"Psychosocial Development of Adolescents."

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"Psychosocial Development of Adolescents." by Mind Map: "Psychosocial Development of Adolescents."

1. Intimacy

1.1. Interpersonal relationship and Intimacy: The challenge of adolescence is the need for intimacy with sexual contact without leading to anxiety. Adolescence is the period of which humans experiment with their relationships. Many can partake in romantic relationships or a singular one, have none at all and separate both intimate and sexual facets of a relationship, or may have sexual relationships and nothing more. These paths and more, are all valid and legitimate paths for adolescence as they encounter new emotions, fears, and new interpersonal needs. The exploration of sex and intimacy continues throughout the adolescence's life and throughout adulthood is an integral part of the child's sexual and interpersonal development. "Sullivan believed that the capacity for intimacy first develops prior to adolescence and in the context of same-sex, not other-sex, relationships. This turns out to be one of the most important observations in Sullivan’s theory, because as you will read, the quality of individuals’ same-sex friendships is predictive of the quality of their later romantic relationships" (page 263). Video Link: Problems of Adolescence in Teenage Life

1.2. Attachment in Infancy: When a child is young, it develops a strong and enduring bond with their caregiver, all be it their mother, father, or any other guardian in their life. Each relationship from infant to career is different and does alter the scope of which the relationship may have in the future. An infant and caregiver may have strong bond and trust which is what is called secure attachment. However, you could have the opposite and have anxious-avoidance or anxious-resistance attachments. Both are characterized by indifference by the infant or ambivalence. Either way, none elicit positive and beneficial behaviors for either party and can cause serious social and emotional issues for the child which can be seen later on in adolescence or adulthood. This does raise questions about how much of an influence a positive attachment relationship does hold and whether or not a future can be entirely changed because of it. "First, some theorists have argued that the initial attachment relationship forms the basis for the model of interpersonal relationships we employ throughout life (Bowlby, 1969). This internal working model determines to a large measure whether people feel trusting or apprehensive in relationships with others and whether they see themselves as worthy of others’ affection" (page 265). Video Link: How Babies Form Attachments | Four Stages | Schaffer & Emerson

1.3. Changes in Nature of Friendships: How one perceives friendships during puberty changes drastically from childhood. When we are children we say that we are friends with others based on common activities and behaviors. This is were child friendships and adolescence friendships take a major shift. Teenage friendships and adult friendships alike, define friendships more in regards to loyalty, common interest, disclosure, similar perspectives, values, ethics, and morals. These friendships are much more tailored to how the individual sees themselves and thus wants that same friendship to be much like how they see themselves. As the need for intimacy grows within the will of an adolescence so does their need for that same intimacy in their relationships. As a child's becomes more sophisticated and judgment more psychological and less attune to what is at face value, teenagers began to want more than children from their friendships and thus become more selective in their friend groups. "Younger adolescents’ conflicts are often over perceived public disrespect (Shulman & Laursen, 2002). Adolescents who report high levels of peer conflict and low levels of peer support are more likely to engage in risky behavior, perhaps as a response to the stress caused by problems with their friends" (page 269). Video Link: Teen Voices: Friendships and Social Media

1.4. Knowing Who Friends Are: As youngsters seek intimacy and friendship with others outside the family circle they learn more and more about the individuals they come across. Secrets and inner most feelings/desires are pieces of private information that is new for a child to give out and confide with someone else about. Since they are more intimate, close relationships with other adolescents fight more based on emotions and elicit anger since feelings have been hurt. They try to restore more than anything the friendship that was but not all friendships survive or if they do they can be downgraded to good friends rather than best friends. Friendships with high loyalty and trust are ones that could, when conflict arises, inflict the most emotional pain and harbor potential behavioral changes in the child. "Over the course of adolescence, adolescents’ reports of friendship quality increase steadily. These improvements in friendship quality lead to gains in social competence, which in turn lead to further improvements in the quality of adolescents’ friendships (Glick & Rose, 2011)" (page 269). Video Link: How to Know Your True Friends - Prof. Jordan Peterson

