Instructional Design and Technology

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Instructional Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instructional Design and Technology

1. Own overall reflection of instructional design and technology

1.1. Why using instructional design and technology?

1.1.1. Help users overcome a deficiency of skills and knowledge

1.1.2. Systematic process of developing instructional systems

1.1.3. Effective training & learning

1.1.4. Reach out to global market

1.1.4.1. No limitation of location and time

1.1.5. Major approaches/strategies

1.1.5.1. Interactive

1.1.5.2. Collaborative learning

1.1.5.3. Distributive: complex networks of information, resources, and instruction

1.1.5.4. Social construct of knowledge

1.1.5.5. Focus on constructivism

1.1.5.6. Blending of different learning theories & models

1.2. A good instructional project may draw upon various theories and design models according to needs and situations

1.2.1. Ensure quality of design

1.2.2. Quality of delivery

1.2.3. Effectiveness of transfer of learning to intended outcomes

1.3. Change of roles for teachers/trainers & learners/users

1.3.1. Information presenter vs. facilitators

1.3.2. Passive learning vs. knowledge constructors

1.4. Successful instructional design and technology

1.4.1. Forming a good project team

1.4.2. Various needs analysis

1.4.3. Use of various theories, models and strategies under given situations, environment, resources and needs

1.4.4. Instructional designer-stakeholders collaboration

1.4.4.1. Include various ideas, suggestions & perspectives

1.4.5. Monitor progress via using various evaluation strategies

1.4.6. Able to meet the learning objectives & outcomes

1.4.7. Alignment of needs, outcomes, assessments, and methods

1.5. Possible challenges & problems of instructional design and technology

1.5.1. Inconsistency between learning goals and the designs

1.5.2. Cater for diversity of users/learners

1.5.2.1. Different learning styles

1.5.2.2. Different abilities

1.5.2.3. Different cultural backgrounds

1.5.3. Keep up with the rapid pace development of technology that can drive the instructional design

1.5.4. Constraints of the current situations

1.5.4.1. Resources & technology

1.5.4.2. Budget

1.5.4.3. Expertise

1.5.4.4. Working structure

1.5.4.4.1. Interpersonal relationship

1.5.4.4.2. Team work

1.5.4.4.3. Sharing of goals and objectives

1.5.4.5. Timeline

1.5.5. Mashup of technologies

1.5.5.1. decrease creativities

1.6. Increasing trends

1.6.1. Systematic development of design

1.6.2. ICT reform embedding in whole school reform is esstential

1.6.3. Use of constructivist design and technology

1.6.3.1. User generate content

1.6.3.2. Collaboration among learners

1.6.4. Mobility & ubiquity of design & technology

1.6.4.1. Any time

1.6.4.2. Anywhere

1.6.5. Key approaches

1.6.5.1. Learner- and user-centered

1.6.5.2. Knowledge management

1.6.5.3. Self-directed & lifelong learning

1.6.5.4. Distributed learning

1.6.5.4.1. Beyond the use of a single device

1.6.5.4.2. Integrate different learning objects and technology to enable learning

1.6.5.5. Mobile learning

1.6.5.6. Online learning

1.6.5.7. Informal learning

1.6.5.8. Performance support

1.6.5.9. Empower individuals

1.6.6. Instructional design usage

1.6.6.1. Use of Web 2.0

1.6.6.1.1. Social networking as creation of knowledge

1.6.6.2. Use of educational games

1.6.6.3. Use of social media online

1.6.6.4. Use of multimedia resources

2. Instructional Designs & Models

2.1. Own reflection on instructional designs and models

2.1.1. Instructional design models to design and manage a learning product development

2.1.2. The trends

2.1.2.1. Use of Interactive, constructive and collaborative learning environments and tools

2.1.2.2. Hands on experience

2.1.2.3. Authentic task within real-word practice

2.1.2.4. Learner/user-centered

2.2. Dimensions of design models (Edmonds et al., 1994)

2.2.1. Type of orientation

2.2.1.1. The learning environment

2.2.2. Type of knowledge

2.2.3. Required expertise

2.2.4. Theoretical origins

2.2.5. Instructional context

2.2.6. Levels

2.3. 3D model of design documentation (Boot, 2005)

