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MITE 6330 Paco Lee/Li Jiahao (2011872367)mind map by Mind Map: MITE 6330 Paco Lee/Li
Jiahao (2011872367)mind
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MITE 6330 Paco Lee/Li Jiahao (2011872367)mind map

Session 4: Design Stage 2

Learning outcomes

Design stage 2

Storyboarding a project, Design, Storyboard template, Example, Evaluation, Evaluator, Your project team, Editor, A client, A content mater expert, A representative of a real user(rate), Content, Media,presentation,interface,interaction and treatment, Pedagogical quality/instructional design, Content accuracy,appropriateness,completeness,coverage, Technical issues, My group Storyboard

Design specification, Screen area presentation, Authoring platform, Quality and format of graphic,videos,audio and other media, Pedagogical consideration

Problem-based Learning Design, Definition, Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of a class of instructional methods that situates learning in complex contexts. In PBL, students learn through guided experience in solving complex, open-ended problems, such as medical diagnosis or designing a playground., Goals, (1) construct flexible knowledge, (2) develop effective problem-solving skills, (3) develop self-directed learning skills, (4) become effective collaborators, (5) become motivated to learn

Designing for Constructivist Learning, Six important elements, Situation, Groupings, Bridge, Questions, Exhibit, Reflections


Reading# Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework., Constructivism, Knowledge is in our interactions with the environment, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned, Understanding is influenced by the processes associated with the social negotiation of meaning, Instructional Principles, the interpretation of the problem based learning environment, Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both what is learned and on the learning activity, Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learners thinking, They should be able to function in at the end of learning, Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment, Design an authentic task, Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, Problem-Based Learning, Overview of the process in the medical school, Learning goals, Problem Generation, Problem Presentation, Facilitator Role

Session 6: Developing and Evaluating a Prototype

Learning outcomes

What is a prototype?, A working model and a representation of your final project, Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final product, Used as important evolution tool

Interface design, Layout, Size of display area, Resolution, Color

Interaction design, Buttons, Text entry, Drag & drop, Sliders, Dialer, Check boxes, Radio boxes, Lists, Haptic devices, Hot-spot areas, Clickable objects, Key press and shortcuts, Pull-down menus

Presentation design, Information design (diagrams, icons, symbols, images & photographs, tables & graphs, metaphors & analogies, spaces & lines), General treatments, Media design, Typography

Prototype Evaluatiopn, Rating people, There must be some kind of sign-off, Evaluation by development team, Evaluation by design team, Evaluation by real users, Evaluation by a client, My group Prototype, My group Evaluation Questionnaire

Learning design approaches, Behavioral/Objectivist Approach, Learning Theorists, Philosophy, Learning Outcomes, Instructor Role, Student Role, Activities, Assessment, Constructivist/Cognitive Approach, Learning Theorists, Philosophy, Learning Outcomes, Instructor Role, Student Role, Activities, Assessment

Constructivist learning environments, Models, Model 1, Model 2, Types of problem, Logical Problems, Algorithms, Story Problems, Rule-Using Problem, Decision-Making Problems, Troubleshooting Problems, Diagnosis-Solution Problems, Strategic Performance, Situated Case-Policy Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas


Reading#1Searching for Learner-Centered,Constructivist, and ociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools, THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOLS, A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, Mediation, Zone of Proximal Development, Internalization, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Assisted Learning, Teleapprenticeship, Scaffolded Instruction, Intersubjectivity, Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

Session 2: Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

Learning outcomes

Various Instructional Design approaches, Model 1, Stage 1: Identify Instructional Goals, Stage 2. Conduct Instructional Analysis, Stage 3. Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics, Stage 4: Write Performance Objectives, Stage 5. Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items, Stage 6. Develop Instructional Strategy, Stage 7: Develop and Select Instructional Meterials, Stage 8: Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation, Stage 9: Develp and Conduct Summative Evaluation, Model 2, Model 3,, Model 4, Model 5, 1. Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program., 2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning., 3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes., 4. State instructional objectives for the learner., 5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning., 6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives., 7. Plan the instructional message and delivery., 8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives., 9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

Conducting Analysis, What is an Analysis Stage?, Definition, Who Wants a Learning Technology Product?, An educational institution, A departmental worker or manager in an office, to save training costs, improve training benefits or motivate staff, A software publisher, to create a new game or business title to make profits, A company wishing to educate their potential customer base and/or support the existing customer base, A multimedia development company that has developed a concept for a product that they believe is marketable to businesses, A government department, to inform and educate staff at geographically isolated locations, A consultant who recognizes a need within an organization, A training organization who would like to mix learning technology with other training forms, to broaden the appeal of their products and services, Content, Needs analysis, User analysis, Environment analysis, System analysis, Content analysis, Risk analysis, My group Analysis