2. Sexuality

2.1. Adolescents and Sexuality: One of the most distinct links and most commonly known facts about puberty and adolescents is the increased sex drive of children. Pubescent teens can know reproduce sexually and their appetite for doing increases with each year that they go through puberty. Of course, children can do all the things adults such as masturbating, kissing, fondling, or even having sex. But, the main difference between adults and children is the fact that adults can ejaculate or ovulate depending on gender. Thus, the ability to impregnate changes the sexual nature and behavior for adults and adolescents alike. Lastly, adolescents during this time in their lives develop the secondary sexual organs that attract mates and develop the cognitive know how on incorporating sex successfully and appropriately in a relationship. "In addition to the influence of puberty and the growth of sophisticated thinking on sexuality during adolescence, the new social meaning given to sexual and dating behavior at this time in the life cycle makes sexuality an especially important psychosocial concern" (page 292). Video Link: "What Happens When?" Child and Adolescent Sexual Development Video (w/ Spanish Subtitles)

2.2. Social Roles and Adolescent Sexuality: During this time in a child's life, sexuality and the maturity needed to exude it requires time and experience and the psychological portion of such an experience and the definition this aptitude for sex has on dating is massive. During this era of our lives and much into our adult lives, we demonstrate explicit sexual behaviors towards either the opposite or the same sex for one and one purpose only. To demonstrate fertility and the potential for a suitable mating partner. Although both genders differ in what they exactly want and get from sex; men wanting sex for peer acknowledgement and women for the emotional and support involvement of a serious relationship. It is nevertheless, noted that the sexes still end up still seeking mates or multiple mates for reproduction much like animals always do. " One obvious difference between the sex play of children and the sexual activity of adolescents is that children are not introspective or reflective about sexual behavior. In contrast, sex during adolescence is the subject of sometimes painful conjecture (“Will she or won’t she?”), decision making (“Should I or shouldn’t I?”), hypothetical thinking (“What if he wants to do it tonight?”), and self-conscious concern (“Am I goodlooking enough?”)" (page 292). Video Link: Sex & Sexuality: Crash Course Sociology #31

2.3. Stages of sexual behavior: Adolescence do not usually start off with sex of any kind that is oral, vaginal, or anal; instead, young ones usually practice autoerotic behaviors during their sexual journey as young adults. They then proceed, with the consent of a partner, to endeavor into more commonly known sexual experiences that are oral, vaginal, or anal over time. One experience after another does one progress but this is usually done with a partner of which is trustworthy and loving. Many adolescents by the time they reach their late 20's, have done most if not all forms of sexual activity with someone. Few actually are celibate for life and not live to experience intimacy in the slightest of forms. " According to recent, large-scale studies of American adolescents, holding hands comes first, followed (in this order) by kissing, making out (kissing for a long time), feeling breasts through clothes, feeling breasts under clothes, feeling a penis through clothes, feeling a penis under clothes or while naked, feeling a vagina through clothes, feeling a vagina under clothes or while naked, and intercourse or oral sex" (page 293). Video Link: Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Development

2.4. Psychology of Sexually Active Adolescence: Young adults who experience sexual activity early in their transformation years and throughout their pubescence have similar life satisfaction and self-esteem relative to those who do have either as much sex or have not had any at all. So, youth who have had active sex lives early on and perpetually so, does not in any shape or form dictate that later psychological impacts from such experiences are causes for disturbing behaviors later on in life. Nevertheless, it is also noteworthy to mention that active sex is fine but risky sex is worrisome as it can lead to other risky behaviors that the teen might consider plausible or willing to do. "Although sexually active adolescents do not differ psychologically from those who are not, early sexual activity (having intercourse before age 16) is associated with a more general attitudinal and behavioral profile that includes more permissive attitudes toward sex, experimentation with drugs and alcohol, minor delinquency, low levels of religious involvement, lower interest in academic achievement, and a stronger orientation toward independence (Armour & Haynie, 2007; Cavazos-Rehg et al., 2010; Harden & Mendle, 2011a; Lohman & Billings, 2008)" (page 297). Video Link: Teens and sexual activity

