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Instructional Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instructional Design and Technology
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Instructional Design and Technology

Good instructional design and technology should be based on the learning theories and cognition.

Own overall reflection of instructional design and technology

Why using instructional design and technology?

Help users overcome a deficiency of skills and knowledge

Systematic process of developing instructional systems

Effective training & learning

Reach out to global market, No limitation of location and time

Major approaches/strategies, Interactive, Collaborative learning, Distributive: complex networks of information, resources, and instruction, Social construct of knowledge, Focus on constructivism, Blending of different learning theories & models

A good instructional project may draw upon various theories and design models according to needs and situations

Ensure quality of design

Quality of delivery

Effectiveness of transfer of learning to intended outcomes

Change of roles for teachers/trainers & learners/users

Information presenter vs. facilitators

Passive learning vs. knowledge constructors

Successful instructional design and technology

Forming a good project team

Various needs analysis

Use of various theories, models and strategies under given situations, environment, resources and needs

Instructional designer-stakeholders collaboration, Include various ideas, suggestions & perspectives

Monitor progress via using various evaluation strategies

Able to meet the learning objectives & outcomes

Alignment of needs, outcomes, assessments, and methods

Possible challenges & problems of instructional design and technology

Inconsistency between learning goals and the designs

Cater for diversity of users/learners, Different learning styles, Different abilities, Different cultural backgrounds

Keep up with the rapid pace development of technology that can drive the instructional design

Constraints of the current situations, Resources & technology, Budget, Expertise, Working structure, Interpersonal relationship, Team work, Sharing of goals and objectives, Timeline

Mashup of technologies, decrease creativities

Increasing trends

Systematic development of design

ICT reform embedding in whole school reform is esstential

Use of constructivist design and technology, User generate content, Collaboration among learners

Mobility & ubiquity of design & technology, Any time, Anywhere

Key approaches, Learner- and user-centered, Knowledge management, Self-directed & lifelong learning, Distributed learning, Beyond the use of a single device, Integrate different learning objects and technology to enable learning, Mobile learning, Online learning, Informal learning, Performance support, Empower individuals

Instructional design usage, Use of Web 2.0, Social networking as creation of knowledge, Use of educational games, Use of social media online, Use of multimedia resources

Instructional Designs & Models

They provides pedagogical basis about how we learn and the framework for designing instructional products and technology

Own reflection on instructional designs and models

Instructional design models to design and manage a learning product development

The trends, Use of Interactive, constructive and collaborative learning environments and tools, Hands on experience, Authentic task within real-word practice, Learner/user-centered

Dimensions of design models (Edmonds et al., 1994)

For evaluating the design models

Type of orientation, The learning environment

Type of knowledge

Required expertise

Theoretical origins

Instructional context


3D model of design documentation (Boot, 2005)

Building blocks for the production process, Design documents as input, Programming structures as throughput, Learning materials as output

3 major dimensions, Stratification, Degree of elaboration, Formality

Shift of instructional design




4C/IC model

"main stream" model How to teach complex skills Integrate and coordinate performance of task skills JIT vs supportive information Part-task practice supporting whole task learning

Focus on integration and coordination of all skills

Distinction of supportive information and JIT information

Recommends mixture of part-task or whole-task practice

Schema construction for nonrecurrent aspects

Rule automation for recurrent aspects of skills

Aims at transfer of learning, Use skills in real-life

4 interrelated components, Learning Tasks, Concrete, Authentic, Whole task experiences, Aim at induction, Organized in wimple to complex task classes, Learner support, Scaffolding, Product-oriented, Process-oriented, Learning tasks, Case study, Reverse, Imitation, Specific goal(s), Completion, complete search query, perform search, Select articles, Conventional, Supportive Information, Information bridge prior knowledge and learning tasks, Aim at elaboration, Mental models, conceptual, structual, causal, Cognitive strategies, inductive-expository strategy, For learners with little prior knowledge, Deductive strategy, Difficult for those with little prior knowledge, Cognitive feedback, Just-in-time (JIT) Information, Information prerequisite to learning and performance, Aim at compilation, Embed procedural information in rules, Preset when needed, Fades away when learners acquire expertise, Information display organization in small units, Part-Task Practice, Accurate performance of a recurrent skill, Aim at rule automation, Intermix with learning task, Snowballing, REP-sequences

