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Chapter 4 Gathering Useful Data for Examining Relationships by Mind Map: Chapter 4 Gathering Useful Data for Examining Relationships
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Chapter 4 Gathering Useful Data for Examining Relationships

4.1 Speaking the Language of Research Studies

Types of Research Studies

Who is measured : Units,Subjects, Participants

Explanatory and Response Variables

Confounding Variables -Measured or Not

4.2 Designing a Good Experiment

Who Participates in Randomized Experiments?

Randomization: The Crucial Element

Control Groups, Placebos, and Blinding

Design Terminology and Examples

4.3 Designing a Good Observational Study

Types of Observational Studies

Advantages of Case-Control Studies

4.4 Difficulties and Disasters in Experiments and Observational Studies

Confounding Variables and The Implication of Causation in Observational Studies

Hawthorne and Experimenter Effects

Ecological Validity and Generalizability

RULE for Concluding Cause and Effect: cause-and-effect relationships can be inferred from randomized experiments but not observational studies

Extending results inappropriatley

Interacting variables

Using the past as a source for data