Chapter One - Pathways

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Chapter One - Pathways by Mind Map: Chapter One - Pathways

1. The Romans

1.1. Who were they?

1.1.1. Latin their common language

1.1.1.1. Romans very literate

1.1.2. Held a code of laws for the whole empire

1.1.2.1. All citizens had fair trials and a right to not be in poverty

1.1.2.2. Protected Romans from war and pirates

1.1.2.3. Rome demanded taxes, slaves and submission from it's lands

1.1.3. Pax Romana (Roman Peace) helped create trade and exchange of ideas

1.1.4. Mimicked Greek arts/architecture

1.1.4.1. Built great gardens/arenas/baths/theatres

1.1.5. Women/Slaves/Non-Romans not made citizens

1.2. The Fall of Rome

1.2.1. 410 C.E. Rome took over by Goths

1.2.2. Only the Eastern European Empire stayed strong

1.3. After Rome's Fall

1.3.1. Roads fell apart, making travel dangerous

1.3.2. Western Europe became chaotic

2. The Mediterranean World

2.1. Beginning of West Europe civilization started on Mediterranean sea coast

2.2. Mediterranean sea formed good transportation route

2.2.1. Middle Eastern, Asian, African and European ideas traded via route

2.3. 2 most important cultures: Greeks/Romans

2.4. Religion and it's changes of the world

2.4.1. Judaism

2.4.1.1. Began in Israel more than 3000 years ago

2.4.1.2. Conviction that Jewish have a special relationship with God as His chosen people.

2.4.1.2.1. To continue this they follow God's laws

2.4.1.3. During many times in the Roman era, Jewish forced to move far from homes

2.4.2. Islam

2.4.2.1. Name comes from Arabic for Submission

2.4.2.2. Muslims follow rule of worship shown by Qur'ân

2.4.3. Christianity

2.4.3.1. Found in Palestine by the apostles of Jesus Christ

2.4.3.1.1. He said 2 greatest commandants: To love god with your whole being and to love your neighbours as much as yourself

2.4.3.1.2. To Jewish authorities what he taught seemed to go against Jewish law

2.4.3.1.3. Story of Jesus recorded n the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John in the New Testament

2.4.3.2. Spread quickly along the trade routes of the Roman empire

2.4.3.3. If people baptized, and lead good lives they would go to heaven

2.4.3.4. As religion spread Romans prosecuted Christians who didn't worship Roman gods

2.4.3.4.1. Ironically 313 C.E. Christianity became official faith of the Romans

2.4.3.5. Missionaries

2.4.3.5.1. Helped spread Christianity and Roman culture through Europe

2.4.3.5.2. Leader of Roman Catholic Church believed spreading message of Christ very important

2.4.3.6. Eventually official religion of every western Europe country

3. The Franks

3.1. The Laws

3.1.1. Named Salic code after Salian Franks

3.1.1.1. Put value on every person/thing

3.1.1.2. Wergild fine must be payed for crimes

3.1.1.3. Family of murdered person can demand accused's death

3.2. The Merovigians

3.2.1. Ruled Franks for 300 years

3.2.2. Most successful ruler Clovis The First

3.2.2.1. Ruled 481-511 C.E.

3.2.2.2. Kingdom divided among children after death

3.2.3. Famous for treachery and murders

3.2.3.1. Kingdom fell into dispair due to fighting

3.2.3.2. Kings and Queens killed with own hands

3.2.3.2.1. Murdered own relatives

3.3. Who were they?

3.3.1. Germanic Tribe

3.3.2. Both Men/Women liked jewelry and long hair

3.3.3. The word Frank means free

3.3.4. Armed with an throwing axe called francisca

3.3.5. Farmers

3.3.5.1. Loved making wars

3.3.5.2. Conquered Gaul (France)

3.3.5.2.1. Late 4th/Early 5th centuries

3.4. Everyday Life

3.4.1. Social Classes

3.4.1.1. 60 % Serfs (Peasants)