2.3.1. Building blocks for the production process

2.3.1.1. Design documents as input

2.3.1.2. Programming structures as throughput

2.3.1.3. Learning materials as output

2.3.2. 3 major dimensions

2.3.2.1. Stratification

2.3.2.2. Degree of elaboration

2.3.2.3. Formality

2.4. Shift of instructional design

2.4.1. Behaviourism

2.4.2. Cognitivism

2.4.3. Constructivism

2.5. 4C/IC model

2.5.1. Focus on integration and coordination of all skills

2.5.2. Distinction of supportive information and JIT information

2.5.3. Recommends mixture of part-task or whole-task practice

2.5.4. Schema construction for nonrecurrent aspects

2.5.5. Rule automation for recurrent aspects of skills

2.5.6. Aims at transfer of learning

2.5.6.1. Use skills in real-life

2.5.7. 4 interrelated components

2.5.7.1. Learning Tasks

2.5.7.1.1. Concrete

2.5.7.1.2. Authentic

2.5.7.1.3. Whole task experiences

2.5.7.1.4. Aim at induction

2.5.7.1.5. Organized in wimple to complex task classes

2.5.7.1.6. Learner support

2.5.7.1.7. Learning tasks

2.5.7.2. Supportive Information

2.5.7.2.1. Information bridge prior knowledge and learning tasks

2.5.7.2.2. Aim at elaboration

2.5.7.2.3. Mental models

2.5.7.2.4. Cognitive strategies

2.5.7.2.5. Cognitive feedback

2.5.7.3. Just-in-time (JIT) Information

2.5.7.3.1. Information prerequisite to learning and performance

2.5.7.3.2. Aim at compilation

2.5.7.3.3. Preset when needed

2.5.7.3.4. Fades away when learners acquire expertise

2.5.7.3.5. Information display organization in small units

2.5.7.4. Part-Task Practice

2.5.7.4.1. Accurate performance of a recurrent skill

2.5.7.4.2. Aim at rule automation

2.5.7.4.3. Intermix with learning task

2.5.7.4.4. Snowballing

2.5.7.4.5. REP-sequences

2.6. Models base on Objectivism

2.6.1. Objective-Rational Instructional Design model (Willis, 1995)

2.6.1.1. The process is sequential and linear

2.6.1.2. Planning is top down and systematic

2.6.1.3. Objectives guide development

2.6.1.4. Sequencing and subskills

2.6.1.5. Preselected knowledge

2.6.1.6. Summative evaluation

2.6.1.7. Objective data

2.6.2. Media-independent instructional design

2.6.2.1. Base on cognitive load theory (Sweller)

2.6.2.1.1. Split attention and increase cognitive load reduce transfer learning

2.6.2.2. Deeper learning in media environemnts

2.6.2.3. Depends on cognitive abilities and display elements

2.6.2.4. Display of design is important

2.6.2.4.1. Four physical attributes (Sanders & McCormick, 1993)

2.6.2.5. Address both visual and verbal channels simultaneously

2.6.2.6. Problem-solving transfer

2.6.2.7. The methods

2.6.2.7.1. Multimedia design principle

2.6.2.7.2. Coherence design principle

2.6.2.7.3. Spatial contiguity principle

2.6.2.7.4. Temporal continuity principle

2.6.2.7.5. Design principle

2.6.2.7.6. Modality design principle

2.6.2.7.7. Redundancy design principle

2.7. Models base on constructivism (C-DI)

2.7.1. General features & principles

2.7.1.1. Knowledge is constructed through interaction with the environment and negotation

2.7.1.2. Collaborative and cooperative learning

2.7.1.2.1. Focus on group interactiion

2.7.1.2.2. Constructive activity

2.7.1.2.3. Collaborative learning tools

2.7.1.3. Critical thinking and problem solving

2.7.1.4. Conduct and manage own personalised learning activities

2.7.1.5. Individual exploration and generate connections of information

2.7.1.6. Prior knowledge affects the interpretation

2.7.1.7. Self development

2.7.1.7.1. responsibility

2.7.1.7.2. Emotional intelligence

2.7.1.7.3. self- concept building

2.7.1.8. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement

2.7.1.8.1. Stimulus for learning

2.7.1.8.2. Determines organization and nature of what is learned

2.7.1.9. Lebow's (1993) 8 principles

2.7.1.9.1. Learning activities to a larger task complex

2.7.1.9.2. Ownership of problem/task

2.7.1.9.3. Authentic task

2.7.1.9.4. Work in complex environment

2.7.1.9.5. Ownership of the learning or problem solving process

2.7.1.9.6. Learning environment that support and challenge the learner's thinking

2.7.1.9.7. Test ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts

2.7.1.9.8. Reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

2.7.2. Why use constructivist design?

2.7.2.1. Creative and innovative

2.7.2.2. Can measure student learning and assessing individual progress

2.7.2.3. Unique and exciting learning environments

2.7.2.4. Engage in authentic and meaningful tasks

2.7.2.5. Engaged in negotiating meaning and in socially constructing reality

2.7.3. Major designs & models

2.7.3.1. Constructivist-Interpretivist Instructional Design Model

2.7.3.1.1. Design process is recursive, non-linear, and sometimes chaotic

2.7.3.1.2. Planning is organic, developmental, reflective, and collaborative

2.7.3.1.3. Objectives emerge from design and development work

2.7.3.1.4. General ID experts do not exist

2.7.3.1.5. Learning in meaningful contexts

2.7.3.1.6. Subjective data

2.7.3.2. Constructivist learning environment (Jonassen, 1998)

2.7.3.2.1. The elements

2.7.3.2.2. The problems for solving

2.7.3.2.3. Assist solving problems

2.7.3.2.4. Problem-based learning (Barrows,1985, 1986, 1992)

2.7.3.3. Learner-centered learning environment

2.7.3.3.1. Intentional process of constructing meaning

2.7.3.3.2. Developing higher-order skills

2.7.3.3.3. Manage own learning

2.7.3.3.4. Use of media and technology

2.7.3.3.5. Implementation

2.7.3.4. Interactive multimedia learning environments

2.7.3.4.1. Phase 1

2.7.3.4.2. Phase 2

2.7.3.4.3. Phase 3

2.7.3.5. Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS)

2.7.3.5.1. Base on Constructivism

2.7.3.5.2. Construct learning environment

2.7.3.5.3. Design for lessons

2.7.4. Criticism of constructivist design

2.7.4.1. Costly

2.7.4.2. Require technology to implement

2.7.4.3. Hard to evaluate

2.8. Classroom-oriented models

2.8.1. Gerlack and Ely (1980)

2.8.2. Heinich, Moldenda, Russell and Smaldina (1999)

2.8.3. Newby, Stepich, Leman and Russell (2000)

2.8.4. Morrison, Ross and Kemp (2004)

2.8.4.1. A continuous cycle where revision is an ongoing process with all the elements

2.8.4.2. Focus on 4 factors

2.8.4.2.1. Learners

2.8.4.2.2. Objectives

2.8.4.2.3. Methods

2.8.4.2.4. Evaluation

2.8.4.3. 9 key elements

2.8.4.3.1. Identify instructional problems, and specify goals

2.8.4.3.2. Examine learner characteristics

2.8.4.3.3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components

2.8.4.3.4. State instructional objectives

2.8.4.3.5. Sequence content within each instructional unit

2.8.4.3.6. Design instructional strategies

2.8.4.3.7. Develop the instructional message and delivery

2.8.4.3.8. Develop evaluation instruments

2.8.4.3.9. Select resources

2.9. Product-oriented models

2.9.1. 4 key assumptions

2.9.1.1. The instructional product is needed

2.9.1.2. Something needs to be produced

2.9.1.3. Emphasis on tryout and revision

2.9.1.4. The product must be usable by learners

2.9.2. Bergman and Moore (1990)

2.9.3. de Hoog, de Jong and de Vries (1994)

