Orthopaedic Surgery

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Orthopaedic Surgery by Mind Map: Orthopaedic Surgery

1. Trauma

1.1. Poly Trauma

1.2. Pelvic Trauma

1.3. Soft Tissue Management

1.4. Amputation

1.5. Dysvascular leg

1.6. ATLS Chest Case

1.7. Humeral fracture with radial nerve injury

1.8. Multiple long bone injury

1.9. Severe open tibial fracture with soft tissue coverage required

1.10. Severe forearm fracture with compartment syndrome

1.11. Severe intra-articular fracture management principles

1.12. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture management

1.13. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy in upper limb

2. Peds

2.1. DDH

2.2. SCFE

2.3. Scoliosis

2.4. Spondylolisthesis

2.5. Torticollis

2.6. Vertical Talus

2.7. Clubfoot

2.8. Transitional Fractures

2.8.1. Triplane Fracture

2.8.2. Tillaux Fracture

2.9. Osteomyelitis

2.10. Multi-focal septic arthritis

2.11. Pediatric Trauma

2.12. Supracondylar fracture

2.13. Lateral condyle fracture

2.14. Medial epicondyle fracture

2.15. Monteggia fracture

2.16. Femur fracture

2.17. Perthes

2.18. PFFD

2.19. CP Hip

2.20. Growth arrest

2.21. Cavo-varus foot

2.22. Sickle Cell

2.23. Proximal Radioulnar Synostosis

2.24. Achondroplasia

2.25. Osteogenesis Imperfecta

3. Arthroplasty

3.1. Infection

3.2. Osteolysis

3.3. Aseptic Loosening

3.4. Unstable Hip

3.5. Soft-tissue knee - balance

3.6. Young OA

3.7. Bone loss - defect management

3.8. Inflammatory processes

3.9. DDH - adult

3.10. Valgus knee

3.11. Periprosthetic fractures

3.12. DVT / PE / MI

3.12.1. Diagnosis

3.12.1.1. CTPA

3.12.1.2. Doppler US

3.12.1.3. Troponin, CK

3.12.1.4. EKG

3.12.1.5. CXR

3.12.2. Management

3.12.2.1. IV Heparin aPTT - 60 to 90

3.12.2.2. DVT - coumadin 2-3 for 3/12

3.12.2.3. PE - coumadin 2-3 for 6/12

3.12.2.4. MI - Aspirin, Thrombolysis, PTCA, Consult Medicine

4. Oncology

4.1. Fibrous Dysplasia

4.2. Osteoblastoma

4.3. Giant Cell Tumour

4.4. Osteosarcoma

4.5. Hemangioma

4.6. Grade 2 Chondrosarcoma

4.7. Chondrosarcoma

4.8. Pathological fracture distal humerus (hypernephroma)

4.9. Impending femur fracture (lung carcinoma)

5. Upper Extremity

5.1. Carpal Metacarpal OA

5.2. RA Hand

5.3. SLAC

5.4. Scaphoid

5.5. Radius Malunion

5.6. Elbow instability

5.7. Keinbock

5.8. Chronic Wrist Pain

5.9. Acute Wrist injury

5.10. Sore swollen finger

5.11. Pain and numbness in forearm and hand

5.12. Gamekeepers thumb

6. Spine

6.1. Spondylolysthesis

6.2. Infection

6.3. RA C-spine

6.3.1. Atlantoaxial Instability

6.3.1.1. SAC at least 13 mm

6.3.2. Superior Migration of Odontoid

6.3.3. Sub-axial Subluxation

6.3.4. Need to get Flex / Ex Views in all RA patients

6.3.4.1. 4 mm of movement is threshold for fixation

6.4. Degenerative Spine

6.5. Disc Disease

6.6. Myelopathy

6.7. Stenosis

6.8. Tumour

6.9. Metabolic

6.10. Incomplete Spinal Cord Syndromes

6.10.1. Central Cord Syndrome

6.10.2. Brown-Sequard Syndrome

6.10.3. Anterior Cord Syndrome

6.10.4. Posterior Cord Syndrome

6.10.5. Conus Medullaris Sydrome

6.10.6. Cauda Equina Syndrome

6.11. Torticolis

6.11.1. Less than 1 week

6.11.1.1. Soft collar, analgesia, bed rest, if not spontaneous reduction than hospitalization and traction

6.11.2. 1 week to 1 month

6.11.2.1. hospitalization and traction; cervical collar 4-6 weeks

6.11.3. Greater than 1 month

6.11.3.1. hospitalizations and traction; cervical collar 4-6 weeks; consider operative management

