Map the mechanisms and concepts of EVOLUTION

Map the mechanisms and concepts of EVOLUTION

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Map the mechanisms and concepts of EVOLUTION by Mind Map: Map the mechanisms and concepts of EVOLUTION

1. Descent with modification.Changes in gene frequency in a population from one generation to the next. It helps us understand the history of life.

2. differential reproduction- producing more offspring with like adaptions of the parents. Allows the species to survive in a changing enviroment. John Posnecker

3. GENOTYPE = GENETIC MAKEUP

4. Mutuation-changes in a genomic sequence.

4.1. These are market as sudden changes in DNA or RNA that have zero explanation and just morph out of no expected reason. The effect can be no change, alter, or event prevent reproduction of future genes. Another form of "Variation." By Travis Shaw

4.2. Mutations can be caused by environmental factors and results in the imperfect replication of an organisms DNA, i.e. radiation, high temperatures, chemical changes, and viruses Stephen Colvin

5. sex

5.1. Sex is the Reproductive act of all animals not including plants that is needed to pass on genes and dna to form a new being. such as two humans creating a baby. By Chase M Fraser

5.2. Either the male or female division of a species, Distinguished by their reproductive capabilities. . By Rick Heinen

5.3. Sex is the basic drive behind the behavior of all fauna on the planet. Passing on one's genetic code is the fundamental responsibility of any organism.

6. Natural Selection

6.1. Charles Darwin

6.1.1. Did not actually invent the idea of evolution, but was the first person to put together overwhelming physical evidence in support of it. By Rick Heinen

6.1.1.1. Charles Darwin was an ordinary man whom like many people did not know what he wanted to for a profession. In hopes to discover this, he joined the ship crew of the H.M.S. Beagle as a friend to the captain and naturalist. This is where his first ideas of adaptive radiation first occurred while studying birds in the Galapagos islands. Linda Kinsky

6.1.1.2. November 24, 1859, decades after Darwin's initial findings, his work was published. 490 pages entitled On the Origin of Species. The first edition sold out that day. His hesitation to put his ideas into print we’re compound by the spread on the Christian religion and his wife’s personal beliefs. Linda Kinsky

6.2. common ancestor

6.2.1. Every chromosome has a special DNA sequence at both ends called the telomere sequence. Near the middle it has another special sequence called the centromere. If one of our chromosomes was formed by the fusion of two ancestral chromosomes, what we should be able to see is that we possess a chromosome in which telomere DNA is found in the center where it actually doesn't belong, and that the chromosome has two centromeres. So all we have to do is to look at our own genome, look at our own DNA, and see, do we have a chromosome that fits these features?

6.3. descent with modification

6.3.1. Happens over a long period of time. From generation to generation. Modification takes place when a specific gene increases or decreases in its population. Thus over time a population can be genetically modified. Linda Kinsky

6.3.2. Adaptation

6.3.2.1. Changes in the environment, the climate and even the diet of a population change effect it's evolutionary trajectory. For example Inuit people have adapted to eating a much fattier diet than most others, the bodies are better suited to break down and utilize the fatty foods. By Damon Dyrland

6.4. fitness

6.4.1. struggle for existence

6.4.1.1. differential reproduction

6.4.1.2. Struggle for existence is all things producing more offspring than can actually be supported. John Posnecker

6.4.2. Describes how good a Genotype is at leaving behind offspring, it is merely a percentage based on the ability to pass its genes onto the next generation. Alex Knight

6.4.2.1. A small example would be offspring or humans. If someone has 5 children that would be considered a high fitness level, as compared to a person who had no children during their lifetime there fitness would be zero because they failed to pass on their genes. Alex Knight

6.4.3. Darwin's use of the phrase "survival of the fittest" is frequently misunderstood. Many people assume that "the fittest" refers to the strongest, biggest, or smartest and most cunning individuals. This may or may not be the case. From an evolutionary perspective, the fittest individuals are simply the ones who have the combination of traits that allow them to survive and produce more offspring that in turn survive to reproduce. Jessica Bennie

6.5. environment

6.6. Often referred to as "survival of the fittest", A term coined by British philosopher Herbert Spencer. By Rick Heinen

6.7. Three different types of selection Erin Sullivan

6.7.1. directional selection: one phenotype is favored at one of the extremes of the normal statistical distribution of alleles Erin Sullivan

6.7.2. stabilizing selection: Organisms in a population with extreme traits are eliminated Erin Sullivan

6.7.3. disruptive selection: favors extremes traits in a population and selects against common traits Erin Sullivan

6.8. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck Erin Sullivan

6.8.1. proposed that acquired traits were inherited and passed on to offspring. Erin Sullivan