3.4.1.1.1. Lords could take Serfs crops

3.4.1.1.2. Serfs free but not allowed to leave their lord

3.4.2. Merchants tried to profit from Serfs misfortune

4. Charlemagne

4.1. Who was he?

4.1.1. Granted power 768 C.E. to govern Carolingian Empire

4.1.1.1. Ruled for 47 years (Passing on at age 72)

4.1.2. Father was Pepin the Short

4.1.2.1. Threw out lazy Merovingian Kings

4.1.2.2. Pepin's father Charle's Martel defeated a Muslim Army attacking Europe 732

4.1.2.2.1. Thus Charlemagne's family was recognized as royal by the pope

4.1.3. Interested in rebuilding civilization

4.1.3.1. Made single code of laws for entire empire

4.1.4. Pope Leo The Third Crowned him Emperor of the Romans

4.1.5. Governed from Aachen (Germany) palace

4.1.5.1. Sent out missi dominci (The Lord's Messengers) to see the condition of his people

4.1.6. Was both kind and cruel

4.1.6.1. Ordered soldiers once to kill 4000 Saxons in one day

4.1.6.2. Wanted to see things better for Serfs ands Tradespeople

4.2. The Carolingian Renaissance

4.2.1. He put a great effort to improve education

4.2.1.1. Created new schools and monsatieris

4.2.1.2. Wanted all to learn the Latin classics

4.2.1.3. Wished his sons and daughters be educated

4.2.2. Launched a rebirth of the arts

4.2.2.1. Revived the practice of architecture

4.2.2.1.1. Many churches and palaces built by result in France/Germany

4.2.2.2. Enjoyed Science and Literature

4.2.2.3. Fond of talking with interesting people

4.2.3. His work eventually all collapsed because of feuding descendants and the Vikings

5. The Anglo-Saxon and The Celts

5.1. Who were they?

5.1.1. Farmers

5.1.2. Skilled metalworkers

5.1.3. Great storytellers

5.2. Anglo-Saxon England

5.2.1. Alfred the Great

5.2.1.1. Lost many battles with Vikings

5.3. The Role of the Irish

5.3.1. Celts practiced Druidism until St. Patrick brought Chrisitianty

5.3.2. Ireland had very few cities

5.3.3. Irish Monks helped preserve culture

5.3.3.1. Copied books onto sheets of sheepskin known as parchment

5.3.3.2. Copied both religious texts and other stories

6. The Vikings

6.1. Who were they?

6.1.1. Came from Scandinavia: Norway/Sweden/Denmark

6.2. Their Reputataion

6.2.1. Very destructive

6.2.2. So cruel people thought they were sent from God as punishment

6.2.3. Some were so terrified they bribed the Vikings with Danegeld

6.2.3.1. Vikings took 300 kg gold/15 000 kg silver from bribes

6.3. Everyday Life

6.3.1. Farmers/fishers

6.3.2. Lived at fjords

6.3.3. Viking farms small

6.3.4. Viking had slaves: Thralls

6.3.4.1. No rights, could be killed by owners anytime

6.3.4.2. Thrall's children instantly slaves

6.3.4.3. People made viking slaves when taken captive or sold into being a slave

6.3.5. Woodworkers/Smiths

6.3.6. Keepers of Viking lore: Skalds

6.4. Viking Law

6.4.1. Law Speakers remembered law and told it when required

6.4.2. Criminals usually fined

6.4.2.1. Some offenders punished more like becoming an Outlaw

6.4.2.1.1. Outlaws could be killed by all to get the accused's property

6.4.3. Vikings grand lawmakers

6.5. The Demise of the Vikings

6.5.1. Age of vikings ended 11th century

6.5.2. European monarchs grew stronger and defeated them

7. The Byzantines

7.1. Who were they?

7.1.1. Religion Orthodox Christianity

7.2. Justinian and Theodora

7.2.1. Ruled together 527-565

7.2.2. Justinian interested in politics, art, literature, religion, music and science.

7.2.2.1. Quite brilliant mind

7.2.2.2. Born a commoner

7.2.3. Theodora's father circus bear trainer

7.2.3.1. As effective and powerful as Justinian

7.2.3.2. Theodora coped well with emergiances

7.2.3.3. Brought reforms so woman could keep property they inherited