3. Autonomy

3.1. Puberty and Development of Autonomy: Children and adolescents experience the want for autonomy, the ability of independence from their parents in favor of peer support for two reasons. First, by want of sexual relationships and intimate friendships outside the family circle. This is explained via human evolution and having the want of sexual exploration and physical maturation and thus become fully a man or woman. This autonomy of which is being sought after by the adolescence, is not just observed in human but in other primates as well, when the child no longer wants or is dependent on the family for necessities or emotional support and can handle such things on their own. Note that, because of physical changes, humans may invoke more or want more autonomy simply because they look older. "Puberty drives the adolescent away from exclusive emotional dependence on the family. In addition, changes in stature and physical appearance at puberty may provoke changes in how much autonomy the young person is granted by parents and teachers. Children may be given more responsibility simply because they look older" (page 237). Video Link: Progressive Learning Development - AUTONOMY

3.2. Cognitive Change and autonomy: How does one change cognitively and in doing so develop more autonomous wants/behaviors because of it? Simply put, a part of being autonomous requires that one make their own decisions. For example, when confronted with a situation such as studying or partying, you will be given conflicting opinions. The professor giving the exam and the student who throws the party may have two different perspectives and what you should do and in their lies the what is essential about cognitive development and autonomy. When trying to understand the different perspectives of each individual influence given to you, it must require a level of abstract thinking that is not available or capable by children. Take other people's worldviews into consideration, having more sophisticated mechanisms for reasoning, to see future consequences, and to see all courses of action one could take, are all levels of thinking and abstraction that require serious cognitive maturity which is not possible in the mind of a child. Autonomy is also aided by cognitive development as being cognitive mature allows for the adolescents to be more logical and structured thinking towards, social, ethical, and moral problems. Without it, a child's autonomy would be dependence. "The cognitive changes of adolescence also provide the logical foundation for changes in thinking about social, moral, and ethical problems. These changes in thinking are important prerequisites to the development of a system of values based on one’s own sense of right and wrong, and not merely on rules and regulations handed down by parents or other authority figures"(page 237). Video Link: Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

3.3. Social Roles and Cognitive Development: Taking on new roles and responsibilities that require autonomy ultimately will make the child more autonomous. For example, if the adolescents now has a job and pays bills or has a car and can now move freely and independently from place to place without parental support. Having these new found responsibilities naturally gives the child more autonomy but the true ramifications of such responsibilities do not usually dawn on the child until they truly experience what is to have a job, car, bills, or any other responsibility that adults would have. Nevertheless, a child must also face autonomy in the decision they make. As, now forthcoming adults, they could make decisions in their sexual practices, their choices to drink, or their choices in use of narcotics. Also, political beliefs and their role in political play is an evolution in the child's social role as they become and more autonomous. "Becoming involved in new roles and taking on new responsibilities, such as having a job or a driver’s license, place the adolescent in situations that require and stimulate the development of independent decision making. A teenager might not really think much about the responsibilities associated with taking a job until she actually ends up in one (D. Wood, Larson, & Brown, 2009)" (page 238). Video Link: Peter Gray, PhD — The Role of Play in the Development of Social and Emotional Competence

3.4. Psychoanalytic Theory and Detachment: Anna Freud explained that when children reach puberty and start maturing, all the physical changes a child does disrupts family balance and inner thoughts and feelings a child may have arise during this time of life. Like attraction towards the parent of the opposite sex or the contradictory feelings or thoughts towards the parent of the same sex. These thoughts and feelings that are inner-most pent up within the adolescence release towards the family as fights, arguments, disobedience, increased family tension, and above all overall discomfort that forces the adolescent to separate themselves and steer their energies towards relationships and friendships with those their age. "theorists call this process of separation detachment, because to them it appears as though the adolescent is attempting to sever the attachments that were formed during infancy and strengthened throughout childhood" (page 239). Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjOowWxOXCg&t=251s

