Unit 1 summary (1)

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Unit 1 summary (1) by Mind Map: Unit 1 summary  (1)

1. Types of words

1.1. Nouns

1.1.1. Words to name people, things and places. The types of nouns depend on certain characteristics. •Number -Singular -Plural You can use the articles You can add an or a -s/es Sometimes they are irregular •Concept -Concrete -Abstract guitar sound -Common -Proper Arch Arch of Triumph •Suffixes They are word endings - ance/-ence - ment - ant/-er - ness - ion •Quantity -Countable -Uncountable Apples Sand

1.2. Verbs

1.2.1. They are used to refer actions. •Agreement The verb changes according to the subject. •Time •Aspect -Past -Simple -Present -Progresive -Future -Perfect •Main verbs -Base form -Past participle form Swim Swum -Past form -Present participle form Swam Swimming •Helping verbs They communicate something that is connected to grammar or an additional meaning to the verb

1.3. Adjectives

1.3.1. They are words that describe a noun. •Never in plural. •They are before the noun in phrases. •They are after the subjective in sentences.

1.4. Modifiers

1.4.1. Adverbs They are words that can modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. •Types -Time -Place -Manner -Degree -Frequency •Usually have "-ly" ending •There are some irregular

1.4.2. Articles There are only three articles -Non-specific -Specific noun a/an the "A singer" "The singer"

1.4.3. Quantifiers They are words that indicate quantity It depends on the noun if they are -Countable or -Uncountable "A little sugar" "Few people"

1.5. Prepositions

1.5.1. They are used to unite a noun or pronoun with another element. They indicate time, place or the state of something. of on from at in by

1.6. Conjunctions

1.6.1. They are words that link other words or phrases. and so but because

2. Types of sentences

2.1. Simple

2.1.1. Has the elements of a sentence in just one sentence •Simple sentence combinations -Subject + verb + direct object -Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object The girl jumps a puddle Zara pushes her sister into the puddle -Subject + Be/SOUNDS +... -Subject + verb + complement The puddle is big The girl jumps very high in the puddle

2.2. Compound

2.2.1. It has a sentence a conjunction and another sentence "The girl jumps in the puddle but it is very deep"

2.3. Complex

2.3.1. One sentence depends on the other to get the message across. "I can jump the puddle when it's raining" "When it's raining I can jump the puddle"

3. Types of phrases

3.1. Noun phrases

3.1.1. These phrases revolve around a noun. "A tall tower"

3.2. Verb phrases

3.2.1. These phrases have at least one verb and one direct object to create the meaning. "Jump a puddle"

3.3. Prepositional phrases

3.3.1. These phrases have prepositions and complements. "In the night"

4. Parts of sentences

4.1. Subjects

4.1.1. It is the reference of the sentences Who/What is the sentence about?

4.2. Predicates

4.2.1. It is the action in the sentence What happen? What action?

4.3. Direct objects

4.3.1. It is the reference of the action The action what?

4.4. Indirect objects

4.4.1. Another type of referent to the action

4.5. Complements

4.5.1. Time, place, quantity complements Where? How long? How many?