpson scale

1.4.2.1. This scale measures wind speed and storm surge.

1.4.2.2. This scale measures from 1 weak to 5 violent.

1.4.3. Famous Hurricanes

1.4.3.1. A famous hurricane is Hurricane Katrina.

1.4.3.2. In 2005, This hurricane was in New Orleans which was ripped apart after the hurricane.

2. Landform Patterns

2.1. Active Volcano

2.1.1. Location

2.1.1.1. Volcanoes are found on the edge of plates. Usually near the pacific ocean in a cirlcle, Around Asia , Europe and South America

2.1.2. The ring of fire

2.1.2.1. Its located all around the Pacific ocean shaped in a ring.

2.1.2.2. Tons of volcanoes and earthquakes are active there.

2.1.3. Composite cone and Shield cone

2.1.3.1. Both are ways volcanoes can be made up

2.1.3.2. A composite cone is a volcano with alternating layers of magma and cinders.

2.1.3.3. A shield cone is a volcano full packed with only magma.

2.1.4. Why do they Explode?

2.1.4.1. Volcanoes explode when it is to full. The magma will explode out then.

2.2. Shield Regions

2.2.1. How to they form?

2.2.1.1. Shield regions are from a long time back. They were from volcanic activity.

2.2.1.2. They are mostly Igneous and Metamorphic rock.

2.2.1.3. They have indents and a uneven surface.because of natural forces

2.2.2. Igneous and Metamorphic rock

2.2.2.1. Igneous rock is made of magma from the earth.

2.2.2.2. Metamorphic rock is rocks that are changed.

2.3. Fold Mountains

2.3.1. How did they form?

2.3.1.1. Fold mountains are formed by layers and layers of sedimentary rock.

2.3.1.2. when plates move together, the layers of rock slowly start to bend or fold. After a long while they form fold mountains

2.3.2. Sedimentary rock

2.3.2.1. Layers and layers of sediment that slowly turn into rocks.

2.4. Plains and Lowlands

2.4.1. How was it formed?

2.4.1.1. Way back in time ancient seas carried pieces of sediment that slowly set to form sedimentary rocks which lays under the plains and lowlands.

2.4.2. What are plains and lowlands?

2.4.2.1. Plains are large spaces of land with a even ground.

2.4.2.2. Lowlands are Large areas of space with a low ground. Very alike to plains.

2.5. Rivers and Valleys

2.5.1. How is a Valley formed?

2.5.1.1. There are both "V" shaped valleys and "U" shaped valleys.

2.5.1.2. The "V" shaped valley is often formed by a river that flows in between the two sides of the valley from erosions.

2.5.1.3. The "U" shaped valley is formed by glacial erosion. it starts out as a "V" shaped valley but soon the glacial erosion causes it to widen making a "U".

2.5.2. How is a River formed?

2.5.2.1. Water slowly flows into the middle of two higher points. rainwater, melting snow,etc. slowly flow into the existing river creating a bigger body of water. As time passes, the ground beneath will flatten out.

2.5.3. Uses

2.5.3.1. Rivers give many uses to people. People use it for getting from place to place, use it as drinking water, or even to bathe.

3. Climate

3.1. Effect of Climate

3.1.1. Latitude

3.1.1.1. Polar Climate

3.1.1.1.1. Severe Winters and Cool Summers

3.1.1.1.2. A few places with Polar Climate are Antarctica, Greenland, and Siberia. Though Antarctica is the only place that has distinct polar climate conditions.