2.9.4. Bates (1995)

2.9.5. Nieveen (1997)

2.9.6. Seels and Glasgow (1998)

2.10. Systems-oriented models

2.10.1. Branson (1975)

2.10.2. Bentry (1994)

2.10.3. Dorsey, Goodrum and Schwen (1997)

2.10.4. Diamond (1998)

2.10.4.1. Follows specific sequence

2.10.4.2. Relies on the use of data

2.10.4.3. Encourages team approach

2.10.4.4. Emphasize ownership and involvement among various groups

2.10.4.5. The design process

2.10.4.5.1. Assessemnt

2.10.4.5.2. Design

2.10.4.5.3. Implementation

2.10.4.5.4. Assessment

2.10.4.5.5. Revision

2.10.5. Smith and Ragan (1999)

2.10.6. System approach model (Dick & Carey, 1978), Systematic design model (2001)

2.10.6.1. Key components that interact together

2.10.6.1.1. Instructor

2.10.6.1.2. Learners

2.10.6.1.3. Materials

2.10.6.1.4. Instructional activities

2.10.6.1.5. Delivery system

2.10.6.1.6. Learning

2.10.6.1.7. Performance environments

2.10.6.2. The model

2.10.6.2.1. Identify instructional goal(s)

2.10.6.2.2. Conduct instructional analysis

2.10.6.2.3. Analyze learners and contexts

2.10.6.2.4. Write performance objectives

2.10.6.2.5. Develop assessment instruments

2.10.6.2.6. Develop instructional strategy

2.10.6.2.7. Develop and select instructional materials

2.10.6.2.8. Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction

2.10.6.2.9. Revise instruction

2.10.6.2.10. Design and conduct summative evaluation

2.11. Models for distance education

2.11.1. Objectives-Resources-Activities (OAR) (Joeckel, Gardner and Jeon)

2.11.1.1. Multilevel of factors affecting learning

2.11.1.1.1. Social elements

2.11.1.1.2. Physical elements

2.11.1.2. Deliver through LMS

2.11.1.3. Subject Matter Expert/Facilitator

2.11.1.4. Focus on the learning system context

2.11.1.5. Simple graphic-based aid

2.11.1.6. Avoid the use of jargon

2.11.1.7. Basic order of operations in the development process

2.11.2. Rowntree (1979)

2.11.2.1. Introduction

2.11.2.2. Overview of entire section

2.11.2.3. What you have to do tasks

2.11.2.4. Objectives of section

2.11.2.5. Student profile

2.11.2.6. Aims

2.11.2.7. Constraints

2.11.2.8. Select content

2.11.2.9. Decide sequence

2.11.2.10. Write up

2.11.2.11. Assessment

2.11.2.12. Evaluation

2.11.3. Koul (1995)

2.11.3.1. Educational objectives

2.11.3.2. Defining objectives

2.11.3.3. Resources & constraints

2.11.3.3.1. Media

2.11.3.3.2. Language

2.11.3.3.3. Finance

2.11.3.3.4. Manpower

2.11.3.3.5. Time

2.11.3.4. Selection criteria

2.11.3.5. Alternate methods of meeting objectives

2.11.3.6. Alternate subject matter

2.11.3.7. Choice of media

2.11.3.8. Development, feedback and evaluation

2.12. Learning by doing model & methods

2.12.1. Learning Cycle

2.12.1.1. Concrete Experience

2.12.1.2. Reflective Observation

2.12.1.3. Abstract Conceptualisation

2.12.1.4. Active Experimentation

2.12.2. Dufour’s ‘Learning by Doing"

2.12.2.1. Do

2.12.2.1.1. Experience the activity

2.12.2.2. Reflect

2.12.2.2.1. Share

2.12.2.2.2. Process

2.12.2.3. Apply

2.12.2.3.1. Generalize

2.12.2.3.2. Apply what was learnt

2.12.3. Case-based reasoning method

2.12.3.1. Solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems

2.12.3.2. 4-steps process

2.12.3.2.1. Retrieve

2.12.3.2.2. Reuse

2.12.3.2.3. Revise

2.12.3.2.4. Retain

2.12.3.3. Major criticism

2.12.3.3.1. No guarantee that the generalization is correct

2.12.4. Resource-based learning

2.12.4.1. Active processing of information

2.12.4.2. Use authentic resources

2.12.4.3. Main elements

2.12.4.3.1. Resources and tools

2.12.4.3.2. Activity/Task

2.12.4.3.3. Support

2.12.4.3.4. Evaluation

2.12.4.4. Key advantages

2.12.4.4.1. Encourage motivation

2.12.4.4.2. Deepen understanding of subject matter

2.12.4.4.3. Self-directed learning

2.12.4.4.4. Increase ICT competence and confidence

2.12.4.4.5. Skills acquired will be transferable to other areas

2.12.4.4.6. Improve learners' attitudes

2.12.4.5. Some difficulties

2.12.4.5.1. Requires a resource-rich learning environment

2.12.4.5.2. Some students will learn little from this method

2.12.4.5.3. Not all teachers are good at collecting or creating the resources

2.12.4.5.4. Teachers may not monitor activities effectively

2.12.5. Professional learning community (PLC)

2.12.5.1. Continuous job-embedded learning for staff/educators

2.12.5.2. Focus on learning rather than teaching

2.12.5.3. Collaborative Culture

2.12.5.3.1. Learning for all

2.12.5.4. Collective inquiry

2.12.5.4.1. For best practices

2.12.5.5. Learning by doing

2.12.5.5.1. Deeper and more profound knowledge

2.12.5.5.2. Greater commitment

3. Designing Instructional/Learning Strategies and processes

3.1. Own reflection on instructional strategies

3.1.1. May use different strategies according to the given conditions, type of products, budget, resources and target audience

