The Roman Republic

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The Roman Republic by Mind Map: The Roman Republic

1. The Origins of Rome

1.1. According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess.

1.2. Rome was built on seven hills at a curve on the Tiber river, near the center of the Italian peninsula.

1.3. The earliest settlers were from prehistoric times (about 1000 to 500 B.C.

1.4. Three groups battled for control of the region, the Latins, the Greeks, and the Etruscans.

1.5. The Latins built the original settlement of Rome and are considered the first Romans.

1.6. The Greeks established colonies along southern Italy and Sicily.

1.7. The Etruscans were native to northern Italy and were skilled metalworkers and enigneers, also strongly influencing the development of Roman civilization.

2. The Early Republic

2.1. Around 600 B.C., and Etruscan became the king of Rome. In the decades that followed, Rome grew from a collection of villages to an city that covered over 500 square miles.

2.2. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.

2.3. Citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born white citizens.

2.4. In the early republic, 2 main groups struggled for power, the patricians (wealthy landowners), and the plebeians (common farmers, artisans, and merchants).

2.5. The patricians inherited their wealth, claiming their ancestry gave them the authority to make laws for Rome.

2.6. The plebeians were citizens with the right to vote. However, they were barred by law from holding most public positions.

2.7. Tribunes were elected by the plebeians to represent them and protect their rights from unfair patrician officials.

2.8. The Twelve Tables established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.

2.9. By the first century B.C., Rome had acheived a balanced government.

2.9.1. This new government had taking elements from many different governmental possibilities (monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.

2.9.2. Rome had two officials called consuls. Like kings, they commanded the army and directed the government, however, their power was limited.

2.9.3. The senate was the aristocratic branch of Rome's government, it had both legislative and administrative functions in the republic, its 300 members were chosen from the upper class.

2.9.4. In times of crisis, the republic could elect a dictator. Their power only lasted 6 months, and they were chosen by the consuls then elected by the Senate.

2.10. In addiction to the new government, the Romans required all citizens who owned land to serve in the military.

2.10.1. Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called legions. Made up of 5,000 heavily armed footsoldiers and a calvary group.

2.10.2. Legions were divided into smaller groups of 80 men, each of which was called a century.

3. Rome Spreads Its Power

3.1. Rome Conquers Italy

3.1.1. By the 4th century B.C., the Romans dominated central Italy, eventually defeating the Etruscans to the north and Greeks to the south.

3.1.2. Neighboring Latins became full citizens of Rome, territories conquered farther enjoyed many of the same rights but no voting, and all other allies fell into a third category; allies of Rome.

3.2. Rome's Commercial Network

3.2.1. Rome's location gave it easy access to the riches of the lands of the Mediterranean Sea.

3.2.2. Roman merchants moved by land and sea.

3.2.3. They traded Roman wine and olive oil for a variety of foods and raw materials.

3.3. War With Carthage

3.3.1. In 264 B.C., Rome and Carthage went to war. This was the beginning to the long struggle known as the Punic Wars.

3.3.2. The first war was for control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean. It lasted 23 years and Rome won.

3.3.3. The second war was 2 years long and was because a Carthagenian general named Hannibal wanted to avenge the first one.

3.3.4. During the Third Punic War, Rome laid siege to Carthage. Rome still beastmode-ed that shit, though.