Models base on Objectivism

Objective-Rational Instructional Design model (Willis, 1995), The process is sequential and linear, Planning is top down and systematic, Objectives guide development, Sequencing and subskills, Preselected knowledge, Summative evaluation, Objective data

Media-independent instructional design, Base on cognitive load theory (Sweller), Split attention and increase cognitive load reduce transfer learning, Deeper learning in media environemnts, Depends on cognitive abilities and display elements, Display of design is important, Four physical attributes (Sanders & McCormick, 1993), Polarity, Contrast between foreground and background, Character properties, Size and color of text, Density, Character spaces, Item organization, Precepts of grouping, Space, Sequence, Complexity, Consistency, Address both visual and verbal channels simultaneously, Problem-solving transfer, The methods, Multimedia design principle, Add pictures to words, Coherence design principle, eliminate extraneous words and pictures, Spatial contiguity principle, Place words near corresponding pictures, Temporal continuity principle, Visual and verbal elements present together, Design principle, Use conversation style for words, Modality design principle, Words as speech, Redundancy design principle, Words in both text and audio narration can hurt learning

Models base on constructivism (C-DI)

General features & principles, Knowledge is constructed through interaction with the environment and negotation, Collaborative and cooperative learning, Focus on group interactiion, Constructive activity, Collaborative learning tools, Learning as information processing, Efficient communication, Learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition, Experiences and activities that promote the individual development, Learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity, Learning in authentic tasks, Critical thinking and problem solving, Conduct and manage own personalised learning activities, Individual exploration and generate connections of information, Prior knowledge affects the interpretation, Self development, responsibility, Emotional intelligence, self- concept building, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement, Stimulus for learning, Determines organization and nature of what is learned, Lebow's (1993) 8 principles, Learning activities to a larger task complex, Ownership of problem/task, Authentic task, Work in complex environment, Cognitive apprenticeship, Cognitive flexibility theories, Context in determining the understanding of concepts, Ownership of the learning or problem solving process, Learning environment that support and challenge the learner's thinking, Test ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, Negotation, Reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

Why use constructivist design?, Creative and innovative, Can measure student learning and assessing individual progress, Unique and exciting learning environments, Engage in authentic and meaningful tasks, Engaged in negotiating meaning and in socially constructing reality

Major designs & models, Constructivist-Interpretivist Instructional Design Model, Design process is recursive, non-linear, and sometimes chaotic, Planning is organic, developmental, reflective, and collaborative, Objectives emerge from design and development work, General ID experts do not exist, Learning in meaningful contexts, Subjective data, Constructivist learning environment (Jonassen, 1998), The elements, Constructive, Collaborative, Conversational, Reflective, Conceptualized, Complex, Intentional, Active/manipulative, The problems for solving, Logical problems, Algorithms, Story problems, Rule-using problems, Decision making problems, Troubleshooting problems, Diagnosis-solution problems, Strategic performance, Situated Case-Policy Problems, Design problems, Dilemmas, Assist solving problems, Providing information resources, just-in-time information, Cognitive tools, visualize, organize, automate, support thinking skills, Problem/task representation tools, visualize and construct mental model, Static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools, Make own understanding, Performance support tools, Calculation, Memorization, Information gathering tools, Eliminate distraction, Focus on problem solving, Conversation and collaborative tools, Social negotiation and interaction, Social/Contextual support, Problem-based learning (Barrows,1985, 1986, 1992), Learning goals, Problem-solving behaviours, Hypothetico-deductive problem solving, Develop metacognitive skills, In cognitive apprenticeship environment, Self-directed learning skills, Responsibility and ownership of the problem, Discovery learning, Problem Generation, Concepts and principles relevant to the content domain, Must be real, Open to explore, Engage learners, Problem Presentation, Bringing the problem home, Real, Personal relevance, Data presented not highlighting critical factors, Facilitator Role, Models higher order thinking, Ask prompt questions, Challenge the learner's thinking, Not knowledge driven, Focus on metacognitive processes, Learner-centered learning environment, Intentional process of constructing meaning, Build on students’ current knowledge and abilities, Create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge, Link new information with existing knowledge, Developing higher-order skills, Problem solving, Critical thinking, Strategical thinking, Creative thinking, Manage own learning, Use of media and technology, Engage students in thinking, Collaboration, Interaction, Pose problems, Provide related cases and information resources, A social medium to support learning, Students to explore more information, Implementation, Design and develop video materials, Evaluate learning outcomes and experience, Implement learning units, Learning goals, Problems for solving, Factors affecting implementation, Environmental factors, Culture, Technology, Instructional practices, Students' motivation, Developmental and social factors, Interpersonal relations and communication with others, Social interaction, Individual differences, Learning styles, Diversity of abilities, Standards & assessments, Different cultures & backgrounds, Interactive multimedia learning environments, Phase 1, Description of the Project space, Structuring devices such as concept maps, Phase 2, Link the elements through an appropriate instructional or presentation strategy, Formal description, Phase 3, Link the design ideas into a potential interaction structure, Prototype, Instructional Development Learning System (IDLS), Base on Constructivism, Construct learning environment, Design for lessons, Theme, Required Audio Visual Aids, Instructional Objectives, Behavioural Objectives, Variety in Constructive Teaching Methods according to Required Situation, Advance organizer, Presentation of Content, Concept understanding Activity for Students, Final Instructional Assessment, Subjective/essay, Short questions, Oral quiz, Fill in blanks, MCQs, True / False, Creative writing, Class participation/Group work

