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Crisis by Mind Map: Crisis

1. MEDIATION ROLES IN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS:

1.1. Major powers and small states; representatives of regional, global or security organizations; private citizens; religious organizations; special interest groups

1.2. Mediation styles:

1.2.1. - Formulative style: is more intrusive. The mediator helps parties formulate text designed yo move them closer to agreement

1.3. - Manipulative style: used when it appears that inducements, either in the form of carrots or sticks are necessary to move the negotiation forward

1.4. - Facilitative style: attempt to bring the parties together, provide a venue for negotiations and provide an environment in which a free exchange of views among parties can occur

2. Capable of changing the shape of the international system and altering outcomes of individual negotiation episodes

3. Larger system perspective

3.1. Increase in the intensity of hostile interactions between states

3.2. Increase in the probability of military hostility -> destabilizes their relationship and threats the stability of a regional subsystem or the entire int. system

3.3. ex: Berlin Crises of 1948, Cuban Missile crisis 1962, and 1973 Middle East War

4. From the point of view of a particular state and its decision maker

4.1. Crisis occur when the leaders of a country perceive a threat to basic values (territory, population, economy), an awareness of finite response time and an increase of probabilities of military hostile involvement

4.2. ex: John F. Kennedy when he removed the soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962

5. From the perspective of negotiation

5.1. The 3 key elements of crisis are threat, time pressure and accompanying stress that these engenders

6. Third party intervention

6.1. A mediator should be neutral across the parties involved

6.2. "Any action taken by an actor that is not a direct party to the crisis, that is designed to reduce or remove one or more of the problems of the bargaining relationship and therefore to facilitate the termination of the crisis" (Young, 1998)

6.3. By reducing the perception of threat and limited time

6.4. They lower stress levels

6.5. Achievement of mutually beneficial outcome

6.6. Enter into negotiations when apparently progress cannot be achieved without an outside involvement