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Orthopaedic Surgery by Mind Map: Orthopaedic Surgery
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Orthopaedic Surgery

Trauma

Poly Trauma

Pelvic Trauma

Soft Tissue Management

Amputation

Dysvascular leg

ATLS Chest Case

Humeral fracture with radial nerve injury

Multiple long bone injury

Severe open tibial fracture with soft tissue coverage required

Severe forearm fracture with compartment syndrome

Severe intra-articular fracture management principles

Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture management

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy in upper limb

Peds

DDH

SCFE

Scoliosis

Spondylolisthesis

Torticollis

Vertical Talus

Clubfoot

Transitional Fractures

Triplane Fracture

Tillaux Fracture

Osteomyelitis

Multi-focal septic arthritis

Pediatric Trauma

Supracondylar fracture

Lateral condyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fracture

Monteggia fracture

Femur fracture

Perthes

PFFD

CP Hip

Growth arrest

Cavo-varus foot

Sickle Cell

Proximal Radioulnar Synostosis

Achondroplasia

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Arthroplasty

Infection

Osteolysis

Aseptic Loosening

Unstable Hip

Soft-tissue knee - balance

Young OA

Bone loss - defect management

Inflammatory processes

DDH - adult

Valgus knee

Periprosthetic fractures

DVT / PE / MI

Diagnosis, CTPA, Doppler US, Troponin, CK, EKG, CXR

Management, IV Heparin aPTT - 60 to 90, DVT - coumadin 2-3 for 3/12, PE - coumadin 2-3 for 6/12, MI - Aspirin, Thrombolysis, PTCA, Consult Medicine

Oncology

Fibrous Dysplasia

Osteoblastoma

Giant Cell Tumour

Osteosarcoma

Hemangioma

Grade 2 Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma

Pathological fracture distal humerus (hypernephroma)

Impending femur fracture (lung carcinoma)

Upper Extremity

Carpal Metacarpal OA

RA Hand

SLAC

Scaphoid

Radius Malunion

Elbow instability

Keinbock

Chronic Wrist Pain

Acute Wrist injury

Sore swollen finger

Pain and numbness in forearm and hand

Gamekeepers thumb

Spine

Spondylolysthesis

Infection

RA C-spine

Atlantoaxial Instability, SAC at least 13 mm

Superior Migration of Odontoid

Sub-axial Subluxation

Need to get Flex / Ex Views in all RA patients, 4 mm of movement is threshold for fixation

Degenerative Spine

Disc Disease

Myelopathy

Stenosis

Tumour

Metabolic

Incomplete Spinal Cord Syndromes

Central Cord Syndrome

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

Anterior Cord Syndrome

Posterior Cord Syndrome

Conus Medullaris Sydrome

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Torticolis

Less than 1 week, Soft collar, analgesia, bed rest, if not spontaneous reduction than hospitalization and traction

1 week to 1 month, hospitalization and traction; cervical collar 4-6 weeks

Greater than 1 month, hospitalizations and traction; cervical collar 4-6 weeks; consider operative management

Down Syndrome

Atlanto-axial instability

Atlanto-occipital instability, Power's ratio can be used to identify atlanto-occipital instability

Get flex / ex views prior to OR

Scoliosis

Idiopathic, Infantile, 0-3, Can resolve spontaneously - 90% if less than 1 year old, Juvenile, 4-10, Adolescent, Greater than 10, If Left thoracic; which is less common need further work-up - MRI required, Operative Indications, Curve greater than 50 degrees, Increasing curve in a growing child, Pain uncontrolled, Thoracic Lordosis, Significant cosmetic deformity

Congenital

Neuromuscular

Klippel-Feil Syndrome

Congenital Fusion of 2 or more c-spine segments

Further Investigations, MRI Spine, U/S abdomen - renal, Echocardiography - heart

Associated Scoliosis - 60 - 70%

Foot and Ankle

Hallux Rigidus

RA

Cavovarus Foot

Charcot Foot Infection

Plantar Fascitis

Chronic achilles tendon rupture

Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction

Hallux rigidus complicated by infection

Hallux valgus complicated by nonunion

Talar neck fracture complicated by AVN

Post-traumatic ankle arthritis requiring ankle fusion

Missed Lisfranc fracture dislocation

Malunion ankle fracture

Calcaneus fracture treated non-operatively requiring distraction subtalar fusion

Charcot subtalar dislocation requiring triple arthrodesis complicated by infection

Sports Medicine

Meniscal injury

Frozen shoulder

Rotator cuff

Shoulder osteoarthritis

ACL

PCL / PLC

OCD

Shoulder instability

Surgical Approaches

Spine

Posterior Approach Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar Spine

Costo-transversectomy for Thoracic Spine

Trans-oral approach to C1 to C3

Smith Robinson Approach C3 to C7, Start on Left Side, Oblique incision, split platysma, sternocleidomastoid + carotid sheath laterally, trachea / esophagus medially, down on c-spine

Transthoracic Approach T1 to T12

Retroperitoneal Approach to T12 / L1 and L1 to L5, Patient in lateral decubitus position

Transperitoneal Approach to L1 to L5

Shoulder

Humerus

Elbow

Forearm

Wrist

Hip

Femur

Knee

Tibia

Ankle

Foot

Upper Extremity Compartment Release

Lower Extremity Compartment Release