Criticism of constructivist design, Costly, Require technology to implement, Hard to evaluate

Classroom-oriented models

Use by instructors

Gerlack and Ely (1980)

Heinich, Moldenda, Russell and Smaldina (1999)

Newby, Stepich, Leman and Russell (2000)

Morrison, Ross and Kemp (2004), A continuous cycle where revision is an ongoing process with all the elements, Focus on 4 factors, Learners, Objectives, Methods, Evaluation, 9 key elements, Identify instructional problems, and specify goals, Examine learner characteristics, Identify subject content, and analyze task components, State instructional objectives, Sequence content within each instructional unit, Design instructional strategies, Develop the instructional message and delivery, Develop evaluation instruments, Summative evaluation, Formative evaluation, Select resources, Support instruction and learning activities

Product-oriented models

4 key assumptions, The instructional product is needed, Something needs to be produced, Emphasis on tryout and revision, The product must be usable by learners

Bergman and Moore (1990)

de Hoog, de Jong and de Vries (1994)

Bates (1995)

Nieveen (1997)

Seels and Glasgow (1998)

Systems-oriented models

More extensive front-end analysis

Branson (1975)

Bentry (1994)

Dorsey, Goodrum and Schwen (1997)

Diamond (1998), Follows specific sequence, Relies on the use of data, Encourages team approach, Emphasize ownership and involvement among various groups, The design process, Assessemnt, Design, Implementation, Assessment, Revision

Smith and Ragan (1999)

System approach model (Dick & Carey, 1978), Systematic design model (2001), Key components that interact together, Instructor, Learners, Materials, Instructional activities, Delivery system, Learning, Performance environments, The model, Identify instructional goal(s), Conduct instructional analysis, Analyze learners and contexts, Write performance objectives, Develop assessment instruments, Develop instructional strategy, Develop and select instructional materials, Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction, Revise instruction, Design and conduct summative evaluation

Models for distance education

Objectives-Resources-Activities (OAR) (Joeckel, Gardner and Jeon), Multilevel of factors affecting learning, Social elements, Physical elements, Deliver through LMS, Subject Matter Expert/Facilitator, Focus on the learning system context, Simple graphic-based aid, Avoid the use of jargon, Basic order of operations in the development process

Rowntree (1979), Introduction, Overview of entire section, What you have to do tasks, Objectives of section, Student profile, Aims, Constraints, Select content, Decide sequence, Write up, Assessment, Evaluation

Koul (1995), Educational objectives, Defining objectives, Resources & constraints, Media, Language, Finance, Manpower, Time, Selection criteria, Alternate methods of meeting objectives, Alternate subject matter, Choice of media, Development, feedback and evaluation

Learning by doing model & methods

(Schank, Berman & MacPerson, 1999)Promoted by case-based reasoning

Learning Cycle, Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualisation, Active Experimentation

Dufour’s ‘Learning by Doing", Do, Experience the activity, Reflect, Share, Process, Apply, Generalize, context experience to real world, Apply what was learnt

