Theoretical Perspective

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Theoretical Perspective by Mind Map: Theoretical Perspective

1. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVET: The behavioral perspective “emphasizes the role of nurture and considers learning to occur based on the stimuli, responses, and reinforcements that occur in the environment” (Otto, 2010, p.31). Furthermore behaviorist dispute that language is learned as a result of stimuli, responses, and events “that occur after the response behavior” (Otto, 2010). Additionally the behavioral perspective contends that children are encouraged to adapt to speaking from imitating adults. B.F. Skinner the theorist behind the operant conditioning is often linked to the behavioral perspective. A basic assumption of Skinner’s was that all language,” including private, internal discourse, was a behavior that developed in the same manner (NIU.EDU, 2003).

2. NATIVIST PERSPECTIVE: The nativist perspective emphasizes inborn or innate human capabilities as being responsible for language development” (Otto, 2010, p.27). According to Otto nativist theorist contend that infants learn their cultural language by discovering the “structure of their language” (Otto, 2010). Furthermore the nativist perspective focuses on the development of syntactic knowledge also known as grammar. Noam Chomsky, a linguist often associated to the nativist perspective, theorizes that universal grammar “rules that are elements or properties of all human languages” (Otto, 2010) is innate. Furthermore Chomsky theorized that a healthy infant have the ability to adapt to 3,000 languages.

3. The developmentalist perspective emphasizes that language is acquired through maturation and occurs as cognitive competencies develop. Furthermore the Developmental perspective argues that language is a “prerequisite and foundation for learning” (Otto, 2010, p.30). Additionally the developmental perspective disputes that children tend to use similar daily learning “mechanisms” to develop their language skills. Therefore there is no “unique language mechanism “(Otto, 2010). Developmental theories suggest various stages of cognitive growth must first occur before a child develops language skills. The sensorimotor stage is the first of the developmental stages. Children are paralinguistic and tend to understand their environment through movement and sense. Furthermore it is during the sensorimotor stage when an infant discovers object permanence or the ability to now an object exist even when it is not in the infant’s sight. According to developmental theorist Jean Piaget “vocalizations and babbling that occur during infancy are not language, (Otto, 2010) it is when a toddler reaches age 2 – 7 and acknowledge the world with words is when language is developed.

4. Interactionist Perspective: “According to the text Language Development in Early Child Hood “The Interactionist perspective focuses on “the primary role of sociocultural interactions” (Otto, 2010, p.33) which occur during a child’s development of linguistic knowledge. Interactionist theorists argue that the need to function in society is the fuel for children to attempt to communicate with the world, or environment which surrounds them. Interactionist theorist Vygotsky concluded that children develop language through the social interactions in which the child is exposed to and through the “society in which the individual lives” (Otto, 2010). Further theories developed by Bloom and Tinker suggest that language is based on observations and awareness.

5. Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. NIU.EDU (2003) B.F. Skinner, Behaviorism, and Language behavior