3.1.2. Roles of instructional designers

3.1.2.1. Gather background and supplemental information

3.1.2.2. Develop specifications and blueprints

3.1.2.3. Establish and maintain schedules and deliverable deadlines

3.1.2.4. Build the design

3.1.2.5. Manage the training and documentation process

3.1.2.6. Communicate concerns or issues to management

3.1.2.7. Get feedback and make updates

3.1.3. Key elements for good instructional design

3.1.3.1. Instructional designer-learners-stakeholders collaboration

3.1.3.2. Instructional design expertise & experience

3.1.3.3. Key factors to consider

3.1.3.3.1. Pedagogy and design models

3.1.3.3.2. Mode of learning

3.1.3.3.3. Accessibility

3.1.3.3.4. Resources

3.1.3.3.5. Target audience

3.1.3.3.6. Diversity of users/learners

3.1.3.3.7. Copyright issues

3.1.3.3.8. Ethical issues

3.1.3.3.9. Plagiarism issues

3.1.4. The trends

3.1.4.1. Increase of technology usage

3.1.4.2. Current strategies seem to use various learning theories and models

3.2. ADDIE model

3.2.1. The 5 phases of instructional design

3.2.1.1. Analysis phase

3.2.1.1.1. Needs analysis

3.2.1.1.2. Audience analysis

3.2.1.1.3. Environment analysis

3.2.1.1.4. Content analysis

3.2.1.1.5. System analysis

3.2.1.1.6. Feasibility analysis

3.2.1.1.7. Risk analysis

3.2.1.1.8. Developing proposal

3.2.1.1.9. 4 basic phases of needs assessments (Klein, 1971)

3.2.1.2. Design phase

3.2.1.2.1. Define goal(s)

3.2.1.2.2. Construct instructional analysis

3.2.1.2.3. Analyze learners and context

3.2.1.2.4. Write performance and learning objectives & outcomes

3.2.1.2.5. Develop assessment strategy

3.2.1.2.6. Arrange instructional events

3.2.1.2.7. Select instructional methods

3.2.1.2.8. Develop flowcharts

3.2.1.2.9. Develop storyboards

3.2.1.2.10. Evaluate storyboards

3.2.1.2.11. Develop design specifications

3.2.1.2.12. Develop prototype

3.2.1.2.13. Evaluate prototype

3.2.1.2.14. Review & evaluate project documentation

3.2.1.3. Development phase

3.2.1.4. Implementation phase

3.2.1.5. Evaluation phase

3.2.2. Shortcomings of ADDIE

3.2.2.1. Not leading to the best instructional solutions

3.2.2.2. Not really the way instructional designers do their work

3.2.3. Models based on ADDIE

3.2.3.1. Dick and Carey Model of ISD

3.2.3.1.1. Assessments for learning objectives before designing and developing the instruction

3.2.3.1.2. Emphasis on formative evaluation

3.2.3.1.3. Revise instructions

3.2.3.2. Rapid prototyping

3.2.3.2.1. Saves time and money

3.2.3.2.2. Catch problems while they are still easy to fix

3.2.3.2.3. The model

3.2.4. Learning theories at design stage

3.2.4.1. Behaviourism

3.2.4.2. Cognitivism

3.2.4.3. Constructivision

3.3. 9 events of instruction (Gagné)

3.3.1. 1. Gaining attention

3.3.2. 2. Informing learners of objectives

3.3.3. 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning

3.3.4. 4. Presenting the stimulus

3.3.5. 5. Providing learning guidance

3.3.6. 6. Eliciting performance

3.3.7. 7. Providing feedback

3.3.8. 8. Assessing performance

3.3.9. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer

3.3.10. Major criticism

3.3.10.1. Oversimplify the learning process

3.4. CISCO RLO

3.4.1. Constructing an instructional project

3.4.1.1. Overview

3.4.1.2. Combination of RIOs

3.4.1.2.1. Content items

3.4.1.2.2. Practice items

3.4.1.2.3. Assessment items

3.4.1.3. Summary

3.4.1.4. Assessment

3.4.2. RIO creation process

3.4.2.1. Design

3.4.2.1.1. Needs assessment

3.4.2.1.2. Task analysis

3.4.2.1.3. Learning objectives

3.4.2.1.4. RIO types

3.4.2.2. Develop

3.4.2.2.1. Build RLO

3.4.2.2.2. Build RIOs

3.4.2.2.3. Alpha review

3.4.2.2.4. Beta review

3.4.2.3. Deliver

3.4.2.3.1. Dynamic packaging

3.4.2.3.2. CD-ROM

3.4.2.3.3. ITL

3.4.2.4. Evaluate

3.4.2.4.1. Level 1 survey

3.4.2.4.2. Level 2 assessment

3.4.2.4.3. Level transfer

3.4.2.4.4. Level 4 impact

3.5. ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller)