Case-based reasoning method, Solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems, 4-steps process, Retrieve, Memory cases relevant to solve target problem, Reuse, Map the solution from the previous case to the target problem, Revise, Test the new solution in the real world, Retain, Store the resulting experience as a new case in memory, Major criticism, No guarantee that the generalization is correct

Resource-based learning, Active processing of information, Use authentic resources, Main elements, Resources and tools, Library catalogues, Electronic searches, CD-ROMs, Telephone calls to seek information, Conducting interviews, Sending & receiving emails, Writing letters, Activity/Task, Support, Evaluation, Key advantages, Encourage motivation, Active participation, Hands-on materials, Make personal choices, Deepen understanding of subject matter, Self-directed learning, Increase ICT competence and confidence, Skills acquired will be transferable to other areas, Improve learners' attitudes, Some difficulties, Requires a resource-rich learning environment, Some students will learn little from this method, for those who lacks prerequisite knowledge & skills, Not all teachers are good at collecting or creating the resources, Teachers may not monitor activities effectively

Professional learning community (PLC), Continuous job-embedded learning for staff/educators, Focus on learning rather than teaching, Collaborative Culture, Learning for all, Collective inquiry, For best practices, Learning by doing, Deeper and more profound knowledge, Greater commitment

Designing Instructional/Learning Strategies and processes

Provide systematic procedures/steps as the guideline for instructional design

Own reflection on instructional strategies

May use different strategies according to the given conditions, type of products, budget, resources and target audience

Roles of instructional designers, Gather background and supplemental information, Develop specifications and blueprints, Establish and maintain schedules and deliverable deadlines, Build the design, Manage the training and documentation process, Communicate concerns or issues to management, Get feedback and make updates

Key elements for good instructional design, Instructional designer-learners-stakeholders collaboration, Instructional design expertise & experience, Key factors to consider, Pedagogy and design models, Mode of learning, Accessibility, Resources, Target audience, Diversity of users/learners, Copyright issues, Ethical issues, Plagiarism issues

The trends, Increase of technology usage, Current strategies seem to use various learning theories and models

ADDIE model

Many instructional design models are based on ADDIE model including Dick & Carey (2004) & Kemp (Gustafson, Branch, 1997) models

The 5 phases of instructional design, Analysis phase, Needs analysis, Audience analysis, Environment analysis, Content analysis, System analysis, Feasibility analysis, Risk analysis, Developing proposal, Objectives, Variation treatment, Diagram of proposed structure, Human resources, Work breakdown and schedule, Cost, Limitations, 4 basic phases of needs assessments (Klein, 1971), Identify a list of general goals, Rank goals in order of importance, Identify discrepancies between expected and actual performance, Set priorities for action, Design phase, Define goal(s), Construct instructional analysis, Performance, Task, Content, Analyze learners and context, Write performance and learning objectives & outcomes, Types of objectives, Performance objectives, Instructional objectives, Behavioural objectives, Knowledge and skills, Fact, Concept, Principle, Process, Procedure, Bloom (1958) taxonomy, Cognitive, Knowledge, Comprehension, Application analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation, Psychomotor, Affective, Attitude, Skill, Gagne (1985) 3 domains & 5 types of capabilities, Cognitive domains, Intellectual skills, Discrimination, Concepts, Rules of procedural rules, Higher order rules, Cognitive strategies, Verbal (tell) information, Affective domain, Attitudes, Psychomotor domain, Motor skills, Anderson taxonomy, Declarative knowledge, Procedural knowledge, Merrill taxonomy, Remember verbatim, Remember paraphrased, Find generality, Reigeluth taxonomy, Memorize information, Understand relationship, Apply generic skills, Develop assessment strategy, Drill & practice, True/false, Multiple choice, Fill in the blank, Short answer, Categorize, Rearrange, Drag and drop, Essay, Problem solving, Tasks, Arrange instructional events, Events of instructions, Generate attention, Informing objective(s), Recall prerequisite learning, Presenting stimulus, Providing learning guidance, Eliciting performance, Providing feedback about performance, Assessing performance, Enhancing retention and transfer, Select instructional methods, Develop flowcharts, Develop storyboards, Evaluate storyboards, Contect, Media, Pedagogy, Instructional design, Technical issues, Develop design specifications, Screen area, Authoring platform, Qualities of multimedia, Pedagogy, Develop prototype, Evaluate prototype, Layout, Size of display area, Resolution, Area, Interactive design, Presentation design, Review & evaluate project documentation, Development phase, Implementation phase, Evaluation phase