3.1.1.2. Tropical Climate

3.1.1.2.1. Hot temperatures in every single season with a lot of moisture.

3.1.1.2.2. A few countries with Tropical Climate are Singapore, Africa, Thailand, and Vietnam.

3.1.1.3. Temperate Climate

3.1.1.3.1. Moderate Temperature all year round.

3.1.1.3.2. A few countries with temperate Climate are Australia, Turkey, Europe.

3.1.2. Moving Air

3.1.2.1. Desert Climate

3.1.2.1.1. Dry Weather all year round.

3.1.2.1.2. A few countries with Desert Climate are Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Oman.

3.1.3. Water Bodies

3.1.3.1. Maritime Climate

3.1.3.1.1. Warm Summers and Cool winters.

3.1.3.1.2. A country with Maritime Climate is Melbourne, Australia.

3.1.3.2. Continental Climate

3.1.3.2.1. Hot summers and Cold Winters

3.1.3.2.2. A few countries with Continental Climate are Korea , Russia, and Southern Canada.

3.1.4. Mountains

3.1.4.1. Mountain Climate

3.1.4.1.1. Cool and Heavy Precipitation.

3.1.4.1.2. A place with Mountain Climate is the Andes

3.1.5. Ocean Currents

3.1.5.1. Both War and cold.

3.1.5.2. The currents affect coastal temperatures.

4. Agriculture

4.1. Intensive Farming

4.1.1. What is Intensive Farming?

4.1.2. Intensive Farming is when a lot of physical labour is needed to get food from a small spot of land.

4.2. Extensive Farming

4.2.1. What is Extensive Farming?

4.2.2. Extensive Farming is when very little work is used to get food. Achieved by using big machines to work in big spots of land.

4.3. Subsistence agriculture

4.3.1. What is Subsistence Agriculture?

4.3.1.1. Subsistence Agriculture are farms that can only provide for their family.

4.3.2. Nomadic Herders

4.3.2.1. Location

4.3.2.1.1. Are usually located in Africa, Central Asia, and Middle East.

4.3.2.2. How they Farm

4.3.2.2.1. Nomadic Herders usually use goats, camels, or cattle.

4.3.2.2.2. Nomadic Herders survive by finding good habitat for there animals which is providing food and water

4.3.2.2.3. They use the animals for there milk, meat, hides, and hair.

4.3.2.2.4. They sell these items for money and food to raise there families.

4.3.3. Shifting Cultivators

4.3.3.1. Location

4.3.3.1.1. Shifting Cultivators are located in South America, South Asia, and Africa.

4.3.3.2. Farm

4.3.3.2.1. Shifting Cultivators usually use machetes and fire to get small spots of land from the jungle.

4.3.3.2.2. They use these small spots of land to farm in for a few years and move on.

4.3.3.2.3. They move to different spots because the fertility of the soil ware out.

4.3.3.2.4. After a while the forest will recover growing more trees, and gain back it soil fertility.

4.3.3.3. Crops

4.3.3.3.1. These farmers grow yams or sweet potatoes, cassava, corn, and a variety of other grains.

4.3.4. Small Landholders

4.3.4.1. Location and Land

4.3.4.1.1. Small Landholders are usually located in Mexico, South America, Africa, and South Asia.

4.3.4.1.2. Different from Shifting Cultivators, small landholders have small permanent farms.

4.3.4.2. Life

4.3.4.2.1. Unfortunately, small landholders are usually near poverty.

4.3.4.2.2. The weather plays a big role in whether the small landholders survive or not.

4.3.4.2.3. Everyone in the family has a hand in the work to raise the livestock and grow the crops.

4.3.4.3. Crops and Livestock

4.3.4.3.1. They grow corn, rice, vegetables, and a variety of other grains. Often there are livestock as well.

4.3.4.3.2. Any leftover crops will be sold or traded away in the small local market.

4.4. Commercial Agriculture

4.4.1. What is it?

4.4.1.1. Commercial agriculture is when companies higher employees to be farmers they make tons of crops and sell for profit instead of using the food for themselves.

4.4.1.2. Commercial agriculture also grow special products like organic foods.

4.4.2. Location

4.4.2.1. For commercial agriculture the location and climate are very important.

4.4.2.2. They have to find certain places they can grow the crops in order to serve the different needs or different crops

4.4.3. Raw Materials

4.4.3.1. Commercial agriculture calls for livestock. For instance they use chickens and they grow them by eggs

4.4.3.2. However different agriculture and farmers use other techniques to raise there chickens.

4.4.3.3. Such as getting cows and making them fat then selling them.

4.4.4. Labour and Machines

4.4.4.1. Commercial agriculture use intensive agriculture. Often in growing season they use many machines and people to keep the weeds out of the fields. Tons of workers are needed to get this job done.

4.4.5. Transportation

4.4.5.1. They use roads, railways, and ships to export there goods to other countries and all around Canada. Without transportation it would be very hard to get all the goods around.

4.4.6. Marketing

4.4.6.1. Mainly the amount of customers is what decides the faith of commercial farmers. If a lot of customers by there goods then they will do well. however if customers don't buy anything the farmers will do poorly.

4.5. Specialized Agriculture

4.5.1. What is specialized agriculture?

4.5.1.1. Is when the farm specializes in growing one product.

4.5.1.2. An example, could be Nurseries. Nurseries grow flowers and plants. Flowers and plants are delicate so they must water them to keep them moist etc.

4.5.2. There are many types of Specialized Agriculture from Coffee beans, Orange groves to cotton.