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Semantics is the branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, changes in meaning, and the principles that govern the relationship between sentences or words and their meanings.

Lexical semantics examines relationships among word meanings. It is the study of how the lexicon is organized and how the lexical meanings of lexical items are interrelated, and it’s principle goal is to build a model for the structure of the lexicon by categorizing the types of relationships between words. (eg. dog: 4-legged mammal, hairy, canine, definitely loyal.)

Hyponymy: a relationship between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of the other word. (eg. color: white, black, blue, green, etc.)

superordinate: the word more general in meaning

hyponyms: the words more specific

co-hyponyms: hyponyms of the same superordinate

Homonymy: ambiguous words whose different senses are far apart from each other and not obviously related to each other in any way. Words like tale and tail are homonyms. There is no conceptual connection between its two meanings. eg. bark (the sound of a dog) and bark (the skin of a tree)

homophones: words are identical in sound

homographs: words are identical in spelling

complete homonyms: words are identical in both sound and spelling

Homophony: the case where two words are pronounced identically but they have different written forms. They sound alike but are written differently and often have different meanings. (e.g. no, know and led, lead and would, wood)

Homograph: a word which is spelled the same as another word and might be pronounced the same or differently but which has a different meanings. (e.g.bear/ to bear)

polysemy: the same one word may have more than one meaning. (eg. e.g.foot in :He hurt his foot/ She stood at the foot of the stairs)

synonymy: the sameness or close similarity of meaning. (eg. boy=lad)

antonymy: oppositeness of meaning. (eg. open x close)

gradable antonyms: often with intermediate forms between the two of a pair, standing for two extremes.

complementary antonyms: characterized by that the denial of one implies the assertion of the other. They are two extremes without intermediate degree. It is a matter of either one or the other.

relational opposites: exhibiting the reversal of a relationship between the pair.

Metonymy: a figure of speech in which one word of phrase is substitued for another with which it is closely associated. (eg. "crown" for "royalty")

Meaning of the combination is a product of the combinations of the meanings of the words. (eg. Dog bites man. [happens all the time; not too interesting])

used to indicate the role played by each entity in a sentence and are ranging from very specific to very general.

Agent - doer of action

Theme - thing done do

Location - place

Source - original place

Goal - destination place

Instrument - something taht aids Agent in doing

Truth is a complicated matter. for the purposes of this course, we are only interest in a few distinctions about truth.

True by definition (analytic truth)

True by implication

Real world truth (synthetyc, contigent)