4. Achievement

4.1. Puberty and Achievement: Although not the entire reason why individuals motivation or success in achieving is completely changed for the better or for the worse, it can have somewhat of a influence on a child's academic development since puberty now harbors with it new concerns that a child was presented with before. Concerns such as dating, sex, and the just above ll competition with other of the same sex for sexual partners; students may want to divide more time towards such social endeavors and thus during the beginnings of secondary school lose motivation to achieve superlatively academically compared to before. Not to mention, puberty brings with it the increase of children's willingness to exhibit risky behaviors. So, it is to no surprise that during times when the students feels most compelled by peer pressure that they stop or restrain themselves academically for social favor. " In addition, puberty intensifies differences between males and females, and one impact of this is to make individuals think about what is “appropriate” achievement-related behavior for each of the sexes" (page 322). Video Link: The Power of Motivation: Crash Course Psychology #17

4.2. Cognitive Change and Achievement: Cognitive maturity and achievement go hand in hand when it comes to academic success. Cognitive maturity allows for the teen to understand or at least grasp complex ideas such as algebra, complex literature, or the sciences. The necessary intellectual grit needed to handle more and more complex ideas that become introduced to them as they get older, all the while understanding and foreseeing certain consequences from their educational or occupational choices, is all possible to an adolescents and adults when they have the cognitive maturity warranted for such capabilities. Hypothetical thought and questioning one's own ability by having the awareness to do so does not come easy and is a keystone towards child development. " The ability to think in hypothetical terms, for example, raises new achievement concerns for the individual (“Should I go to college after I graduate, or should I work for a while?”); it also permits the young person to think through such questions in a logical and systematic fashion (“If I decide to go to college, then . . .”)" (page 322). Video Link: The Growth of Knowledge: Crash Course Psychology #18

4.3. Fear of Failure: Students, adolescence, adults, and pretty much everyone an individual can imagine, does not want to fail. Success is sought out, success is demanded and worked for tirelessly, and above all the highest prize among peers and family/friends that one can ask for since it demands respect admiration and even potentially desire form the opposite sex. Alas, with all that is involved with desire towards success also comes the fear of "what if". What if I do not succeed? What if my test was bad? Or my interview was horrible? Needless to say that is what is commonly called the Fear of Failure. The phenomena hinders performance success sometimes and if the individual is truly shaken by it, altogether ending the potential for achievement. Individuals with low fear of failure and high aptitude for achievement tend to look forward to difficult classes and subjects and want to press forward without much account for the repercussions. It should be noted that anxiety is an essential gear in the machine that is the human brain as it increases focus in regards to academic performance but anxiety from fear of failure mixes with achievement much like oil and water. The two of them cannot become one and the same and aid the student's success which ultimately leads to the child's failure. "But the anxiety generated by a strong fear of failure interferes with successful performance. This often happens when the task involves learning something new or solving a complex problem—like many tasks faced by adolescents in school settings" (page 323). Video Link: This is How to Overcome Your Fear of Failure

4.4. Achievement and Goal Orientation: Students take on different attitudes towards success and more importantly their mastery of skill when learning something new for the first time. Essentially falling into different categories: first, is mastery motivation which is intrinsic and that the pleasure of learning a subject for the enjoyment of it. Many students during early life. Secondly, there are students who perform academically for outside approval or rewards such as parental approval and good grades. Suffice enough to say, in regards to which style of mastery performs better academically, mastery motivation out classes the extrinsic style or learning and mastery. Reason being, students who master a subject for intrinsic reasons are not as afraid of failure and are more willing to take on new challenges compared to those who only seek outside approval. Sadly though, during the transition from secondary school, more students opt for extrinsic approval as teachers and educators in that they interact with on a daily basis. "Individuals with a strong mastery orientation perform better in school than those whose motivation is mainly driven by performance goals, because intrinsically motivated individuals are more confident about their ability and more likely to persist in the face of failure (Eccles & Roeser, 2011; Yeager et al., 2014)" (page 324). Video Link: Goal Orientation Theory