6.12. Down Syndrome

6.12.1. Atlanto-axial instability

6.12.2. Atlanto-occipital instability

6.12.2.1. Power's ratio can be used to identify atlanto-occipital instability

6.12.3. Get flex / ex views prior to OR

6.13. Scoliosis

6.13.1. Idiopathic

6.13.1.1. Infantile

6.13.1.1.1. 0-3

6.13.1.1.2. Can resolve spontaneously - 90% if less than 1 year old

6.13.1.2. Juvenile

6.13.1.2.1. 4-10

6.13.1.3. Adolescent

6.13.1.3.1. Greater than 10

6.13.1.4. If Left thoracic; which is less common need further work-up - MRI required

6.13.1.5. Operative Indications

6.13.1.5.1. Curve greater than 50 degrees

6.13.1.5.2. Increasing curve in a growing child

6.13.1.5.3. Pain uncontrolled

6.13.1.5.4. Thoracic Lordosis

6.13.1.5.5. Significant cosmetic deformity

6.13.2. Congenital

6.13.3. Neuromuscular

6.14. Klippel-Feil Syndrome

6.14.1. Congenital Fusion of 2 or more c-spine segments

6.14.2. Further Investigations

6.14.2.1. MRI Spine

6.14.2.2. U/S abdomen - renal

6.14.2.3. Echocardiography - heart

6.14.3. Associated Scoliosis - 60 - 70%

7. Foot and Ankle

7.1. Hallux Rigidus

7.2. RA

7.3. Cavovarus Foot

7.4. Charcot Foot Infection

7.5. Plantar Fascitis

7.6. Chronic achilles tendon rupture

7.7. Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction

7.8. Hallux rigidus complicated by infection

7.9. Hallux valgus complicated by nonunion

7.10. Talar neck fracture complicated by AVN

7.11. Post-traumatic ankle arthritis requiring ankle fusion

7.12. Missed Lisfranc fracture dislocation

7.13. Malunion ankle fracture

7.14. Calcaneus fracture treated non-operatively requiring distraction subtalar fusion

7.15. Charcot subtalar dislocation requiring triple arthrodesis complicated by infection

8. Sports Medicine

8.1. Meniscal injury

8.2. Frozen shoulder

8.3. Rotator cuff

8.4. Shoulder osteoarthritis

8.5. ACL

8.6. PCL / PLC

8.7. OCD

8.8. Shoulder instability

9. Surgical Approaches

9.1. Spine

9.1.1. Posterior Approach Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar Spine

9.1.2. Costo-transversectomy for Thoracic Spine

9.1.3. Trans-oral approach to C1 to C3

9.1.4. Smith Robinson Approach C3 to C7

9.1.4.1. Start on Left Side, Oblique incision, split platysma, sternocleidomastoid + carotid sheath laterally, trachea / esophagus medially, down on c-spine

9.1.5. Transthoracic Approach T1 to T12

9.1.6. Retroperitoneal Approach to T12 / L1 and L1 to L5

9.1.6.1. Patient in lateral decubitus position

9.1.7. Transperitoneal Approach to L1 to L5

9.2. Shoulder

9.3. Humerus

9.4. Elbow

9.5. Forearm

9.6. Wrist

9.7. Hip

9.8. Femur

9.9. Knee

9.10. Tibia

9.11. Ankle

9.12. Foot

9.13. Upper Extremity Compartment Release

9.14. Lower Extremity Compartment Release