Writing a project proposal for a client, Description of the general treatment and reasons for choice, Variation on the treatment that are possible, Outline diagram of the proposed structure, Description of the human resource needed, Work breakdown and schedule, Cost/payment structure, Company statement of the limitations of the proposal, My group Project proposal

Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction, Gaining attention: To ensure reception of coming instruction, the teacher gives the learners a stimulus. Before the learners can start to process any new information, the instructor must gain the attention of the learners. This might entail using abrupt changes in the instruction., Informing learners of objectives: The teacher tells the learner what they will be able to do because of the instruction. The teacher communicates the desired outcome to the group., Stimulating recall of prior learning: The teacher asks for recall of existing relevant knowledge., Presenting the stimulus: The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features., Providing learning guidance: The teacher helps the students in understanding (semantic encoding) by providing organization and relevance., Eliciting performance: The teacher asks the learners to respond, demonstrating learning., Providing feedback: The teacher gives informative feedback on the learners' performance., Assessing performance: The teacher requires more learner performance, and gives feedback, to reinforce learning., Enhancing retention and transfer: The teacher provides varied practice to generalize the capability.


Reading#1 Instructional design & learning theories., What are Theories and Models?, What is a theory?, A theory provides a general explanation for observations made over time, A theory explains and predicts behavior, A theory can never be established beyond all doubt, A theory may be modified, Theories seldom have to be thrown out completely if thoroughly tested but sometimes a theory may be widely accepted for a long time and later disproved, What is a model?, A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly., Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism - The Basics, Behaviorism, Based on observable changes in behavior. Beha viorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic, Cognitivism, Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind, Constructivism, Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations., Learning models, Learning form technology instructivist models, Drill and practice, Computer-based tutorials, Intelligent tutorial systems, Gange’s 9-events of instruction, Reusable learning objects, Learning with technology constructivist models, Learning environments, Technology as a tool in a learning activity, Inquiries and problem solving, Cognitive tolls, On-line collaboration and knowledge building, WebQuest and ActiveLesson, Interactive learning objects

Session 1:Design of Learning/Instructional Products

Learning outcomes

What is Instructional Design?, Definition, Instructional Design is defined as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)

What kind of instructional/learning product?, Classification, In educational institutions, LT production in educational institution, In commercial environment, LT production in commercial environment

Context for instructional/learning design, In-house, New node, Outsourcing, New node, Buy Exiting Product/Solution, New node

Who needs and why instructional/learning product?, Book publishing industry, Writing, Reviewing, Editing, Proofing and Producing, Film industry, Pre-production, Production, Pos-production, Software industry, Feasibility,Analysis,Design, Program and Implement

Stages in instructional/learning product development, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation

Instructional Design vs. Learning Design, Learning Design, associated with, The concept of learning design, The implementation of the concept made by learning design specifications like PALO, IMS Learning Design, LDL, SLD 2.0, etc..., The technical realisations around the implementation of the concept like TELOS, RELOAD LD-Author, etc...

What kind of products we design?, E-learning, Multimedia Packages, Educational Digital video, Educational websites, Blanded learning packages, Assessment system, Learning object, Educational games, Educational electronic devices, Podcasts,itunesU,e-book

Project team, Project manager, Instructional designer, Interface designer, Multimedia designer, Others


Reading#1 A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media, History of instructional media, Definition, School museum, The visual instruction Movement and Instructional Film, 1919, Thomas Edison proclaimed, motion picture will be completely changed in the next ten years, but not come true, during 1914-1923, the visual instruction movement did grow, The audiovisual instruction movement and instructional radio, during 1920s to 1930s, audiovisual instruction movement, 1930s, instruction radio is hot, but it had very little impact on instructional practices., World War 2, the growth of the audiovisual instruction movement in the schools slowed;, Audiovisual devices were used extensively in the military services and in industry, In the military service, Effective training tools, In the industry, The federal government established the Division of visual Aids for War Training, A wide variety of other audiovisual materials and equipment were employed in the military forces and industry, Post- World War 2 developments and media research, After the war there was a renewed interest in using audiovisual devices in the school, Most of the media research studies conducted over the years has compared how much students have learned after receiving a lesson presented via a particular medium, Theories of communication, Instructional television, During the 1950s, there was a tremendous growth in the use of instructional television, The setting aside by the federal communications of educational channels, Set aside 242 television channels for educational purposes, led to the rapid development of a large number of public television stations., Ford foundation funding, Spent more than $170 million on educational television during the 1950s and 1960s, Shifting terminology, Computers: from the 1950s to 1995, Much of the early work in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was done in the 1950s by researchers at IBM, By the early 1980s, a few years after micro-computers became available to the general public, 1995, the impact of computer on instructional practices was minimal, Recent developments, Since 1995, rapid advances in computer and other digital technology, led to a rapidly in Increasing interest in, and use of, these media for instructional purposes, particularly in training in business and industry, Interest in using the internet for instructional purposes has also been rapidly growing in higher education and the military