3.5.1. 4 steps for promoting and sustaining motivation

3.5.1.1. Attention

3.5.1.2. Relevance

3.5.1.3. Confidence

3.5.1.4. Satisfaction

3.6. instructional interventions

3.6.1. Enhance performance of academic tasks

3.6.2. Diversify instruction

3.6.3. Meet unique learning needs of students

3.6.4. Major strategies

3.6.4.1. Utilize mnemonic cues

3.6.4.2. Short sessions delivery of instructions

3.6.4.3. Build frequent opportunities for movement during instruction

3.6.4.4. Circulate among the students and observe and question them

3.6.4.5. Make eye contact with students

3.6.4.6. Use step-by-step instructions with illustrations

3.6.4.7. Write instructions on the board

3.6.4.8. Give students a task card

3.6.4.9. Expectations of group behavior

3.6.4.10. Provide examples and models

3.6.4.11. Differentiate instruction

3.6.4.12. Use peer learning

3.6.4.13. Integrate cooperative experiences

3.6.4.14. Use technological tools to access content

3.6.4.15. Increase the use of visuals, charts, and models

3.6.4.16. Anchor new knowledge to previously learned knowledge

3.6.4.17. Work collaboratively on tasks

4. Learning theories

4.1. Own reflection on learning theories

4.1.1. Each group of theory has its own advantages and limitations

4.1.2. Learning is the interdependency of cognitive, emotional, social and environmental influences and experiences

4.1.3. Use of different theories in design according to needs and outcomes

4.2. Behaviourism (objectivism)

4.2.1. Key features & principles

4.2.1.1. Objectives

4.2.1.1.1. Observable changes in behvaiour

4.2.1.1.2. Observable cause and effect relation

4.2.1.2. Mind as black box

4.2.1.2.1. Mind processes not improtant

4.2.1.2.2. Behaviour can be explained without considering mental states

4.2.1.3. Analyze tasks

4.2.1.4. Break tasks in chunks

4.2.1.5. Establish objectives

4.2.1.6. Measure performance

4.2.1.7. Predetermined observable and measurable outcome

4.2.1.8. Intervenes in the learning process

4.2.1.9. Execute the proper response

4.2.2. Major theories

4.2.2.1. Classical conditioning (Pavlov)

4.2.2.1.1. Natural reflexive or automatic learning

4.2.2.1.2. Use stimulus for conditioning for target reponse

4.2.2.1.3. Key elements

4.2.2.2. Operant conditional (Skinner)

4.2.2.2.1. Learning occurs when response to a stimulus is reinforced

4.2.2.2.2. A feedback system

4.2.2.2.3. Voluntary behaviors used in operating on the environment

4.2.2.2.4. Key elements

4.2.2.3. Social learning theory (Bandura)

4.2.2.3.1. Modeling of behaviour, attitudes and emotions

4.2.2.4. BOMS Model (Card, Moran and Newell)

4.2.2.4.1. Human information processing model

4.2.2.4.2. Predict user behavior

4.2.2.5. Connectionism (Thorndike)

4.2.2.5.1. Learning is connection between stimulus and response

4.2.2.5.2. Accurate quantitative treatment of information

4.2.3. How do people learning?

4.2.3.1. Positive & negative reinforcement

4.2.3.2. Environmental stimuli

4.2.3.3. Remember and respond

4.2.3.4. Teachers present information and give feedback

4.2.3.5. Role of memory

4.2.3.5.1. Acquisition of habits

4.2.3.5.2. Forgetting

4.2.3.5.3. Practice or review

4.2.3.5.4. Generalization

4.2.3.5.5. Use of instructional cues and reinforcement

4.2.4. Impact on teaching and learning

4.2.4.1. Learners' role

4.2.4.1.1. Passive in responding to the environment stimulus

4.2.4.1.2. Start off as a clean slate

4.2.4.1.3. Behaviour shape though reinforcement

4.2.4.2. Teachers' role

4.2.4.2.1. Give reward or punishment on students' behvaiours

4.2.4.3. Learning as the acquisition of new behaviour

4.2.4.4. Facilitate mastery of the content

4.2.5. Major criticism

4.2.5.1. Disregard the activities of mind

4.2.5.2. Does not account for all kinds of learning

4.2.5.3. Answers adapt their reinforced patterns to new information

4.2.5.4. Cannot explain the acquisition of higher level skills

4.2.6. Application in the classroom

4.2.6.1. Use reinforcement

4.2.6.2. Memorizing content for target response

4.3. Cognitivism(objectivism)

4.3.1. Key features & principles

4.3.1.1. Base on the thought process

4.3.1.2. Open the black box

4.3.1.2.1. Necessary for understanding how people learn

4.3.1.3. Mind as information processor

4.3.1.3.1. Mental models

4.3.1.3.2. Info comes in being processed and lad to outcomes

4.3.1.3.3. Mind attempts to make sense of the world

4.3.1.4. Focus on how info is received, organized, stored and retrieved

4.3.1.5. Learning is the change in schemta

4.3.1.6. Thinking involves manipulation of representations

4.3.1.7. Knowledge is schema

4.3.1.8. Objective

4.3.1.9. Analyze tasks

4.3.1.10. Break tasks in chunks

4.3.1.11. Establish objectives

4.3.1.12. Measure performance

4.3.1.13. Predetermined measurable outcome

4.3.1.14. Intervenes in the learning process

4.3.2. Major theories

4.3.2.1. Multimedia learning theory (Mayer, 2003)

4.3.2.1.1. The principles

4.3.2.1.2. 2 channels for processing information

4.3.2.1.3. The process

4.3.2.1.4. Active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information

4.3.2.2. Cognitive load theory (Sweller)

4.3.2.2.1. Chunk information

4.3.2.2.2. Auditory and visual methods