Shortcomings of ADDIE, Not leading to the best instructional solutions, Not really the way instructional designers do their work

Models based on ADDIE, Dick and Carey Model of ISD, Assessments for learning objectives before designing and developing the instruction, Emphasis on formative evaluation, Revise instructions, Rapid prototyping, Saves time and money, Decreases development time, Decrease costly mistakes, Catch problems while they are still easy to fix, The model, Assess needs and analyze content, Set objectives, Construct prototypes, Use prototypes, Install & maintain system

Learning theories at design stage, Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Constructivision

9 events of instruction (Gagné)

1. Gaining attention

2. Informing learners of objectives

3. Stimulating recall of prior learning

4. Presenting the stimulus

5. Providing learning guidance

6. Eliciting performance

7. Providing feedback

8. Assessing performance

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Major criticism, Oversimplify the learning process


Emphasize database driven objects that can be reused, searched, and modified independent of their delivery media. Comvination of Individual RIOs

Constructing an instructional project, Overview, Combination of RIOs, Content items, Concept, Introduction, Definition, Facts, Examples, Non-Examples, Analogy, Instructor Notes, Fact, Introduction, Illustration, Fact list, Table, Instructor notes, Procedure, Introduction, Facts, Procedure table, Decision table, Combined table, Demonstration, Instructor notes, Process, Introduction, Facts, Stage table, Block diagrams, Cycle charts, Instructor notes, Principle, Introduction, Facts, Principle statement, Guidelines, Examples, Non-Example, Analogy, Instructor notes, Practice items, True/false, Multiple choice, Matching, Simulation, Game, Case, Role-play, Hands-on, Assessment items, Test/quiz questions, Summary, Assessment

RIO creation process, Design, Needs assessment, Task analysis, Learning objectives, RIO types, Develop, Build RLO, Build RIOs, Alpha review, Beta review, Deliver, Dynamic packaging, CD-ROM, ITL, Evaluate, Level 1 survey, Level 2 assessment, Level transfer, Level 4 impact

ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller)

4 steps for promoting and sustaining motivation, Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction

instructional interventions

Enhance performance of academic tasks

Diversify instruction

Meet unique learning needs of students

Major strategies, Utilize mnemonic cues, Short sessions delivery of instructions, Build frequent opportunities for movement during instruction, Circulate among the students and observe and question them, Make eye contact with students, Use step-by-step instructions with illustrations, Write instructions on the board, Give students a task card, Expectations of group behavior, Provide examples and models, Differentiate instruction, Use peer learning, Integrate cooperative experiences, Use technological tools to access content, Increase the use of visuals, charts, and models, Anchor new knowledge to previously learned knowledge, Work collaboratively on tasks

Learning theories

Learning theories provide the basic framework and pedagogy for the instructional models

Own reflection on learning theories

Each group of theory has its own advantages and limitations

Learning is the interdependency of cognitive, emotional, social and environmental influences and experiences

Use of different theories in design according to needs and outcomes

Behaviourism (objectivism)

Key features & principles, Objectives, Observable changes in behvaiour, Observable cause and effect relation, Mind as black box, Mind processes not improtant, Behaviour can be explained without considering mental states, Analyze tasks, Break tasks in chunks, Establish objectives, Measure performance, Predetermined observable and measurable outcome, Intervenes in the learning process, Execute the proper response

Major theories, Classical conditioning (Pavlov), Natural reflexive or automatic learning, Use stimulus for conditioning for target reponse, Key elements, Stimulus generalization, Extinction, Spontaneous recovery, Discrimination, Higher-order conditioning, Operant conditional (Skinner), Learning occurs when response to a stimulus is reinforced, A feedback system, Voluntary behaviors used in operating on the environment, Key elements, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Extinction, Punishment, Social learning theory (Bandura), Modeling of behaviour, attitudes and emotions, BOMS Model (Card, Moran and Newell), Human information processing model, Predict user behavior, Connectionism (Thorndike), Learning is connection between stimulus and response, Natural bond, Accurate quantitative treatment of information

