Learning Technology Design (By WEN Yuan, Rose)

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Learning Technology Design (By WEN Yuan, Rose) by Mind Map: Learning Technology Design (By WEN Yuan, Rose)

1. Web 2.0 and instructional/ Learning design

1.1. What is Web 2.0?

1.1.1. Web 2.0 is at least a metaphor that signifies a number of novel technological possibilities that have emerged on the Internet, mostly since the dot-com bubble deflation in 2001.(Churchill, 2007)

1.1.1.1. Use control of information

1.1.1.2. New forms of expression

1.1.1.3. Web as a point of presence

1.1.1.4. Internet-mediated social/collective activities

1.1.1.5. Web as a platform

1.1.1.6. Rich user experiences

1.1.1.7. Some speak of media revolution

1.2. Web 2.0

1.2.1. Blogs (New forms of Expression)

1.2.1.1. Web-based publication

1.2.1.2. No technical skills to create your own blog

1.2.1.3. Blog can contain text, media, links

1.2.1.4. There are blogs, mob-logs, v-logs, audi-log

1.2.1.5. Blogsphere is a community of bloggers

1.2.2. Wikies

1.2.2.1. Wiki: It is a social software that allows collaborative development of an article of common interest to hits authors

1.2.2.2. Wikipedia

1.2.3. Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories

1.2.4. Rss Feeds

1.2.4.1. Really Simple Syndication is a form of syndication in which a section of a website is made available for other sites to use

1.2.4.2. RSS Feeds -- provide an updated list of content from a site

1.2.4.3. This originated with news and blog sites but is increasingly used to syndicate any information.

1.2.4.4. Aggregator can subscribe to a feed, check for new content at user-determined intervals, and retrieve the content

1.2.5. Podcasting

1.2.5.1. Method of distributing audio programs or video over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers

1.2.5.2. Podcasts are distributed using either the RSS or Atom syndication formats.

1.2.6. "Web as a platform" applications

1.2.7. Mashups and Open Source

1.2.7.1. Open source

1.2.7.2. Syndications, design for hackability and remixability

1.2.7.3. Systems that gets better when more people are using it (and improving it)

1.2.8. Scoial Networking

1.2.9. Possibilities for application in support of research activities

1.2.10. Mobile Web 2.0

1.3. Applications of Web 2.0 in teaching and learning (Churchill, 2007)

1.3.1. Implications for Instructional/Learning Design

1.3.1.1. User generated cpntent

1.3.1.2. Collaboration

1.3.1.3. Social Networking

1.3.1.4. Beyond a single device

1.3.2. New forms of assessment

1.3.3. Use of internet-mediated social learning spaces, and new forms of collaborative learning

1.3.4. New models and methods for design of learning objects and other kinds of digital curriculum materials that utilize emerging forms of multimedia expressions, open source, and remixing of data

1.3.5. New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers

1.3.6. New generations of learning management systems,or possibly no LMS at all, but rather, modular content and services management platforms that allow various Web 2.0 services to be selected and integrated into a customized solution

1.4. Additional Material: Go and Explore Web 2.0

2. Main Stages

2.1. Analysis

2.1.1. Needs Assessment

2.1.2. User/Audience Analysis

2.1.3. System/Technology Analysis

2.1.4. Content Analysis

2.1.5. FeasibilityAnalysis

2.1.6. Risk Analysis

2.2. Design

2.2.1. Define Goals

2.2.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis(Performance, Task, Content Analysis)

2.2.2.1. Analysis of job desricption

2.2.2.2. Analysis of job-related documentation

2.2.2.3. Observation of people at work, directly or via recording

2.2.2.4. Discussion with people about specific jobs

2.2.2.5. Extrapolation of task from a customer's stated training needs

2.2.3. Analyze Learners and Context

2.2.4. Write Performance/Learning Objectives

2.2.4.1. Used to guide the design process by describing precisely what targeted learners should be able to do on completion of the learning experience.

2.2.4.2. Domains of learning Objectives: Knowledge, Cognitive, Attitude, Affective, Skills, Psychomotor. (Bloom,1956)

2.2.5. Develop Assessment Strategy

2.2.5.1. Drill and Practice (Multiple Choice, True False, Fill in the Blank, Short Answer, Drag and Drop)

2.2.5.2. Essays

2.2.5.3. Problem Solving

2.2.5.4. Tasks

2.2.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

2.2.7. Arrange Instructional Events

2.2.7.1. Events of Instruction (Gagne,Briggs and Wager, 1992)

2.2.7.1.1. Gaining Attention

2.2.7.1.2. Information learner of the objective

2.2.7.1.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

2.2.7.1.4. Present the stimulus material

2.2.7.1.5. Providing learning guidance

2.2.7.1.6. Eliciting performance

2.2.7.1.7. Providing feedback about performance

2.2.7.1.8. Assessing the performance

2.2.7.1.9. Enhancing retention and transfer

2.3. Development

2.3.1. Develop a set of Flowcharts

2.3.2. Develop Storyboards

2.3.2.1. Evaluation

2.3.2.1.1. Review by your project team, editor, a client,a content mater expert, a representative of a real user(rare)

2.3.3. Write Design Specifications Document (Include features of the design)

2.3.3.1. Screen area presentation

2.3.3.2. Authoring plathform

2.3.3.3. Quality and format of graphics, videos, audio,and other media

2.3.3.4. Pedagogical considerations

2.3.4. Develop a prototype

2.3.4.1. Prototype: A working model and a representation of the final project; Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final product; Used as important evolution tool.