4.3.2.2.3. Split attention effect

4.3.2.2.4. Redundancy effect

4.3.2.2.5. Worked-example effect

4.3.2.3. Stage theory of cognitive development (Piaget)

4.3.2.3.1. Developmental stage theory

4.3.2.3.2. How to acquire, construct and use the nature of knowledge

4.3.2.3.3. Cognitive development as the centre of human organism

4.3.2.3.4. 2 Processes

4.3.2.3.5. 4 stages

4.3.2.4. Assimilation theory (Asusbel)

4.3.2.4.1. Assimilation of new concepts into existing concept frameworks

4.3.2.5. Attribution theory (Weiner)

4.3.2.5.1. Explain the world

4.3.2.5.2. Determine the cause of an event or behavior

4.3.2.5.3. 3-stage process

4.3.2.5.4. 3 causal dimensions

4.3.2.5.5. Attributions

4.3.2.6. Schema theory

4.3.2.6.1. Organize schema: a mental pattern

4.3.2.7. Component display theory

4.3.2.7.1. 2 dimensions of learning

4.3.2.7.2. 4 primary presentation forms

4.3.2.7.3. Prescriptions relating the level of performance and type of content to the presentation forms

4.3.2.8. Elaboration theory (Reigeluth)

4.3.2.8.1. Organize content from simple to complex order

4.3.2.8.2. Provide meaningful context

4.3.2.9. Gestalt psychology (Tolman)

4.3.2.9.1. Stimulus-stimulus

4.3.2.9.2. Latent learning

4.3.2.10. Mental models (Johson-Laird)

4.3.2.10.1. Thought process

4.3.2.10.2. How something works in the real world

4.3.3. How do people learn?

4.3.3.1. Learning at a cognitive level

4.3.3.2. Change of schemata

4.3.3.3. Own perceptions of experience

4.3.3.4. Mental process

4.3.3.4.1. Thinking

4.3.3.4.2. Memory

4.3.3.4.3. Knowing

4.3.3.4.4. Problem solving

4.3.3.5. Active participation

4.3.3.6. Remember rules, patterns and strategies

4.3.4. Impact on teaching and learning

4.3.4.1. Learners' roles

4.3.4.1.1. Recall schema

4.3.4.2. Teachers' roles

4.3.4.2.1. Provide new information that recalls and connects with the learner's previous knowledge

4.3.4.2.2. Arrange practice with feedback

4.3.4.2.3. Develop curriculum that enhances logical and conceptual growth

4.3.4.2.4. Create active involvement of learner in the learning process

4.3.5. Major criticism

4.3.5.1. Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute

4.3.5.2. Does not explain how learner moves into next stage of cognition

4.3.5.3. Does not account for social context

4.3.5.4. Does not explain how learners apply rules and facts in unfamiliar situations

4.3.6. Application in the classroom

4.3.6.1. Identify prerequisite skills

4.3.6.2. Create tasks requiring increased level of processing

4.3.6.3. Some strategies

4.3.6.3.1. Schematic organization

4.3.6.3.2. Analogical reasoning

4.3.6.3.3. Problem solving

4.3.6.3.4. Tasks analysis

4.4. Constructivism

4.4.1. Key features & principles

4.4.1.1. Open-ended learning

4.4.1.2. Learn by adjusting own mental models to accommodate new experiences

4.4.1.2.1. Existing knowledge

4.4.1.2.2. Social context

4.4.1.2.3. Problem to be solved

4.4.1.2.4. Negotiation

4.4.1.3. Active construction of meaning (Piaget, 1977)

4.4.1.3.1. Assimilate it into our existing knowledge

4.4.1.3.2. Restructure our present knowledge to a higher level of thinking

4.4.1.4. Collaborative participants

4.4.1.5. Learning is both objective and subjective

4.4.1.6. Methods and results of learning not easily measured

4.4.1.7. Self-motivated

4.4.1.8. Self-directed

4.4.1.9. Interactive

4.4.1.10. Lebow (1993) - 5 principles

4.4.1.10.1. Buffer between the learner and the potentially damaging effects of instructional practices

4.4.1.10.2. Context for learning

4.4.1.10.3. Reasons for learning

4.4.1.10.4. Relf-regulated learning

4.4.1.10.5. Engage in intentional learning processes

4.4.1.11. Twomey Fosnot (1989) - 4 key principles

4.4.1.11.1. Learning

4.4.1.11.2. New ideas

4.4.1.11.3. Invent ideas

4.4.1.11.4. Rethink old ideas and new conclusions

4.4.2. Major theories

4.4.2.1. Constructive learning environment (Jonassen)

4.4.2.1.1. Multiple representations of reality

4.4.2.1.2. Authentic tasks

4.4.2.1.3. Real-world, case-based learning environments

4.4.2.1.4. Reflective practice

4.4.2.1.5. Context- and content-dependent knowledge

4.4.2.1.6. Collaborative construction

4.4.2.2. Socio-cultural theory

4.4.2.2.1. Mediation

4.4.2.2.2. Zones of Proximal Development

4.4.2.2.3. Internalization

4.4.2.2.4. Cognitive Apprenticeship

4.4.2.2.5. Assisted Learning

4.4.2.2.6. Teleapprenticeship

4.4.2.2.7. Scaffolded Learning

4.4.2.2.8. Intersubjectivity

4.4.2.2.9. Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis

4.4.2.2.10. Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community:

4.4.2.3. Discovery learning (Bruner)

4.4.2.3.1. Method of inquiry-based instruction

4.4.2.3.2. Self discovery of facts and relationships

4.4.2.4. Problem-based learning

4.4.2.4.1. Hands-on, active learning

4.4.2.4.2. Investigation and resolution of real-world problems

4.4.2.5. Case-based learning

4.4.2.5.1. Construct own knowledge by working on complex and real-life cases

4.4.2.6. Situated learning (Lave)

4.4.2.6.1. Learning is unintentional

4.4.2.6.2. Occurs within authentic activity, context, and culture

4.4.2.7. Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins et al.)

