OE morphology

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OE morphology by Mind Map: OE morphology

1. Adjectives

1.1. Adjective kept more distinctive endings than the nouns

2. Passive

2.1. Passive and past perfect were formed by the verbs 'was' or 'become' + p.p

2.2. In OE , the passive could only be formed with verbs which took an object in the occusative case , rather than in dative and gentive

3. Nouns

3.1. Four cases left in OE nouns :

3.1.1. Nominative

3.1.2. Accusative

3.1.3. Gentive

3.1.4. Dative

3.2. The number of declensions decreased so fewer distinctive case ending remained compared to Porto - Germanic

3.3. A few distinctive endings remained , all nouns have the ending

3.3.1. -um for the dative plural

3.3.2. -a for the genitive plural

3.3.3. many masculine nouns have a genitive singular in -es

3.3.4. a nominative & accusative plural in -as

3.4. In many nouns other distinctions are removed as well

3.4.1. the feminine noun giefu 'a gift' has one form of giefe for its accusative , genitive & dative singular

3.4.2. the masculine noun guma 'a man' has the one form guman for its accusative, genitive & dative singular & its nominative & accusative plural

4. Verbal system

4.1. OE inherited the tense present and past from Porto Germanic

4.1.1. Indictive present

4.1.1.1. Make distinction in singular persons ic (I) hilpe - bu (you) hilpst- he/heo/hit hilpb

4.1.1.2. Makes no distinctions in all plural persons , one form for all We/ge (you)/hie (they)helpab

4.1.2. Indictive past

4.1.2.1. Distinctive form for 2nd person singular against 1st and 3rd person singular

4.1.2.2. Makes no distinction in all plural persons, one form for all