ED103 reading

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ED103 reading by Mind Map: ED103 reading

1. The Art of Changing the Brain by James E. Zull

1.1. C1: the sweet edge

1.1.1. learning is physical-we can understand!

1.1.1.1. teaching is the art of changing the brain

1.1.1.2. can't rewire brain, but arrange things so it gets rewired

1.1.1.3. physical brain means a physical mind; meaning is physical

1.2. P1: FOUNDATIONS FOR LEARNING there are things that underlie learning and thus can support effort to help people learn. Parts of the foundation: 1) structure of brain produces learning naturally. 2) balanced use of different parts of the brain is required 3) interaction of emotion structures with the cognition structures in the brain, which helps us understand motivation, reasoning and memory. Emotion is the mortar that holds things together. Summary of key words from: 1) experience, 2) reflection, 3) abstraction, 4) action, 5) balance, 6) control, 7) danger, 8) pleasure, 9) movement, 10) feelings, 11) body

1.2.1. C2: where we ought to be

1.2.1.1. the natural relationship between brain structure and learning

1.2.1.1.1. Cerebral cortex

1.2.1.1.2. Learning cycle arises naturally from the brain: 1) concrete experience, 2) reflective observation, 3) abstract hypothesis, 4) active testing

1.2.2. C3: holding a just balance

1.2.2.1. brain connections that change data into knowledge

1.2.2.1.1. transformation of data to knowledge is "transformation of experience" 3 parts:

1.2.2.1.2. brain wired back to front; "transformation line" occurs in learning cycle between 2) reflective observation and 3) abstract hypothesis

1.2.2.1.3. should be balance between receiving knowledge and using knowledge. if achieved, this foundation can do more than support, it becomes integrated part of larger structure

1.2.3. C4: our trade and our art

1.2.3.1. evolution of the brain and motivation of the learner

1.2.3.1.1. cognitive brain is a powerful tool for survival

1.2.3.1.2. 1) cognition, 2) control, 3) fear 4) pleasure are four things brain uses to survive

1.2.3.1.3. no outside force can cause a brain to learn

1.2.3.1.4. 2 rules to help people learn: 1) help learner feel she is in control, 2) help them see how it matters in their lives

1.2.3.1.5. extrinsic rewards have limited motivational value

1.2.3.1.6. amygdala constantly monitoring experience to see how things are

1.2.3.1.7. Pleasure = moving toward something like a goal

1.2.4. C5: a feeling of this business

1.2.4.1. in the business of reason and memory, feelings count

1.2.4.1.1. when we become aware of our emotions we call them feelings

1.2.4.1.2. brain interacts with body in 2 ways

1.2.4.1.3. wire emotion to thinking

1.2.4.1.4. memory: 2 kinds

1.2.4.1.5. feelings can help us remember, make us forget, recall events that did and didn't happen.

1.3. P2: KNOWLEDGE, NEURONAL NETWORKS, CHANGE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE TEACHER Focuses on neuronal networks, their realtionship to knowledge and learning, and the practical impact of this info for the teacher. Teacher must start with existing networks of neurons in a learners brain, because they are physical form of her prior knowledge. In P2, develops specific ideas about helping people learn. Summary of key words: 1) neuronal networks, 2) prior knowledge, 3) construction, 3) concrete experience, 4) tangles, 5) inherent gifts, 6) associations, 7) errorless, 8) build don't destroy, 9) metaphors, 10) analogies

1.3.1. C6: what we already know

1.3.1.1. to begin, find out about existing neuron networks

1.3.1.1.1. prior knowledge

1.3.1.1.2. can't understand anything if not connected to something you already know

1.3.1.1.3. best to start with concrete examples

1.3.1.1.4. abstract concepts always embedded in concrete experience

1.3.1.1.5. must let students use neuronal networks they already have

1.3.1.1.6. 10 ideas worth remebering:

