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Female Repro by Mind Map: Female Repro
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Female Repro

Breast Pathology

Fibrocystic changes

Extremely common

Likely related to hormone variations, esp. estrogen

Non-proliferative, Increased fibrous stroma formation of cysts dilation of ducts, Not associated with increased risk of breast cancer

Proliferative, Additionally, epithelial hyperplasia, may increase risk of breast cancer


Most common benign tumor of breast (most common before age 30)

Carcinoma rarely arises in fibroadenoma

Composed of fibrous and glandular tissue.

Gross: nodules, 1-15cm

Histologically: delicate fibrous stroma that encloses glandular spaces (and loss of fat)

Carcinoma of breast

2nd leading cause of cancer deaths in women

10% of American women will develop breast cancer in lifetime.

Rare before age 25-30. Peaks at 60yrs

Most aggressive cancers in younger pts

Paget's disease: involvement of skin and nipple by malignant cells

Prognosis, size, metastasis, 80% 5yr survival: small, non-metastatic, 10% 5yr survival: wide spread, metastatic, 50% 5yr survival: overall survival

Increased risk, Positive maternal history, History of cancer in one breast -> 5x risk for other breast, History of epithelial dysplasia -> 1.5-2x risk

Ductal type, Non-invasive, 30-50% become invasive, confined to basement membrane of duct, Invasive, 90% of all breast carcinomas, Arranged as chords, glands, and/or sheets

Lobular type, Non-invasive, 20-30% become invasive, Confined to basement membrane of lobule, Invasive, Strands of malignant cells, "indian file", Often bilateral and mutlicentric

Pregnancy related diseases

Ectopic pregnancy

Implantation in any site other than uterus, Fallopian tubes 90%

Incidence 1/150

Predisposing factors, PID -> chronic salpingitis, fallopian tube scarring, Peritubal adhesions, 50% of causes no apparent tubal abnormalities

Complications, Bleeding into fallopian tube, Tubal rupture and hemorrhage: doesn't normally occur. Within first 2-6 weeks pregnancy.

Toxemia of pregnancy

Pre-eclampsia, The development of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in the third trimester of pregnancy, Typically first pregnancy, ie parity. (5-10%), Tx is Magnesium (prevents progressing to eclampsia)

Eclampsia, Pre-eclampsia plus the development of convulsive seizures, WHY DOES IT HAPPEN

Gestational trophoblastic disease

Placenta doesn't develop normally

Caused by proliferation of pregnancy-associated trophoblastic tissue.

Hydatidiform Mole, Cystic swelling of chorionic villi, Variable degrees of trophoblastic proliferation, Increased serum HCG, Tx, Chemotherapy: Invasive moles (10% of moles), Track progress using HCG levels, Complete type:, Hydrophobic swelling of all villi, Diffuse trophoblastic hyperplasia, Fetal parts rarely present, Choriocarcinoma precursor, Partial type:, Only some villi undergo hydrophobic swelling, Focal trophoblastic hyperplasia, Is not a choriocarcinoma precursor

Choriocarcinoma, Dangerous, Aggressive, Widely Metastisizing, High-grade trophoblastic malignancy, 1/20,000 pregnancies, Increased HCG, Gross: large, fleshy, and has areas of necrosis and hemorrhage., Histologically: proliferated trophoblastic cells; villi are not present, Preceded by these conditions, 50% Complete Mole, 25% abortion, 22% normal pregancy



Trichomonas vaginalis, Can be asymptomatic, watery gray- green discharge with a foul odor.

Candida albicans, Can be asymptomatic, Causes itching and a curdy white discharge, Present in 5% women



Endocervical canal, Columnar-mucus

Transitional zone, Squamo-columnar junction, Most likely region for cervical dysplasia

Ectocervix, Squamos

Cervical Neoplasia

Risk factors, i. Early age at first intercourse. ii. Multiple sexual partners. iii. Smoking iv. HIV

HPV: causes squamous neoplasms of cervix, Low risk: 6, 11 -> Condylomas (benign), High Risk: 16, 18, 31 -> Cervical carcinoma, Both low and high found in dysplastic lesions

Condyloma, Wart projections, Coilistic change: viral induced cytopathic change, Raisonid cells, Empty cytoplasm, dark wrinkly nucleus, Low grade dysplasia -> DOESN'T progress to cancer

Cervical dysplasia, Pre-malignant condition, May progress to carcinoma, Most spontaneously regress, Scoring, CIN 1: < 1/3 epithelial involvement, CIN 2: 1/3 - 2/3, CIN 3: 2/3 - complete, CIN 3 = carcinoma in situ (CIS), PAP Smear -> Scoring is based on degree of dysplasia of individual cells.

Cervical squamous cell carcinoma, Can be in situ or invasive, Gross: Granular and hemmorhagic



Myometrium: Smooth muscle, CT

Endometrium: simple columnar epithelium, tubular glands


Uterine Leiomyomas: fibroid, Benign tumors, Gross: whorls (spirals) of smooth muscle, Possible cause: excessive estrogenic stimulation, Symptoms, › Pain and pressure on the urinary bladder › Impaired fertility › Profuse bleeding during menstruation › Problems during pregnancy including spontaneous abortion., Fertility: large growths prevent egg implantation and growth

Leiomyosarcoma, Malignant smooth muscle tumor from myometrium, Generally don't develop from existing leiomyoma, Can metastasize


Endometrial Polyps, Benign, hyperplastic changes, Bleeding is a symptom

Endometrial Carcinoma, Women 55-60, Associated with obesity, hypertension, infertility, Infertility has more to do with neloparity. = No kids = Never a break from menstrual cycle. Excess Estrogen., Symptom: Post-menopausal bleeding, May develop from endometrial hyperplasia

Endometriosis, Presence of endometrial glands/stroma outside uterus., Location: descending frequency, 1. The ovaries. 2. The uterine ligaments. 3. The rectovaginal septum. 4. The pelvic peritoneum. 5. Laparotomy scars. 6. Rarely involves the umbilicus, vagina, vulva, or appendix. 7. Muscular wall of uterus, Potential causes, 1. Regurgitation of menstrual backflow through the fallopian tubes, 2. Endometrial metaplastic differentiation of epithelial elements covering involved structures., 3. Vascular or lymphatic dissemination of endometrial elements., Specific locations, Adenomyosis Uteri: Endometriosis in muscular wall of the uterus, Endometriod: chocolate cysts in ovaries


Ovarian tumors

Ovarian cancer: 5th most common cause of cancer of women in USA

Benign, Most ovarian tumors are benign, 24-45 yrs.

Malignant, 40-65 yrs

Often diagnosed late bc hard to detect unless symptomatic

Tumor origins, Surface epithelial cells, Most likely to be malignant, Germ cell, Dysgerminoma = Seminoma (male), Endodermal sinus tumor = Yolk sac tumor (male), Sex Cord - Stromal

Ovarian tumors commonly in cysts

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: PID

Infectious process that begins in vulva or vagina -> entire genital tract


Gonococcus: very common

Post-partum/abortion, Staph, Strep, Colliform, Clostridium p.


Infertility due to damaged fallopian tubes (salpingitis)

Pelvic adhesions

Bacteremia, bleeding, pelvic pain