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1. what is emulsion?

1.1. A dispersed two- phase system, whereby one phase is dispersed in other in the form of fine droplets.

2. How emulsifier work?

2.1. Act to reduce surface tension at the interface layer between two immiscible phases due to the molecular structure

2.2. They have two polar group, hydrophilic & hydrophobic / lipophilic

3. Type of emulsifier

3.1. 1. Nonionic - uncharged molecules relatively insensitive to effect of pH and salt content.

3.1.1. Example - mono- and diglycerides, Sorbitan esters, Polysorbates, Polyoxyethylene glycol oleates (all contain OH functional group)

3.2. 2 Anionic - A negative electrical charge, markedly influenced by pH and ionic strength

3.2.1. Example - Strearoly lactylates, Diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), succinylated monoglycerides

3.3. 3. Cationic - Possess a positive electrical charge

3.3.1. Example - amine compound, not use in food addictive (toxic)

3.4. 4. Amphoteric - Possess both positive and negative charge

3.4.1. Example - Various lecithins, may act as anionic or cationic emulsifier, depend on pH

4. HLB (Balance of size and strength of the hydrophilic)

4.1. HLB value (HLB>10) more polar

4.2. Describe the emulsifying properties of nonionic emulsifier

5. Properties of some common food emulsifiers

5.1. Mono - & Di - glycerides

5.1.1. Most common, highly lipiphilic (1-10 HLB )

5.2. Sucrose Esters

5.2.1. Are mono- , di- , and tri- ester of sucrose with fatty acids, HLB value 7-13, mono - ester has HLB > 16, Di - esters are good for w/o emulsion, Tri-ester HLB about 1

5.3. Sorbitan esters

5.3.1. produce by sorbitol and stearic acid, known as SPAN 60, HLB = 4.7

5.4. Polisorbates

5.4.1. Polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, form from reaction of sorbitan esters + ethene oxide

5.5. Polysorbates 60

5.5.1. Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate or TWEEN 60, HLB = 14.9

5.6. Polysorbates 65

5.6.1. TWEEN 65, permitted for use in ice cream, frozen custard, ice milk

5.7. Polysorbate 65

5.7.1. TWEEN 80, HLB = 15.0

5.8. Stearoyl Lactylates

5.8.1. ionic emulsifier, most hydrophilic emulsifiers used in food, form lactic acid ester of monoglycerides + sodium or calcium, form strong complex gluten in starch

5.9. Lecithin and Derivatives

5.9.1. hydrophobic emulsifier, rich in egg yolk, derived from soybeans, can be chemically modified to provide a wide range of HLB, form with phospholipid + phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, inositol phosphatidyl.

6. Application of emulsifiers

6.1. Bread, Rolls and Buns

6.1.1. Dough conditioning / strengthening aid in development of less tacky, more extensible dough that are processed through machinery without tearing or sticking Example : calcium stearoyl, sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), ethoxylated monoglycerides (EOM)

6.2. Cakes

6.2.1. W/O emulsifiers

6.2.2. is added to fat - containing batters function To stabilize the aerated structure Promote a finer distribution of fat droplets

6.2.3. ALPHA - trending emulsifiers example : acetic acid esters of monoglycerides, Lactic acid ester of monoglycerides and propylene glycol esters

6.3. Confectionery product & Coatings

6.3.1. Used to inhibit bloom, stabilize gloss & improve palatability

6.4. Ice cream

6.4.1. act as aerating agent and foam stabiliser

6.4.2. emulsifiers stabilize the foam by actually de - stabilizing the product's emulsion

6.5. Frozen dairy product - ice cream

6.5.1. To displace the protein from the fat globule surface to aqueous phase cause increase the liquid cream's viscosity and allows the fat globules to agglomerate. the increase viscosity promores earation, while the agglomerates stabilize the air cells once the air is incorporated.

6.6. Noodle & Pasta

6.6.1. make rigid complex with starch To protect starch granules Improve the quality of starchy foods