How do people learning?, Positive & negative reinforcement, Environmental stimuli, Remember and respond, Teachers present information and give feedback, Role of memory, Acquisition of habits, Forgetting, Not using a response over time, Practice or review, Generalization, Use of instructional cues and reinforcement

Impact on teaching and learning, Learners' role, Passive in responding to the environment stimulus, Start off as a clean slate, Behaviour shape though reinforcement, Teachers' role, Give reward or punishment on students' behvaiours, Learning as the acquisition of new behaviour, Facilitate mastery of the content

Major criticism, Disregard the activities of mind, Does not account for all kinds of learning, Answers adapt their reinforced patterns to new information, Cannot explain the acquisition of higher level skills

Application in the classroom, Use reinforcement, Memorizing content for target response


Key features & principles, Base on the thought process, Open the black box, Necessary for understanding how people learn, Mind as information processor, Mental models, Info comes in being processed and lad to outcomes, Mind attempts to make sense of the world, Focus on how info is received, organized, stored and retrieved, Learning is the change in schemta, Thinking involves manipulation of representations, Knowledge is schema, Objective, Analyze tasks, Break tasks in chunks, Establish objectives, Measure performance, Predetermined measurable outcome, Intervenes in the learning process

Major theories, Multimedia learning theory (Mayer, 2003), The principles, Multimedia, Integrate visual and verbal information, Split-attention, Words and pictures physically and temporally integrated, Redundancy, Not present the same information in more than one format, Modality, Words spoken not written, Segmenting, Not present multimedia messages in student-paced segments, Pre-training, Names and characteristics of main concepts familiar to students, Coherence, Exclude extraneous material, Signaling, Cues to highlight the organization of the essential material, 2 channels for processing information, Visual, Verbal, The process, Multimedia presentation, Words, Pictures, Sensory memories, Eyes, Ears, Working memory, Word/sound based and selection, Verbal mental model, Visual/image based and selection, Pictorial mental model, Long term memory, Prior knowledge, Active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information, Cognitive load theory (Sweller), Chunk information, Auditory and visual methods, Split attention effect, Redundancy effect, Worked-example effect, Stage theory of cognitive development (Piaget), Developmental stage theory, How to acquire, construct and use the nature of knowledge, Cognitive development as the centre of human organism, 2 Processes, Assimilation and accommodation, 4 stages, Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete operational stage, Formal operational stage, Assimilation theory (Asusbel), Assimilation of new concepts into existing concept frameworks, Attribution theory (Weiner), Explain the world, Determine the cause of an event or behavior, 3-stage process, Behavior must be observed/perceived, Behavior must be determined to be intentional, Behavior attributed to internal or external causes, 3 causal dimensions, Locus of control: internal vs. external, Stability, Controllability, Attributions, Ability, Effort, Task difficulty, Luck, Schema theory, Organize schema: a mental pattern, Component display theory, 2 dimensions of learning, Content, Facts, Concepts, Procedures, Principles, Peformance, Remembering, Using, Finding, 4 primary presentation forms, Rules, Examples, Recalls, Practices, Prescriptions relating the level of performance and type of content to the presentation forms, Elaboration theory (Reigeluth), Organize content from simple to complex order, Provide meaningful context, Gestalt psychology (Tolman), Stimulus-stimulus, Latent learning, Not need any explicit biologically significant event, Mental models (Johson-Laird), Thought process, How something works in the real world

How do people learn?, Learning at a cognitive level, Change of schemata, Own perceptions of experience, Mental process, Thinking, Memory, Knowing, Problem solving, Active participation, Remember rules, patterns and strategies

Impact on teaching and learning, Learners' roles, Recall schema, knowledge, Experience, Skills, Teachers' roles, Provide new information that recalls and connects with the learner's previous knowledge, Arrange practice with feedback, Develop curriculum that enhances logical and conceptual growth, Create active involvement of learner in the learning process

Major criticism, Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute, Does not explain how learner moves into next stage of cognition, Does not account for social context, Does not explain how learners apply rules and facts in unfamiliar situations

Application in the classroom, Identify prerequisite skills, Create tasks requiring increased level of processing, Some strategies, Schematic organization, Analogical reasoning, Problem solving, Tasks analysis