4.4.2.7.1. Bring tacit processes out in the open

4.4.2.7.2. People learn from one another

4.4.2.8. Communities of Practice (Lave and Wenger)

4.4.2.8.1. Groups of people

4.4.2.9. Reconstructive Memory (Bartlett, 1932)

4.4.2.9.1. Memory is reconstructive

4.4.2.9.2. How memory stores meaningful information

4.4.2.9.3. Make memories to fit in with personal schema

4.4.2.10. Personal constructs (Kelly, 1991)

4.4.2.10.1. Theory of personality

4.4.2.10.2. Psychological processes are channeled by own of anticipation

4.4.2.10.3. Build up a system of constructs

4.4.2.10.4. Constructs are applied to anything we put our attention to

4.4.3. How do people learn?

4.4.3.1. Search for meaning

4.4.3.2. Active construction of knowledge

4.4.3.3. From previous learning experience

4.4.3.3.1. connect with new information

4.4.3.4. Manipulate schemata

4.4.3.5. Social negotiation

4.4.4. Impact on teaching and learning

4.4.4.1. Learners' roles

4.4.4.1.1. Information constructor

4.4.4.1.2. Create own meaning of knowledge

4.4.4.1.3. Elaborate, interpret and manipulate information

4.4.4.1.4. Responsible for own learning

4.4.4.1.5. Collaborate with others

4.4.4.2. Teachers' roles

4.4.4.2.1. As the facilitators

4.4.4.2.2. Allow students to construct knowledge

4.4.4.2.3. Design authentic situations/tasks

4.4.4.2.4. Engage learners and provide challenges

4.4.5. Major criticism

4.4.5.1. Too subjective

4.4.5.2. Unpredictable outcomes

4.4.6. Application in the classroom

4.4.6.1. Interactive learning

4.4.6.2. Collaborative learning

4.4.6.3. Hands-on problem solving

4.4.6.4. Authentic learning

5. Instructional products (Delivery/Implementation)

5.1. Web 2.0 = Paradigm Shift

5.1.1. Increasing phenomenon

5.1.1.1. Internet as platform

5.1.1.1.1. Google docs

5.1.1.2. Open source

5.1.1.3. Data Mashup

5.1.1.4. New models for resources sharing

5.1.1.5. LMS

5.1.1.6. New pedagogical practices in teaching

5.1.1.7. Systems that learn

5.1.2. Tools & Applications

5.1.2.1. RSS & aggregators examples

5.1.2.1.1. Bloglines

5.1.2.1.2. My Yahoo!

5.1.2.1.3. Photopage

5.1.2.2. Read-write web examples

5.1.2.2.1. Blogs

5.1.2.2.2. Wikis

5.1.2.3. Social networking examples

5.1.2.3.1. Facebook

5.1.2.3.2. ebay

5.1.2.3.3. Friendster

5.1.2.3.4. Myspace

5.1.2.4. Folksonomy

5.1.2.5. Resources sharing and referencing systems (social bookmarking)

5.1.2.5.1. Youtube

5.1.2.5.2. Delicious

5.1.2.5.3. CiteUike

5.1.2.6. Podcasting examples

5.1.2.6.1. iTunes

5.1.2.6.2. Nature

5.1.2.7. Digital portfolios examples

5.1.2.8. Platforms examples

5.1.2.8.1. Google Docs

5.1.2.8.2. Zoho

5.1.2.8.3. AirSet

5.1.2.8.4. yackpack

5.1.2.9. API for mashup examples

5.1.2.9.1. Google maps

5.1.2.9.2. Flikr

5.1.2.9.3. Youtube

5.1.2.9.4. Amazon

5.1.3. Devices promoting Web 2.0

5.1.3.1. Mobile and handheld

5.1.3.2. Laptop

5.1.3.3. Ultrabook

5.1.3.4. Tablet

5.2. E-learning

5.2.1. Electronically supported teaching & learning

5.2.2. Information & communication systems

5.2.3. Networked learning

5.2.4. Use of multimedia via internet

5.2.5. Self-paced or instructor-led

5.2.6. Use Web 2.0

5.2.7. Suited to distance learning

5.2.8. Applications

5.2.8.1. Web-based learning

5.2.8.2. Computer-based learning

5.2.8.3. Virtual education

5.2.8.4. Digital collaboration

5.3. Mobile learning

5.3.1. Learning across contexts

5.3.2. Learning with mobile devices

5.3.3. Important part of informal learning

5.3.4. Support lifelong learning and self-learning

5.3.5. Decreases limitation of learning location

5.3.6. Functional framework

5.3.6.1. Administration

5.3.6.1.1. Scheduling

5.3.6.1.2. Grading

5.3.6.1.3. Calendars

5.3.6.2. Reference

5.3.6.2.1. ‘Office style’ tool

5.3.6.2.2. Dictionaries

5.3.6.2.3. Translators

5.3.6.2.4. E-books

5.3.6.3. Interactive

5.3.6.3.1. ‘drill and test’

