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LOOP Ch 2-3 by Mind Map: LOOP Ch 2-3

1. The Aesthetics of Domination

1.1. Children not fully convinced of the importance of school; feel pressure to work and earn money instead.

1.2. Poor wish for kids to become independent so they don't have to support them anymore.

1.3. Each day's work provides only enough money to provide for the household THAT DAY.

1.4. Employers and domestic workers understand their roles, and negotiate an appropriate relationship; desire separation. "A matter of provate negotiation and personal control.

1.4.1. employing an empragada is a class marker nad necessity for middle to upper class homes.

1.4.2. Middle classness is a "State of Mind"

1.4.3. Empregadas permit for husbands to have a person to "reign over" after work.

1.4.4. Results in cultivated ignorance among the rich regarding proper household care.

1.5. Rio: City of Extremes.

1.5.1. Most stratified distribution of wealth.

1.5.2. Domestic worker relationship permit for the most observable instance of interaction b/w classes

1.5.3. Carefully planned archetecture

1.5.3.1. 2 routes of circulation

1.5.3.2. Complex signs of bondage

1.5.4. Telenovelas depicting the tragedies of elites incite laughter.

1.6. Servitude closely resembles slavery

1.6.1. "I feed my servants exactly the same food I eat."

1.6.2. Feelings of affection toward their slaves.

1.6.2.1. "The Bahian Cure"

1.6.2.2. Talk about domestic workers with love and appreciation

1.6.2.2.1. When workers fail to appreciate them in return they explain it away as proof of the worker's ignorance

1.6.3. Wealthy blame "the economy" for the necessity of domestic workers. They're employing the otherwise unemployable & pumping money into the economy.

1.6.3.1. HIding their own shame and guilt about their status in a "Civilized" world

1.6.3.2. Truly provides a sense of identity.

1.6.3.2.1. Upperclasses need this "Low Other" in order to know who they are.

1.6.3.3. Grateful workers remain with employers for a long time.

1.7. Mixed Race Brazil

1.7.1. Brazil wanted to avoid ridicule from European powere and wanted to be accepted as citizens of modernity.

1.7.2. Mixed-race population was a source of shame; long history of slavery

1.7.2.1. Race dynamics source of a particular sadness that is a characteristic of the brazilian soul.

1.7.3. Racism held that biological and racial differences were causative and reflective of different progressive stages of civilization.

1.7.3.1. Ideas of "whitening" and scientific racism

1.7.3.2. New shift in perception shifting "race" into "Culture" allowed elites to reject doctrines about racial inferiority.

1.7.3.3. There has been a cleaning up of the public transcript thus serving to hide domination.

1.7.4. Postemancipation architecture and design reinforced separation of privileged from non-p

1.7.4.1. Poor people hidden away in slums on hill

1.7.5. "MODERN ART WEEK"

1.7.5.1. Coincided with the publication of writings that led to a transformation of beliefs.

1.7.5.2. Freyre's thesis allowed a proud mixed-race civilized nation

1.7.5.3. "Manifesto Antropofago" (The Cannibal Manifesto) Oswald de Andrade

1.7.5.3.1. Cannibalize on old models and turn them into something new and uniquely Brazilian

1.7.5.4. Served as a radical awakening to history of exploitation by European powers.

1.7.6. Historical Embodiment of Racism'

1.7.6.1. Gloria and Nilda

1.7.6.2. The fine line between wanting to help and recognizing the limits of what is possible or expectee

1.7.6.3. Social indicators of class

1.7.6.3.1. Speech

1.7.6.3.2. Blackness

1.7.6.3.3. Handwriting

1.7.6.3.4. Bodily Movements

1.7.7. Academic Capital

1.7.7.1. Even when poor have access to education there is little opportunity to make it a high priority.

1.7.7.1.1. Wealthier children are forbidden to enter the kitchen of their homes.

1.7.7.1.2. Must enter the labor market before ever entertaining the hope of gaining access to higher learning.;

1.7.7.2. Must pass vestibular in order to be admitted to college; competitive and complicated exam.

1.7.7.2.1. Private schools prepare students well for this exam

1.7.7.3. Education alone as a realistic route to social mobility is deeply flawed.

1.7.8. The future

1.7.8.1. Poor more willing to take jobs in factories rather than domestic work

1.7.8.1.1. Although pay is commensurate, it is viewed more positively than domestic work.

1.7.8.1.2. Prostitution pays much more than domestic service and is a form of oppositional culture.

1.7.8.2. Hegemony is the articulation of differences that do not disappear.

1.7.8.2.1. Cultural Production Theory

1.7.8.2.2. Oppositional culture is subtle, unorganized, diffuse and spontaneous.

2. Color Blind Erotic Democracies

2.1. mesticagem, reputed historical blending of indigenous American, Iberian and African peoples into a single national identity

