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1. Appositive Phrase

1.1. Is a noun or pronoun that renames or identifies another noun or pronoun in some way. An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.

1.2. Essential appositive provides information that is necessary for identifying the noun or pronoun that precedes it.

1.3. Nonessential appositive provides additional information about a noun or pronoun in a sentence whose meaning is already clear.

1.4. Examples

1.4.1. Author William Shakespeare wrote over 30plays during the course of his career. (Essential Appositive)

1.4.2. Frankie, the dog that lives next door, likes to go for walks in the park. (Nonessential Appositive)

2. Participle Phrase

2.1. A participle is a verb form that functions as an adjective by modifying nouns and pronouns. A participle can be either a present participle or a past participle. A participial phrase includes the participle, plus any modifiers and complements.

2.2. Examples

2.2.1. The sobbing child held his injured knee. (Present Participle)

2.2.2. The broken window needed to get repaired quickly. (Past Participle)

3. Prepositional Phrase

3.1. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that includes a preposition and a noun. A prepositional phrase will function as either an adjective or an adverb.

3.2. Common examples of prepositions include about, after, at, before, behind, by, during, for, from, in, of, over, past, to, under, up, and with.

3.3. Examples

3.3.1. The boy with him is his son. (Prepositional Phrase functioning as Adjective Phrase)

3.3.2. When you get to the sing, take a left. (Prepositional Phrase Functioning as Adverb Phrase)

4. Adjective Phrase

4.1. An adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun by providing more information about it. Prepositional phrases, participial phrases, and infinitive phrases can all function as adjective phrases in sentences.

4.2. Examples

4.2.1. I have a scratch on my arm. (Prepositional Phrase)

4.2.2. We rescued the dog with the injured leg. (Prepositional Phrase)