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Chapter 4 by Mind Map: Chapter 4
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Chapter 4

Section 4.1

Types of Research Studies


Experiments, Randomized experiments, Treatments

Who is Measured: Units, Subjects, Participants


Experimental Unit



Observational Study or Randomized Experiment?



Explanatory and Response Variables

Explanatory Variable

Response Variable

Outcome Variable

Dependent Variable

Independent Variable

Section 4.3

Designing A Good Observational Study

Types of Observational Studies, Retrospective, Prospective, Case-Control

Advantages of Case-Control Studies, Efficiency, Reducing Potential Confounding Variables

Section 4.2

Designing a Good Experiment

Randomization:The Crucial Element, Randomizing the Type of Treatment, Randomizing the Order of Treatments

Control Groups, Placebos, and Blinding, Control Groups, Placebos, Blinding, Double Dummy

Pairing and Blocking, Matched-Pair Designs, Block Designs

Design Terminology and Examples, Completely Randomized Design, Matched-Pair Design, Randomized Block Design

Section 4.4

Difficulties and Disasters in Experiments and Observational Studies

Confounding variables and the implication of causation in observational studies, Cause and effect relationships can be inferred from randomized experiments but not from observational studies

Extending results inappropriately, Available data can be used to make inferences about a much larger group if the data can be considered to be representative with regard to the question of interest

Interacting variables

Hawthorne and experimenter effects, The hawthorne effect is when participants in an experiment respond differently than they otherwise would, just because they are in the experiment, Experimenter effects are when the experimenter has bias results., These effects include recording the data erroneously to match the desired outcome, treating subjects differently on the basis of which condition they are receiving, and subtly making the subjects aware of the desired outcome.

Ecological validity and generallizability, Ecological validity is when the variables have been removed from their natural setting and are measured in the laboratory or in some other artificial setting.

Using the past as a source of data, If possible, retrospective studies should use authoritative sources such as medical records rather than relying on memory.