Key features & principles, Open-ended learning, Learn by adjusting own mental models to accommodate new experiences, Existing knowledge, Social context, Problem to be solved, Negotiation, Active construction of meaning (Piaget, 1977), Assimilate it into our existing knowledge, Restructure our present knowledge to a higher level of thinking, Collaborative participants, Learning is both objective and subjective, Methods and results of learning not easily measured, Self-motivated, Self-directed, Interactive, Lebow (1993) - 5 principles, Buffer between the learner and the potentially damaging effects of instructional practices, Affective domain of learning, Instruction personally relevant to the learner, Helping learners develop skills, attitudes, and beliefs that support self-regulation of the learning process, Balancing the tendency to control the learning situation with a desire to promote personal autonomy., Context for learning, Reasons for learning, Relf-regulated learning, Learners' own responsibility, Engage in intentional learning processes, Twomey Fosnot (1989) - 4 key principles, Learning, Base on prior knowledge, New ideas, Adapt or change old ideas, Invent ideas, Rethink old ideas and new conclusions

Major theories, Constructive learning environment (Jonassen), Multiple representations of reality, Authentic tasks, Real-world, case-based learning environments, Reflective practice, Context- and content-dependent knowledge, Collaborative construction, Socio-cultural theory, Mediation, Zones of Proximal Development, Internalization, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Assisted Learning, Teleapprenticeship, Scaffolded Learning, Intersubjectivity, Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community:, Discovery learning (Bruner), Method of inquiry-based instruction, Self discovery of facts and relationships, Problem-based learning, Hands-on, active learning, Investigation and resolution of real-world problems, Case-based learning, Construct own knowledge by working on complex and real-life cases, Situated learning (Lave), Learning is unintentional, Occurs within authentic activity, context, and culture, Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins et al.), Bring tacit processes out in the open, People learn from one another, Observation, Imitation, Modeling, Communities of Practice (Lave and Wenger), Groups of people, Share a concern or a passion for something they do, Learn how to do it better, Interact regularly, Learning not necessarily intentional, Reconstructive Memory (Bartlett, 1932), Memory is reconstructive, How memory stores meaningful information, Make memories to fit in with personal schema, Personal constructs (Kelly, 1991), Theory of personality, Psychological processes are channeled by own of anticipation, Build up a system of constructs, Constructs are applied to anything we put our attention to

How do people learn?, Search for meaning, Active construction of knowledge, From previous learning experience, connect with new information, Manipulate schemata, Social negotiation

Impact on teaching and learning, Learners' roles, Information constructor, Create own meaning of knowledge, Elaborate, interpret and manipulate information, Responsible for own learning, Collaborate with others, Teachers' roles, As the facilitators, Allow students to construct knowledge, Design authentic situations/tasks, Engage learners and provide challenges

Major criticism, Too subjective, Unpredictable outcomes

Application in the classroom, Interactive learning, Collaborative learning, Hands-on problem solving, Authentic learning

Instructional products (Delivery/Implementation)

The implementation of instructional design and technology is increasing rapidly in schools and other sectors

Web 2.0 = Paradigm Shift

"Read-write map" Media revolution: = giving ordinary people louder voice and facilitate global deniocratization converse,  exchange  resources and ideas  

Increasing phenomenon, Internet as platform, Google docs, Open source, Data Mashup, New models for resources sharing, LMS, New pedagogical practices in teaching, Systems that learn

Tools & Applications, RSS & aggregators examples, Bloglines, My Yahoo!, Photopage, Read-write web examples, Blogs, Wikis, Social networking examples, Facebook, ebay, Friendster, Myspace, Folksonomy, Resources sharing and referencing systems (social bookmarking), Youtube, Delicious, CiteUike, Podcasting examples, iTunes, Nature, Digital portfolios examples, Platforms examples, Google Docs, Zoho, AirSet, yackpack, API for mashup examples, Google maps, Flikr, Youtube, Amazon

Devices promoting Web 2.0, Mobile and handheld, Laptop, Ultrabook, Tablet


Electronically supported teaching & learning

Information & communication systems

Networked learning

Use of multimedia via internet

Self-paced or instructor-led

Use Web 2.0

Suited to distance learning

Applications, Web-based learning, Computer-based learning, Virtual education, Digital collaboration