2.1.1. No legal supports b/c racism is less codified and subtly manifested in social rather than legal relations

2.1.1.1. Grandmother and grandchild play a trick on the world with their mixed race relationship.

2.1.1.2. ignores historically structured race-based oppression; making impossible to address institutionally

2.1.2. African-derived national traditions absorbedi nto Brazilian identity

2.1.3. Consider non-Brazilians who pursue the subject as having misunderstood it.

2.1.3.1. silenced by a "sexo e bom" argument

2.2. Race evaluated based on appearance vs. "one drop of blood" as in US

2.2.1. many complicated terms to define race rather than a simple dichotomy

2.2.1.1. point to interracial union as a freedom from racism

2.2.2. only highly politicized people can speak openly about race

2.2.2.1. governor's daughter beaten for holding an elevator

2.2.2.2. Cultural censorship

2.2.3. color = determinant in evaluating life chances

2.2.3.1. successful seduction negates the oppressive perception of color (blackness = ugly)

2.3. master-slave interracial sexuality has played a key role in codifying the idea of Brazil as both a racial democracy and a color-blind erotic democracy

2.3.1. dark-skinned , upwardly mobile black people are expected to seek out lighter skinned partners who will not interfere with their goals of social mobility

2.4. racialized eroticism

2.4.1. coroa can save a poor woman

2.4.1.1. distinguished by whiteness and wealth

2.4.1.2. seduction of a coroa recognized as a realistic and legitimate (albeit rare) form of social mobility; woman might be able to "overcome" her negatively valued dark skin

2.4.1.3. ageist assumption that a coroa cannot satisfy a young morena seductress but it's considered a tradeoff for higher social standing

2.4.1.4. seduction dreams not onyl a means of higher social standing but as a means of attaining a better life.

2.4.1.4.1. being with a white man serves to extract her from the slave category and admit her into the world of a "master"

2.4.1.4.2. enslaved by feelings of inferiority and aspirations of being admitted into a white world

2.4.1.4.3. the "mulatto escape hatch"

2.4.2. men's attractiveness determined by color and wealth; woman's attractiveness determined by beauty and sex appeal

2.4.2.1. the mulatta seductress; linkage to tropical, sensual, untamed and Brazilian

2.4.2.1.1. embodiment of carnaval

2.4.2.1.2. the forever exalted erotic other

2.4.2.1.3. some black ancestry but white characteristics that make them "beautiful"; blackness indicating sexual availability

2.4.2.1.4. Positive sexualized biproduct ; racialized outcome of the "low other"

2.4.2.2. Four stereotypes of black women

2.4.2.2.1. Mammy

2.4.2.2.2. Matriarch

2.4.2.2.3. welfare mother

2.4.2.2.4. Jezebel

2.4.2.3. romanticized predatory patriarchy

2.4.2.3.1. master-slave relationship not constructed as rape but serviced by a cult belief of sensuality;

2.4.2.3.2. sensuality as justification for sexual attacks on blak and mixed-race women

2.4.2.3.3. No recognition of the role that rape, domination and coercion played in miscegenation

2.4.2.4. mulatto men placed at the bottom of same social hierarchies but not exalted for their sexuality'

2.4.2.4.1. male mulatto is a tragic figure; especially in America

2.4.3. Brazil "different" from and morally superior as an "erotic paradise" celebrating the historiography of colonialism and slavery

2.4.3.1. Categories defining beauty and ugliness turn sexual attractiveness into a racial matter

2.4.3.1.1. Girls who ar eblack cannot hope to become models regardless of their beauty because their blackness is ugly

2.4.3.2. gendered differences in perception of racism and discrimination

2.4.3.2.1. Women encounter racism in intimate contexts charged with ambivalent emotions

2.4.3.2.2. interpretation of racism negates the notion/hope of social mobility by seducing a coroa

2.4.3.2.3. intimacy of sexual relations and willingness of the coroa to make a dark-skinned woman his companion are thought to neutralize the class exploitation that exists in actual practice

2.4.4. Black female sexuality valorized because it is suspended in a web of power relations making it available

2.4.4.1. pragmatism influences the survivalist sexual strategies of low-income women

2.4.4.2. discourses are reproduced by black women themselves as a means of reinforcing current racism

2.4.4.2.1. challenging to overcome because investment in a "black cinderella" belief has allure and reinforces the idea that Brazil is a "colorblind democracy"

2.5. Black movement rejected the "whitening" and favored a "back to our roots" orientation

2.5.1. The belief that Brazil is color-blind masks everyday racism and normalizes internalized racism.