5.3.6.3.2. Animation

5.3.6.3.3. Graphing

5.3.6.3.4. Wireless response technology

5.3.6.4. Microworld

5.3.6.4.1. Models of real world

5.3.6.5. Collaborative

5.3.6.5.1. Co-presented games

5.3.6.5.2. Collaborative environemnts

5.3.6.6. Location aware

5.3.6.6.1. Museum guides

5.3.6.6.2. Augmented environments

5.3.6.7. Data collection

5.3.6.7.1. Note taking

5.3.6.7.2. Sensor readings

5.3.6.7.3. Data logging

5.3.6.8. RIO creation process

5.3.6.8.1. Design

5.3.6.8.2. Develop

5.3.6.8.3. Deliver

5.3.6.8.4. Evaluate

5.3.6.9. RIO creation process

5.3.6.9.1. Design

5.3.6.9.2. Develop

5.3.6.9.3. Deliver

5.3.6.9.4. Evaluate

5.3.7. Handheld devices

5.3.7.1. Notebooks

5.3.7.2. Ultrabooks

5.3.7.3. Mobile phones/Smartphones

5.3.7.4. Tablets

5.3.7.5. PDAs

5.3.8. Technical and delivery support

5.3.8.1. 3GP

5.3.8.2. GPRS

5.3.8.3. WI-FI

5.3.9. Some challenges

5.3.9.1. Connectivity and battery life

5.3.9.2. Ability to visualize how to using mobile learning

5.3.9.3. Content security or copyright issue and private issue

5.3.9.4. Accessibility and cost

5.3.9.5. No restriction on learning timetable

5.3.9.6. Developing an appropriate theory of learning

5.4. Instructional multimedia

5.4.1. Provide practice and feedback

5.4.2. Tutorial/instructional sessions

5.4.3. Games

5.4.4. Simulation or modelling

5.4.5. Graphics

5.4.6. Sound

5.4.7. Video

5.4.8. Examples of multimedia tools/authoring technologies

5.4.8.1. Flash

5.4.8.2. Autorware

5.4.8.3. Dreamweaver

5.4.8.4. Fireworks

5.4.8.5. Photoshop

5.4.8.6. Illustrator

5.4.8.7. Premier

5.5. Learning objects

5.5.1. self-contained

5.5.2. Reusable

5.5.3. Can be aggregated

5.5.4. Tagged with metadata

5.5.5. Portability

5.5.6. Mutability

5.5.7. Key components

5.5.7.1. General course descriptive data

5.5.7.2. Life cycle

5.5.7.2.1. Version

5.5.7.2.2. Status

5.5.7.3. Instructional content

5.5.7.4. Glossary of terms

5.5.7.5. Quizzes and assessment

5.5.7.6. Rights

5.5.7.6.1. Copyrights

5.5.7.6.2. Restrictions on uUse

5.5.7.7. Relationships to other courses

5.5.7.8. Educational level

5.5.7.9. Typology

5.5.7.9.1. Presentation

5.5.7.9.2. Practice

5.5.7.9.3. Simulation

5.5.7.9.4. Conceptual models

5.5.7.9.5. Information

5.5.7.9.6. Contextual representation

5.6. Project management

5.7. Own reflection on instructional products

5.7.1. Technology environments and tools support a variety of pedagogical approaches

5.7.2. Allow multiple ways of content presentation

5.7.3. Allow multiple and creative ways of knowledge construction

5.7.4. Enhance motivation

5.7.5. Increase commitment from learners/users

5.7.6. Increase accessibility

5.7.7. Increasing integration of Web 2.0 and and other instructional design and technology in education and other sectors

6. Evaluation and Revision

6.1. Own reflection on evaluation and revision

6.1.1. Addressing the achievement of target goal and outcomes

6.1.2. Feedback about achieving objectives is important

6.1.3. Having both formative and summative assessment would be optimal scenario

6.1.4. Use of research and development knowledge

6.2. 5 main purposes of evaluation (Bramley and Newby, 1984)

6.2.1. Feedback

6.2.1.1. Quality control

6.2.1.2. Link learning outcomes to objectives

6.2.2. Control

6.2.2.1. Cost effectiveness

6.2.2.2. Link training to organizational activities

6.2.3. Research

6.2.3.1. Relationships between learning, training, and the transfer of training to the job

6.2.4. Intervention

6.2.4.1. Influence the context

6.2.5. Power games

6.2.5.1. Manipulate data for organizational politics

6.3. 4-level (step) model (Kirkpatrick)

6.3.1. Step 1: Reaction

6.3.1.1. How well they learn?

6.3.2. Step 2: Learning

6.3.2.1. What is learned?

6.3.3. Step 3: Behavior

6.3.3.1. What changes?

6.3.4. Step 4: Results

6.3.4.1. What are the tangible results?

6.3.5. Adaptation to Kirkpatrick's evaluation

6.3.5.1. 1. Goals (Planning)

6.3.5.1.1. What are the objectives?

6.3.5.1.2. What must learners learn?

6.3.5.1.3. What new knowledge, skills and resources are needed

6.3.5.1.4. What must to be preceived

6.3.5.2. 2. Levels of Evaluation

6.3.5.2.1. Motivation

6.3.5.2.2. Learning

6.3.5.2.3. Performance

6.3.5.2.4. Results

6.3.6. Major criticism

6.3.6.1. 3 problematic assumptions

6.3.6.1.1. The levels are not arranged in ascending order

6.3.6.1.2. The levels are not causally linked

6.3.6.1.3. The levels are positively inter-correlated

6.3.6.2. Evaluation as an end of the process activity rather than ongoing process

6.3.6.3. Only for training process, rather than other forms of learning

6.4. CIPP model (Stufflebeam)

6.4.1. Context

6.4.1.1. Requirement to assess the environment

6.4.2. Input

6.4.2.1. Resources for development

6.4.3. Process

6.4.3.1. The way innovations are developed

6.4.3.2. Initial effectiveness

6.4.3.3. Innovation revision

6.4.3.4. Similar to formative evaluation

6.4.4. Product

6.4.4.1. Success of innovation in target environment

6.4.4.2. Similar to summative evaluation

6.5. Types of evaluations

6.5.1. Formative evaluation (internal)

6.5.1.1. Process focus

6.5.1.2. On the fly

6.5.1.3. Monitor instructional goals and objectives

6.5.1.4. Analyze learning material

6.5.1.5. Analyze student learning and achievements

6.5.1.6. Analyze teacher effectiveness

6.5.1.7. Catch deficiencies

6.5.1.8. Allow interventions

6.5.2. Summative evaluation (external)

6.5.2.1. Outcome focus

6.5.2.2. End of the program

6.5.2.3. Examples of instruments

6.5.2.3.1. Questionnaires

6.5.2.3.2. Surveys

6.5.2.3.3. Interviews

6.5.2.3.4. Observations

6.5.2.3.5. Testing