5. Identity

5.1. Self Conceptions: This idea is also within the identity chapter but differs from its counterparts in that self conceptions revolves more on the image of the self and character. Where one imagines what would someone look like if they do "x" (x is any action), self conceptions concerns itself more with the thought of what someone believes that they are. As children, people describe their character more simply, without much complex and abstract thought to convolute what they say. Once someone becomes of age, they have much more complex thought and think of themselves in more sophisticated ways. They can organize and compact their personality and character traits more than a child. Children say that they are without much like, "I'm friendly" or "I'm shy" but adolescents can say that, "I'm friendly with people I know" or "I'm shy in my family's eyes, but to my friends I am a party animal". Thus, this ability separates childhood from adolescents and transitions the child into manhood. An excellent quote from the page 211 describes that, "Self-conceptions continue to become more psychological well into the high school years. The increased psychological complexity of self-conceptions may present some difficulties, though, when adolescents become able to recognize—but not yet quite understand or reconcile—inconsistencies and contradictions in their personality". Video Link: The True and the False Self

5.2. Cognitive Identity Development: Essentially this demonstrates an adolescents mental change not just for the intellectual but in their ways of thinking such as forethought for future events. How they will be seen and how people will interpret them. For example, seeing their future selves and what will become of them if they partake in certain events. Secondly, adolescents will also see potential long-term consequences in their actions that they partake into today. An excellent quote from the textbook that explains such phenomena is from page 209 which states that, "Just as the broadening of intellectual capabilities during early adolescence provides new ways of thinking about problems, values, and interpersonal relationships, it also permits adolescents to think about themselves in new ways. It is not until adolescence that people are able to think in systematic ways about hypothetical and future events. This is manifested in two specific ways that have implications for identity development." Video Link: Adolescence-physical, cognitive, social and emotional development (CH-03)

5.3. Personality: Personality is what someone is to someone else. As in, the action or choices via words used, actions displayed, or behaviors the person chooses to do with other people explains describes personality. Most people, who research personality use what is called the five character model which involves, openness, extroversion, conscientiousness, curiousness, and agreeableness. This model was based off adult research but has been successfully applied to adolescents and children aswell. Personality s both an genetic and environmental ability. Note that, environmental influences have a greater impact on behavioral/personality development as someone ages; children may inherit temperamental predispositions which can be observed during early life that solidify during the child's formative years. A great excerpt about personality is on page 213, "Between adolescence and young adulthood, individuals continue to become less extraverted, but as they mature, they become more conscientious, more agreeable, more resilient, and more emotionally stable (Meeus, Van de Schoot, Klimstra, & Branje, 2011; Van den Akker et al., 2014)". Video Link: Adolescence: Crash Course Psychology #20

5.4. Self-Esteem and changes over time: When referring to stability of self-esteem or any other type of self valuations. For example, one's height and the changes in your height do not really change as you get older. Taller children do tend to be taller adults as they mature. But asking whether or not someone's self-esteem remains the same as someone ages is not the same as height. Stability in self-esteem can change during this time in an adolescents life and can fluctuate drastically but research suggests that it tends to become more stable as someone ages and that because of experience the individual and his or her own self-esteem becomes more and more stable. One's own self-esteem over time can change but research suggests that mood of young adolescents fluctuates more compared to older adolescents or young adults. As we get older, self-esteem levels out and improves over time. Adolescents however, tend to experience less positive moods until they reach adulthood. Page 214, "It’s long been believed that the “storm and stress” of adolescence creates problems in self-esteem—how adolescents evaluate themselves. This turns out not to be true. But although there isn’t a dramatic drop in self-esteem at this age, adolescents’ feelings about themselves fluctuate from day to day, particularly during the early adolescent years". Video Link:The Confidence Project: How Girls' Self-Esteem Drops When They Turn 13