Mobile learning

Learning across contexts

Learning with mobile devices

Important part of informal learning

Support lifelong learning and self-learning

Decreases limitation of learning location

Functional framework, Administration, Scheduling, Grading, Calendars, Reference, ‘Office style’ tool, Dictionaries, Translators, E-books, Interactive, ‘drill and test’, Animation, Graphing, Wireless response technology, Microworld, Models of real world, Collaborative, Co-presented games, Collaborative environemnts, Location aware, Museum guides, Augmented environments, Data collection, Note taking, Sensor readings, Data logging, RIO creation process, Design, Needs assessment, Task analysis, Learning objectives, RIO types, Develop, Build RLO, Build RIOs, Alpha review, Beta review, Deliver, Dynamic packaging, CD-ROM, ITL, Evaluate, Level 1 survey, Level 2 assessment, Level transfer, Level 4 impact, RIO creation process, Design, Needs assessment, Task analysis, Learning objectives, RIO types, Develop, Build RLO, Build RIOs, Alpha review, Beta review, Deliver, Dynamic packaging, CD-ROM, ITL, Evaluate, Level 1 survey, Level 2 assessment, Level transfer, Level 4 impact

Handheld devices, Notebooks, Ultrabooks, Mobile phones/Smartphones, Tablets, PDAs

Technical and delivery support, 3GP, GPRS, WI-FI

Some challenges, Connectivity and battery life, Ability to visualize how to using mobile learning, Content security or copyright issue and private issue, Accessibility and cost, No restriction on learning timetable, Developing an appropriate theory of learning

Instructional multimedia

Provide practice and feedback

Tutorial/instructional sessions


Simulation or modelling




Examples of multimedia tools/authoring technologies, Flash, Autorware, Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Photoshop, Illustrator, Premier

Learning objects

Any entity use for learning and education



Can be aggregated

Tagged with metadata



Key components, General course descriptive data, Life cycle, Version, Status, Instructional content, Glossary of terms, Quizzes and assessment, Rights, Copyrights, Restrictions on uUse, Relationships to other courses, Educational level, Typology, Presentation, Practice, Simulation, Conceptual models, Information, Contextual representation

Project management

Own reflection on instructional products

Technology environments and tools support a variety of pedagogical approaches

Allow multiple ways of content presentation

Allow multiple and creative ways of knowledge construction

Enhance motivation

Increase commitment from learners/users

Increase accessibility

Increasing integration of Web 2.0 and and other instructional design and technology in education and other sectors

Evaluation and Revision

An important step for improving instructional design

Own reflection on evaluation and revision

Addressing the achievement of target goal and outcomes

Feedback about achieving objectives is important

Having both formative and summative assessment would be optimal scenario

Use of research and development knowledge

5 main purposes of evaluation (Bramley and Newby, 1984)

Feedback, Quality control, Link learning outcomes to objectives

Control, Cost effectiveness, Link training to organizational activities

Research, Relationships between learning, training, and the transfer of training to the job

Intervention, Influence the context

Power games, Manipulate data for organizational politics

4-level (step) model (Kirkpatrick)

Step 1: Reaction, How well they learn?

Step 2: Learning, What is learned?

Step 3: Behavior, What changes?

Step 4: Results, What are the tangible results?

Adaptation to Kirkpatrick's evaluation, 1. Goals (Planning), What are the objectives?, What must learners learn?, What new knowledge, skills and resources are needed, What must to be preceived, 2. Levels of Evaluation, Motivation, The people, Formative evaluation, Learning, The learning environment, Formative evaluation, Performance, The environment, Formative evaluation, Results, The organization on the whole, Summative evaluation

Major criticism, 3 problematic assumptions, The levels are not arranged in ascending order, The levels are not causally linked, The levels are positively inter-correlated, Evaluation as an end of the process activity rather than ongoing process, Only for training process, rather than other forms of learning

CIPP model (Stufflebeam)

Context, Requirement to assess the environment

Input, Resources for development

Process, The way innovations are developed, Initial effectiveness, Innovation revision, Similar to formative evaluation

Product, Success of innovation in target environment, Similar to summative evaluation

Types of evaluations

Formative evaluation (internal), Process focus, On the fly, Monitor instructional goals and objectives, Analyze learning material, Analyze student learning and achievements, Analyze teacher effectiveness, Catch deficiencies, Allow interventions

Summative evaluation (external), Outcome focus, End of the program, Examples of instruments, Questionnaires, Surveys, Interviews, Observations, Testing