2.3.4.2. Interface design ( Layout,Size of display area, Resolution, Color)

2.3.4.3. Interaction design (Buttons, Hot -spot areas, Clickable objects,key press and shortcuts, Pull-down menus, Text entry...)

2.3.4.4. Presentation Design (Information design, general treatments, Media design, Typography)

2.3.5. Develop and Evaluate Project Documentation

2.4. Implementation

2.5. Evaluation

2.5.1. Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001)

2.5.1.1. Pedagogies(The learning activities which underpin the unit.)

2.5.1.1.1. Authentic Task

2.5.1.1.2. Opportunities for Collaboration

2.5.1.1.3. Learner-centered Enironments

2.5.1.1.4. Engaging

2.5.1.1.5. Meaningful Assessments

2.5.1.2. Resources (The content and information which are provided for the learners.)

2.5.1.2.1. Accessibility

2.5.1.2.2. Currency

2.5.1.2.3. Richness

2.5.1.2.4. Purposeful use of the media

2.5.1.2.5. Inclusivity

2.5.1.3. Delivery Strategies (Issues associated with the ways in which the course is delivered to the learners.)

2.5.1.3.1. Reliable and Robust Interface

2.5.1.3.2. Clear goals, directions and learning plans

2.5.1.3.3. Communication

2.5.1.3.4. Appropriate band with demands

2.5.1.3.5. Equity and accessiblity

2.5.1.3.6. Appropriate corporate style

2.6. Additional Materials: Explore the newest Learning technologies in the world.

3. LTD Frameworks and Models

3.1. Problem Based Learning (Howard Barrows), which was seemed to be the most one that ideally capture those principles.

3.2. Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003)

3.2.1. Multimedia Principle

3.2.2. Split-attention Principle

3.2.3. Redundancy Principle

3.2.4. Modality Principle

3.2.5. Segmenting principle

3.2.6. Pre-training principle

3.2.7. Coherence

3.2.8. Signaling

3.3. The Four-Component Instructional Design model

3.3.1. Key components 1: Learning Tasks

3.3.2. Key components 2: Supportive Information

3.3.3. Key components 3: Just-in-time (JIT) Information

3.3.4. Key components 4: Part-task Practice

3.4. Case-based Resoning

3.4.1. Schank, Berman, & Mac Phersoon (1999)

3.4.2. Kolb

3.5. Resource-based Learning (Churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington , 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001)

3.5.1. Key components 1: Resources and Tools

3.5.2. Key components 2: Activity(Task)

3.5.3. Key components 3: Support

3.5.4. Key components 4: Evaluation

3.6. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Enviroment.

3.6.1. 1. Question/Case/Problem/Project

3.6.1.1. Fundamental difference between CLEs and objectivist instruction: The problem drives the learning and students learn domain content in order to solve the problem. (Jonassen)

3.6.1.1.1. Jonassen (2000) classifies problems in the following types:

3.6.2. 2.Related Cases

3.6.2.1. Scaffold Student Memory: Case-based Resoning

3.6.2.2. Enhance Cognitive Flexbility

3.6.3. 3. Information Resources

3.6.4. 4. Cognitive (Knowledge- Construction) Tools

3.6.4.1. Problem/Task Representation Tools

3.6.4.2. Static and Dynamic Knowledge Modeling Tools

3.6.4.3. Performance Support Tools

3.6.4.4. Information Gathering Tools

3.6.4.5. New node

3.6.5. 5. Conversation and Collaboration Tools

3.6.6. 6. Social/Contextual Support

3.6.6.1. Modeling

3.6.6.2. Coaching

3.6.6.3. Scaffolding

3.7. Additional Materials: An Example of a Learning Design Sequence

4. Learning Theories

4.1. Behaviorism(Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.) (Schuman, 1996)

4.1.1. Impact on Educational Technology (Saettler, 1990)

4.1.1.1. The behavioral objectives movement

4.1.1.2. The teaching machine phase

4.1.1.3. The programmed instruction movement

4.1.1.4. Individualized instructional approaches

4.1.1.5. Computer-assisted learning

4.1.1.6. The systems approach to instruction

4.2. Design rom a behaviorist/cognitivist stance

4.2.1. The designer decides what is important for the learner to know and attempts to transfer that knowledge to the learner. The learning package is somewhat of a closed system, since although it may allow for some branching and remediation, the learner is still confined to the designer's "world".