Reading#2 A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design, HISTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN, Overview, Over the past four decades, a variety of sets of systematic instructional design procedures (or models) have been developed, and have been referred to by such terms as the systems approach, instructional systems design (ISD), instructional development, and instructional design, World War II, During the war, a large number of psychologists and educators who had training and experience in conducting experimental research were called on to conduct research and develop training materials for the military services., More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement, The programmed instruction movement, which ran from the mid-1950s through the mid-1960, In 1954, B.F. Skinner’s article entitled The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching began what might be called a minor revolution in the field of education, The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives, those involved in designing programmed instructional materials often began by identifying the specific objectives learners who used the materials would be expected to attain., The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement, a criterion-referenced test is intended to measure how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behaviors, irrespective of how well others perform., Robert M. Gagn é: Domains of Learning,Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis, the publication of the first edition of The Conditions of Learning, written by Robert Gagné in 1965, nine events of instruction, Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation, the United States government, shocked by the success of the Soviet effort, poured millions of dollars into improving math and science education in the United States, in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, as many of the programmed instructional materials developed during that period were tested while they were being developed., Early Instructional Design Models, In the early and mid-1960s, the concepts that were being developed in such areas as task analysis, objective specification, and criterion-referenced testing were linked together to form processes, or models, for systematically designing instructional materials, The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach, the number of instructional design models greatly increased. Building upon the works of those who preceded them, many individuals created new models for systematically designing instruction, In the mid 1970s, several branches of the United States military adopted an instructional design model, The 1980s: Growth and Redirection, there was a growing interest in how the principles of cognitive psychology could be applied in the instructional design process, and a number of publications outlining potential applications were described, The 1990s: Changing Views and Practices, one of the major influences was the performance technology movement, constructivist views of learning and instruction have had an impact on the thoughts and actions of many theorists and practitioners in the instructional design field, rapid growth in the use and development of electronic performance support systems

Session 3: Design Stage

learning outcomes

Design stage 1

Conducting Content and/or Task Analysis, Analysis of job description, Analysis of job-related documents, Observation of people at work,directly or via recording, Discussion with people about specific job, Extrapolation of tasks from a customer’s stated training needs

Design Stage --- Flowcharting a Learning Technology Design Project, Example

Developing learning outcomes, Identify learning outcomes, Create a sequence of learning outcomes, Design learning experiences and assessments, Facilitate learners, Analyze learning outcomes, 1\Comparing learner performance to performance of earlier learners, with the same learning experiences and with learning experiences motivated by different learning theories, 2\Looking for clues for how to improve the learning experiences, including matching them more thoroughly to the authentic performances that graduates are expected to complete, 3\Reconfiguring the learning experiences to prompt greater learning

Elaboration Theory, Seven major strategy components, (1) an elaborative sequence, (2) learning prerequisite sequences, (3) summary, (4) synthesis, (5) analogies, (6) cognitive strategies, (7) learner control


Reading# 1 The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media., Introduction, What’s wrong with this verbal-only method of instruction?, On the positive side, verbal modes of instruction have a long history in education and words are clearly the dominant vehicle for delivering information in schools., On the negative side, however, verbal modes of instruction are sometimes based on an inadequate conception of how students learn—which can be called the information delivery view., What is the promise of multimedia learning?, The promise of multimedia learning is that, by combining pictures with words,we will be able to foster deeper learning in students., First, multimedia instructionmessages can be designed in ways that are consistent with how people learn, andthus can serve as aids to human learning (Mayer, 1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2001), Second,there is a growing research base showing that students learn more deeply from well designed multimedia presentations than from traditional verbal-only messages,including improved performance on tests of problem-solving transfer (Mandl&Levin, 1989; Mayer, 2001; Najjar, 1998; Schnotz&Kulhavy, 1994; Sweller, 1999;Van Merrienboer, 1997), the promise of multimedia learning is that teacher scan tap the power of visual and verbal forms of expression in the service of promotingstudent understanding., What is a multimedia instructional message?, A multimedia instructional message is a presentation consistingof words and pictures that is designed to foster meaningful learning, the presentation contains words and pictures, the presentation is designed to foster meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, the dual channel assumption, the limited capacity assumption, the active learning assumption, Do methods work across media?, Multimedia effect with text-and-illustrations and narration-and-animation, Coherence effect with text-and-illustrations and narration-and-animation, Contiguity effect with text-and-illustrations and text-and-animation, Personalization effect with animation-and-narration and animation-and-text, Conclusion, the promise of multimedia learning rests in the potential of using words and pictures in ways that promote meaningful learning.