1.3.2. C7: only connect!

1.3.2.1. how teachers can change neuronal networks

1.3.2.1.1. synapses

1.3.2.1.2. specific ways teachers can change brains

1.4. P3: USING MORE OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX TO DEEPEN LEARNING Revisits the 5 major parts of the cerebral cortex: 1) sensory cortex, 2) back integrative cortex, 3) frontal integrative cortex, 4) motor cortex, 5) limbic cortex - major structures associated with emotion. Summary: examined some specific functions of of the 5 major regions of the cerebral cortex. Summary of key words: 1) sense luscious, 2) vision, 3) details, 4) attending, 5) mapping, 6) images, 7) showing, 8) hearing, 9) other senses, 10) unity, 11) what and where, 12) big picture, 13) taking time, 14) search for connections, 15) dreaming, 16) prosody, 17) language comprehensions, 18) creating, abstractions, 19) courage, 20) working memory, 21) executive, 22) natural thinking, 23) probabilities, 24) mirror neurons, 25) creating language, 26) test by trial, 27) action, 28) inert ideas, 29) inside and outside, 30) initiation of learning, 31) feedback, 32) verbs, 33) emotion dominates, 34) importance, 35) slow neurotransmitters, 36) play, 37) stories, 38) authenticity, 39) multiple gifts, 40) polarities, 41) dynamic, 42) movement/progress, 43) ups and downs, 44) challenge, 45) support, 46) self-evaluation, 47) ownership.

1.4.1. C8: sense luscious

1.4.1.1. using the power of the sensory brain to help people learn

1.4.1.1.1. sensory cortex/brain is 1st to receive input from senses

1.4.1.1.2. awash in "sense-luscious" signals from inside and outside body

1.4.1.1.3. what happens during concrete experience

1.4.1.1.4. Visual

1.4.1.1.5. Auditory

1.4.1.1.6. other senses can also enrich learning

1.4.1.1.7. we sense our feelings - emotion is part of sensory experience, providing flavor and quality to maps in our brain

1.4.2. C9: waiting for unity

1.4.2.1. helping people comprehend their experience

1.4.2.1.1. this is integration, requires reflection

1.4.2.1.2. integration of all sensory input is needed to comprehend the objects and events that make up our concrete experience in the world.

1.4.2.1.3. what and where

1.4.2.1.4. math example - calculating not a "reflective" activity

1.4.2.1.5. reflection takes time, but some are fast thinkers and others are slow thinkers

1.4.2.1.6. some teachers infatuated with speed. sensory input is fast

1.4.2.1.7. reflection is search for connections

1.4.2.1.8. we need reflection to develop complexity

1.4.2.1.9. with reflection we bring up images of past experience - engage "what" and "where" areas of the brain.

1.4.2.1.10. if we experience something that's happened to us before, it is hard to make meaning unless it engages our emotions

1.4.2.1.11. dreaming is an activity of an isolated brain - brain cannot sense events outside itself and cannot produce responses to what is going on inside itself.

1.4.2.1.12. language is tool to produce images

1.4.2.1.13. we can over-rely on language

1.4.3. C10: the courageous leap

1.4.3.1. creating knowledge by using the integrative frontal cortex

1.4.3.1.1. front cortex is most active in solving problems, creating ideas and assembling those ideas into the symbolic form we call language.

1.4.3.1.2. how front cortex integrates

1.4.3.1.3. whole point of front cortex is commitment and action - to plan a venture into the future.

1.4.3.1.4. produce abstract ideas which start in the individual brain and are untested - they could be wrong!

1.4.3.1.5. we can fall in love with our abstract ideas. they are at most the most powerful and dangerous things in the world.

1.4.3.1.6. brain needs to start working to create abstract ideas - it engages the working memory.

1.4.3.1.7. Executive - creating new ideas has 2 steps: 1) short term storage of information and 2) manipulation and rearranging of that information to form new relationships. Manipulations part is carried out by brain's front cortex which is often called the brain's "executive."

1.4.4. C11: test by trial

1.4.4.1. using the motor brain to close the loop of learning

1.4.5. C12: we did this ourselves

1.4.5.1. changing the brain through effective use of emotion