6.8.2. ex. Turtles have long necks because they are constantly reaching for higher leaves while feeding i.e. use it or lose it Erin Sullivan

7. GENE FLOW

7.1. EXACHANGE OF GENES

7.1.1. The transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another. John Posnecker

7.2. Gene flow is transference of Alleles or genes through populations. It is also causes variation from migration and adaptations to climate and conditions so species can adapt to there environment from adaptation of variations of those genes adapting to each and every change in environment and climate. Essentially "Survival of the fittest" - Herbert Spencer. (By: Travis Shaw)

8. GENETIC DRIFT

8.1. FOUNDER'S EFFECT

8.2. During one generation certain individuals will have more descendants than others, therefore in the next generation there will be more of the genes from the dominant individuals. By Brittney Case

8.3. The difference between genetic drift and "Natural Selection" is that genetic drift is entirely random and not having to do with adapting but to do with the "lucky" that are left over or the more numbers of your gene pool that you leave behind or a certain Gene Pool leaves behind. The ones who are lucky enough to live through a flash flood for example. By Travis Shaw

9. WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF GENETIC VARIATION?

9.1. mutation: genetic source of new variation

9.2. Gene flow as well as sex are also sources of genetic variation. By Brittney Case

9.3. Different skin pigmentation, bigger teeth, etc are all genetic variations the sources of these are your phenotype, genotype, and dna. By Chase M Fraser

9.4. We find that Mutation is a source of Genetic Variation. It is a change in an organisms DNA wether big or small it is always random, it happens when the DNA fails to make an exact copy,and does not try to supply what the organism needs or try perfect it. Alex Knight

10. WHY ARE MUTATONS RANDOM?

10.1. Factors in the environment are most likely the cause of mutation in an organism, but the mutations will generally not help the organism to cope with those new factors. In this respect, mutation cannot be predicted. By Blake Grimes

11. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE?

11.1. Phenotype: The physical appearance of a genetic trait

11.2. A genotype is everything passed from parent to offspring; the total genetic code of an organism. Phenotype is the physical expression of those genes.

11.2.1. The Phenotype can appear similar if not identical while the genotype is always unique due to its complexity and diversity within DNA. Megan Butler

11.3. Genotype: Is the actual makeup of what the phenotype is so if you have hairy knuckles which is your phenotype. A geno type of that is what gene made those. By Chase M Fraser

11.4. The phenotype of an organism is the group that an organism belongs to as determined by the description of the physical and behavioral characteristics of the organism like its size and shape. The phenotype is always the same while the genotype can always be different since it is a combination of traits passed from the parents of an organism like blue eyes and blonde hair. For example humans have two hands and two feet but only some humans have blue eyes and blonde hair. By Shannon Rushing

12. Biological evolution, simply put, is descent with modification

12.1. There is no 'ultimate plan' or aim in biological evolution.99.9% of all life on this planet is already extinct so clearly evolution is a system of trial and error that usually ends in extinction.

13. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICROEVOLUTION AND MACROEVOLUTION?

13.1. Micro-evolution is more specific and generally over a shorter period of time. It's a small amount of change within the species. Macro evolution is large scale evolution, looking at it from a broader perspective. When viewing macro-evolution, you are seeing more significant change.

13.2. Microevolution is on smaller scale and is a change in gene frequency with a population. It can be observed over a short amount of time. Macroevolution is where a species splits into at least two or change at or above level species and you generally need a lot of time to see the change. Macroevolution is the bigger picture, whereas Microevolution is the smaller picture.- Kayla Ormsby

14. WHAT IS A SPECIES?

14.1. Do they have to be able to have offspring that can reproduce to be considered a species? John Posnecker

14.1.1. I think what you're trying to talk about is hybridization which is when members of different species interbreed. Some hybrids are sexually viable and can go on to become a new species some are not and the line dies out at that first generation.

14.2. New Today we use the term adaptive radiation to refer to this sort of branching evolution in which different populations of a species become reproductively isolated from each other by adapting to different ecological niches click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced and eventually become separate species. node

15. WHAT IS COEVOLUTION?

15.1. Coevolution is when there are two or more species reciprocally affect each others evolution. By Brittney Case

15.2. Coevolution happens when different species have close interactions with eachother including: Predator/ prey or parasite/ host, competitive species, and mutualistic species. By Brittney Case

16. Essentially all life as we know it is stardust. We are a mixture of primordial hydrogen and helium from exploding stars, that has evolved long enough to ask it'self, "Why and where did I come from?"

17. DEFINITION OF EVOLUTION?

17.1. Simply put: Change throughout time. Alex knight

17.2. divergent evolution: results in closely related species with different behaviors and traits Erin Sullivan

17.3. convergent evolution: two unrelated and dissimilar species come to have analogous traits Erin Sullivan

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