Reading# 3 The events of instruction, The nature of instruction, Self-Instruction and the self-Learner, Instruction and Learning, The postulated structures of cognitive learning Theories and the processes associated with them, Instructional events, Events of instruction and their relation to processes of learning, Gaining attention: Reception of patterns of neural impulses, Informing learner of the objective: Activating a process of executive control, Stimulating recall of prerequisite: Retrieval of prior learning to working memory, Presenting the stimulus material: Emphasizing features of selective perception, Providing learning guidance: Semantic encoding, cues for retrieval, Eliciting the performance: Activating response organization, Providing feedback about performance correctness: Establishing reinforcement, Assessing the performance: Activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible, Enhancing retention and transfer: Providing cues and strategies for retrieval, The events of instruction in a lesson, Comparison with lessons for older students

Session 5: Design Stage 2 -- Continue design of your storyboards

Learning outcomes

Multimedia Learning Theory, Multimedia learning theory, Multimedia principle, Split-attention principle, Redundancy principle, Modality principle, Segmenting principle, Coherence, Pre-training principle, Signaling

4C Instructional Design Model, New node, Four components, Learning tasks, Supportive information, Just-in-time (JIT) information, Part-task practice

Learning by Doing approach to Instructional design, Schank, Berman, & MacPhersoon, 1999, Kolb Learning Cycle, Dufour’s ‘Learning by Doing’

Resource-based learning model and design of e-learning, Definition, Four key components of a learning environment, Resources and tools, Activity(Task), Support, Evaluation, Benefits, When the instructor introduces additional resources, the students benefit by increased motivation and interest, When students are allowed to choose their own resources with the guide of a teacher, they can match their learning style, When students are asked to find the resources for their project or artifact needs, they learn problem-solving skills, When students are able to participate in deciding how to use resources to complete their project, they learn how to learn, When students are able to understand how resources can be used for learning, the gain information literacy


Reading# Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model, COMPLEX LEARNING, THE FOUR BLUEPRINT COMPONENTS

Session 8: Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

Learning outcomes

What is Web2.0?, User control of information, New forms of expression, Web as a point of presence, Internet-mediated social/collective activities, Web as a platform, Rich user experiences, Some speak of media revolution

Web2.0 applications, Blog, Wiki, Social Bookmarking, Social Repositories, RSS Feeds and Aggregators, Podcasting, Social Networking

Web 2.0 technologies, The client-side/web browser technologies, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (Ajax) framework, Adobe Flash and Adobe Flex framework, Cloud computing, Definition, Application, Monitoring, Content, Collaboration, Communication, Finance, Platform, Object storage, Identity, Runtime, Queue, Infrastructure


Reading# Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications., What Is Web 2.0?, Read-Write Web, Not only to consume but also to create information and contribute to the sites by publishing content, Subscribing to Information, users subscribe to an information service and information is delivered to then when it becomes available, Social Spaces, Web 2.0 applications are usually about engaging people in collective activities in a social space where they, for example, converse, exchange resources and ideas, or simply have some fun, Resources sharing and referencing systems, Web 2.0 promotes is the design of flexible systems that are able to "learn" and improve based on users' activities, online store, The internet as a Platform, Web 2.0 also signifies a gradual transformation of the lnternet into a platform that contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers, Google Docs, Open Source, There are now various applications offered for download and free use, Web 2.0 systems open their databases because they want others to reuse this information and remix it in their applications, The Wide Spread of Web 2.0, Currently millions of people across the world visit Web 2.0 sites, Education and Web 2.0, A large number of students will be coming to classes with understandings and expectations of technology aligned with Web 2.0, Applications, E-learning 2.0, use of blogging in classroom, use podcasting in teaching and learning, design learning management systems based on Web 2.0, Orientations of application, new forms of assessment such as digitals portfolios, use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces and new forms of collaborative learning, new models and methods for design of learning objects and other kinds of digital curriculum materials that utilize emerging forms of ultimedia expressions, open source, and remixing of data, new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, new generations of learning management systems(LMS), or possibly no LMS at all, but rather, modular content and services management platforms that allow various Web 2.0 services to be selected and integrated into a customized solution


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Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc. Available at:

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Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.

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