History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. cave paintings

1.1. beautiful, detailed, and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls

1.1.1. Altamira, Spain

1.1.1.1. Most of the cave paintings have a redish hue due to the red clay in the soil

1.1.2. Lascoux, France

1.1.2.1. Closed because the carbon dioxide from visitors was damaging the paintings

1.1.2.1.1. created Lascaux 2

1.1.3. Chauvet Pont de'Arc

1.1.3.1. New node

1.2. Common themes

1.2.1. large animals

1.2.1.1. horses

1.2.1.2. bison

1.2.1.3. deer

1.2.2. tracings of human hands

1.2.3. abstract patterns

1.3. Brushes made by

1.3.1. sticks

1.3.2. stones

1.3.3. leaves

1.3.4. animal hair

2. Cuneiform

2.1. Created by the sumarians

2.2. began as a series of pictographs

2.3. written on clay tablets

2.3.1. they used a wedge shaped stylus

2.4. they needed a way to keep track of business transactions

2.5. things we know about them

2.5.1. theorcratic culture ruled by kings

2.5.2. skilled artisans

2.5.3. music was an important part of their lives

3. hieroglyphics

3.1. logo graphic and alphabetic elements

3.1.1. New node

3.2. came into exsistance shortly after cuneiform

3.3. who became scribes

3.3.1. students

3.3.1.1. to learn how to read and write

3.3.2. military officials

3.3.2.1. so they can communicate in battle

3.3.3. priests

3.3.3.1. so they could read and write instructions on the wall and also on papyrus

3.3.3.1.1. papyrus is a substrate made from reeds and criss cross over each other flattened and dried

3.4. Rosetta stone

3.4.1. can be found in the in the British museum

3.4.2. Jean Francois Champollion

3.4.2.1. was able to match up the hieroglyphics with the Greek name of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses

3.5. Created in egypt

3.6. serifs

3.6.1. they are finishing off strokes

3.6.2. originated in Rome

3.6.3. added little hooks to the tips of letters to make them more legible

4. phonetic alphabet

4.1. one sign represented one spoken sound

4.1.1. all the letters started with consonants

4.1.1.1. first wide spread script

4.2. 3 theories of origin

4.2.1. direct variation of heiroglyphics

4.2.2. independent creation

4.2.3. ties with cuneiform

5. The Books

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. 2 ways to roll them

5.1.1.1. rolled up

5.1.1.2. had wooden rods on each end

5.1.2. allowed only for sequential use

5.2. codex

5.2.1. covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

5.2.2. advantage was compactness, sturdiness, and ease of refrence

5.2.3. used by christianity

5.2.3.1. used for bibles and scriptures

5.2.3.2. monastic monks became scribes of the church

5.2.3.3. the bible

5.3. parchment

5.3.1. substrate made from animal skin such as sheep

5.3.1.1. made from animal skin(hair and fat removed), Skin was smoothed out, hide was soaked in water, calcium, flour, and salt were added

5.3.2. vellum is a is a finer quality of parchment made from the skin of young calves

5.3.3. replacement of papyrus because it is more durable

5.4. illuminated manuscript

5.4.1. borders

5.4.2. illustration

5.4.3. ornimantation

5.4.4. reserved for religious manuscripts

5.4.5. replaced by the printing press

6. The Printing Press

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg invented it

6.1.1. John Fust invested

6.1.1.1. AGREEMENT: if Gutenberg could not repay the loan in 5 years then Fust would get the press, tools, and materials for the press

6.1.1.1.1. Gutenberg got Schaffer to help him

6.1.2. he also invented...

6.1.2.1. metal type

6.1.2.1.1. was cast using a matrix

6.1.2.1.2. more durable and the lettering looked more similar

6.1.2.2. oil based ink

6.2. 4 major printing processes

6.2.1. Relief printing

6.2.2. intaglio

6.2.3. porous

6.2.4. litholography

6.3. impact on communications

6.3.1. perfected script and made it easier to read

6.3.2. books were made more rapidly

6.3.3. current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.3.4. cost of books decreased allowing more people to buy them

6.3.5. demand grew; population became more literate

6.3.6. readers wanted books written in their own language

6.3.7. book trade began to flourish as well as many industries; paper making

6.3.8. economies became stronger

7. Linotype machine

7.1. James Clephane

7.1.1. was looking for an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal information

7.1.2. Ottmar Mergenthaler helped build a type setting machine

7.1.2.1. suggested casting type from a metal matrix versus paper mache

7.2. The Machine

7.2.1. name came from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type all at once

7.2.2. allowed the type to be cast mechanically instead of by hand

7.2.3. KEYBOARD

7.2.3.1. 90 characters

7.2.3.1.1. Arranged by usage

7.2.3.2. Black Keys

7.2.3.2.1. lowercase letters

7.2.3.3. White Keys

7.2.3.3.1. uppercase letters

7.2.3.4. Blue Keys

7.2.3.4.1. punctuation

7.3. Christopher Scholes

7.3.1. invented the typewriter

7.3.1.1. stenographers first users

7.3.1.2. James Clephane tested it

7.4. matrix

7.4.1. molds for the letters

7.5. Slug

7.5.1. assembled line of type cast into a single piece

8. Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. known to philosophers and scholars as a way to observe light

8.1.2. optical device that projects an image of its surronding on to a screen

8.1.3. in the 1500s it was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into/on a wall

8.1.4. in the 17th and 18th centuries it shrunk to the size of a box

8.2. The word Photography

8.2.1. Sir John Herschel

8.2.2. the greek word for light and writing

8.3. Successful...

8.3.1. Photograph

8.3.1.1. Joseph Neips

8.3.2. Practical photographic process

8.3.2.1. Louis Daguerre

8.3.2.2. Named: The Desgarro Type

8.3.2.3. expose a light sensitive metal sheet which creates a direct positive image made permanent by putting salt on it

8.3.3. Calotype Process

8.3.3.1. William Fox Talbot

8.3.3.2. subject exposed to a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.3.3.3. allows us to duplicate photos

8.3.4. The Wet Collodion Process

8.3.4.1. glass plates were used for the negative coated with collodion and developed; produced a sharper imgae

8.3.4.2. Archer Invented It

8.3.5. The Dry Plate Process

8.3.5.1. invented by Richard Maddox

8.3.5.2. put gelatin instead of wet collodion

8.3.6. Eastman

8.3.6.1. replaced the galss plates with photo emulsion coated on paper rolls; roll film

8.3.6.2. he would develop peoples photos for them for a minimal processing fee

8.3.6.3. made the company Kodak

8.3.7. Muybridge

8.3.7.1. paved the way for motion picture

9. Computers

9.1. Konrad Zeus

9.1.1. created first freely programing computer

9.2. Mark series of computers

9.2.1. Howard Riken and Grace Hooper

9.3. first commercial computer

9.3.1. Univac

9.3.2. for the census bureau

9.3.3. designed by John Ekert and John Mauchley

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. international business machines

9.4.2. IBM701 EDPM

9.5. First highlevel programing language

9.5.1. Fortan

9.5.1.1. IBM mathematical formula translating system

9.6. first computer game

9.6.1. Space Wars

9.7. The Mouse

9.7.1. douglace engelbrat

9.7.2. so that we could point at the screen

9.8. PC

9.8.1. personal computer