4.3. Cognitivism (Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind.) (Schuman, 1996)

4.3.1. Impact on Instructional Design (Brednda Mergel, 1998)

4.3.1.1. Concern on the internal mental process and hoe to promote effective learning. (Saettler, 1990)

4.3.1.2. "Task analysis" and "learner analysis"are embellished in the design models. (Saettler, 1990)

4.3.1.3. The goals and principles of instruction remained from behavioral instruction.(Bednar et al., in Anglin, 1995)

4.4. Additional Reading Material

4.5. Constructivism(Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.) (Schuman, 1996)

4.5.1. Jonassen's "modle"for designing constructivist learning environments.(Brednda Mergel, 1998)

4.5.1.1. Based on internal Negotiation

4.5.1.2. Based on social Negotiation

4.5.1.3. Facilitated by Exploration pf Real World Environments and Intervention of New Environments

4.5.1.4. Results in Mental Models and Provides Meaningful, Authentic Contexts for Learning and using the Constructed Knowledge

4.5.1.5. Requires an Understanding of its Own Thinking Process and Problem Solving Methods

4.5.1.6. Modeled for Learners by Skilled Performers but Not Necessarily Expert Performers

4.5.1.7. Provides an Intellectual Toolkit to Facilitate an Internal Negotiation Necessary for Building Mental Models

4.5.2. Implications for instructional design

4.5.2.1. Brednda Mergel, 1998

4.5.2.1.1. Provide multiple representations of reality - avoid oversimplification of instruction by by representing the natural complexity of the world

4.5.2.1.2. Present authentic tasks - contextualize

4.5.2.1.3. Provide real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than pre-determined instructional sequences

4.5.2.1.4. Foster reflective practice

4.5.2.1.5. Enable context- and content-dependent knowledge construction

4.5.2.1.6. Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition

4.5.2.2. Instructional Design Priciples deriving from constructivsm (Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M, 1995)

4.5.2.2.1. Anchor all learning activities to a large task problem

4.5.2.2.2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task

4.5.2.2.3. Design an authentic task

4.5.2.2.4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment then should be able to function in a at the end of learning.

4.5.2.2.5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution

4.5.2.2.6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking

4.5.2.2.7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts

4.5.2.2.8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

4.6. Design from a constructivist approach

4.6.1. The content is not prespecified, direction is determined by the learner and assessment is much more subjective because it does not depend on specific quantitative criteria, but rather the process and self-evaluation of the learner.

5. Application Domain

5.1. LT products in Educational Institution

5.1.1. ICT in Class

5.1.1.1. Develop learning , thinking and communication skills

5.1.1.2. To enable learners to acquire ability to use technology to learn,to solve problems, to regulate their own thinking, organize, interpret and present what they know to others, to communicate, to find and make sense of information, to apply and innovate

5.1.1.3. Improve and enable processes of effective learning to take place

5.1.2. Partly E-learning

5.1.3. Flexible Learning

5.1.3.1. Provide services, resources and tolls for flexible learning

5.1.4. Distance Education

5.1.4.1. Provide education at distance (nationally and internationally) -could be linked to business goals

5.1.4.2. Most of the time the focus is just to bring courses on-line

5.1.4.3. Product and services are inseparable

5.2. LT products in Commercial Environment

5.2.1. Solve Own Training Needs

5.2.1.1. To train employees, management, partners, customers-existing/potential

5.2.1.1.1. Learning as a business strategy

5.2.1.1.2. Reduce training cost

5.2.1.1.3. Train more and at distance in shorter time

5.2.1.1.4. Reusability,easy upgrade and fast delivery of training

5.2.1.1.5. Easy repeating and re-learning

5.2.1.1.6. Just-in-time, any-time any-where access to training

5.2.1.1.7. Tracking and monitoring

5.2.1.1.8. To supplement in-house training

5.2.1.1.9. Integration of knowledge management and learning

5.2.2. Provide Specialized e-training

5.2.2.1. Corporate Universities,Towards certification and non-certification

5.2.2.1.1. To capitalize on opportunity to deliver specialized courses anytime and anywhere

5.2.2.1.2. Train more customers at distance in shorter time

5.2.2.1.3. Reusability, easy upgrade and fast delivery of courses

5.2.2.1.4. To supplement in-house courses

5.2.3. Develop Digital Content for sale

5.2.3.1. Knowledge objects, Learning objects, Entire Courses, Accompanying material

5.2.3.1.1. To capitalize on opportunity to sell content world-wide

5.2.3.1.2. To provide digital content with other materials

5.2.4. Develop Custom solutions for Client

5.2.4.1. Develop according to a client's needs, environment, curriculum content, scale of investment