Cultural Anthropology

Studying the early process and history of Western art.

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Cultural Anthropology by Mind Map: Cultural Anthropology

1. Chapter 1

1.1. "The "age of discovery" also saw a revival of ancient Mediterranean culture and the emergence of new ways of thinking, which led In time to new cultural traditions of science, and of art" (3 ebook).

1.2. According to our text “World Art, art originated in Europe. However after the discoveries of the world, Europeans believed that their art was considered superior creating an eurocentric attitude towards other cultures and societies. The creation of museums began in the 17th century however they became well known in the late 18th century. The creation of the British museum, which carries historical and artifacts, is helpful to better understand a culture.

2. Chapter 2

2.1. "The Idea that Greece and Rome represented the "classical" expression of European culture has Influenced Western concepts of art evr since. It has also supported a cultural Identity that claims superiority over all other traditions and whatever It defines as their art" (2 ebook).

2.2. Europeans had a great obsession over Greece's art as many other foreign countries. Europeans believed that Greece wasn't capable of taking care of beautiful art that it was better off being sent to the British Museum. Very classicism and eurocentric of them.

3. Chapter 3

3.1. "...the word "Oriental" conjured up Images of despotism, exotic luxury, and culture conservatism, as well as alien religions" (2 ebook).

3.2. Oriential art was created by westerners, creating their own stereotypes of a culture. Asian artifacts were being recognized however the prejudice that Europeans had on them ignored their artistic values.

4. Chapter 4

4.1. "The Invention of "primitive man" Ignored these small-society values and conveniently avoided the difficult contradictions between Ideas of universal humanity, cultural differences, and colonial self Interest" (5 ebook).

4.2. Europeans believed that small societies were behind in time and imagined them as the primitive antecedents of their own society. Europeans used artifacts to gain a better understanding of the evolution of that society. Small scale societies were considered as “primitive” in the belief that they didn't have any history or social organization.

5. Chapter 10

5.1. "The work of all art is to contribute the kind of order that people seek to find, construct, and enjoy, to the world they experience (Burt, 156).

5.2. Art is universal to human societies. It is a reflection of people and their social context. For instance, the Nilectic herding peoples of southern Sudan use their cattle as a form of art. This shows the importance of form and meaning that create the human experience as a form of art.

6. Chapter 12

6.1. "People have always valued exotic artefacts and traded useful, curious, and pretigious imports from places they know nothing about" (Burt, 172).

6.2. Primitive art was not of much value to many Westerners because it was created by a “primitive” man. However, Westerners were amazed that the “primitive” man was able to create such a thing as “art.” That’s where Westerners began to take artefacts that belonged to a specific “primitive” culture. They had no context of that artifact and they collected and displayed it in art museums as a personal gain.

7. Chapter 14

7.1. "The art of conquest of taking, holding, and legitimating power over lands and peoples - include refashioning artistic products to deal with new political realities" (Burt, 204).

7.2. Europeans produced artistic images that portray Native Americans and Aboroginal peoples of Australia as incidental bystanders leftover from the past. However they didn’t show pictures of their everyday lives which can create prejudice within their culture.

8. Chapter 5

8.1. "Artefacts from the past are always used, whether or not consciously and conscientiously, to legitimate or contest the Ideologies of the present (17 ebook)."

8.2. Studying prehistoric art gave Europeans information and knowledge of that culture being studied. This was due to the development of antiquity and archaeology. Europeans excavated anything for their personal knowledge, however they didn’t see the damage it could do to the culture being studied.

9. Chapter 6

9.1. "This "formalist" approach tried to Identify principles of composition, such as organic unity among diverse elements, balance reflecting a sense of symmetry, recurring shapes, and so on, that should apply regardless of whatever might be represented (2 ebook)."

9.2. Formalism became the principle for the Western abstract painting of the early 20th century. Therefore believed that connoisseur to be the best judge of what was significant, in terms of universal aesthetic values.

10. Chapter 7

10.1. "...artifacts have deep meanings that their markers and users apprehend at some level of understanding that they cannot put Into words, beyond dropping useful hints through the more superficial meanings they are able to talk about" (16 ebook).

10.2. Artifacts have a lot of messages behind them however the people in that culture are able to decipher or understand it better. Britain, including other countries, have iconography and symbols in their art. However to fully understand the symbolic language of the art, it requires knowledge of the worldview of the people being studied. Therefore using cultural relativism In the process.

11. Chapter 8

11.1. "Costume Is a virtually universal way of distinguishing men from women, and In taking the dominant public roles, men have used the most elaborate ways of differentiating their rank and status" (2 ebook).

11.2. Small societies perform their rituals using artistic costumes which are used to affirm and perform social roles, to impersonate others. Many of whom impersonate spiritual beings which can affect an emotional transformation for both the performer and audience.

12. Chapter 9

12.1. "That is, unless we are careful to specify the social and cultural contexts of our analogies, we risk assuming that our own culture experience is sufficent to interpet images from other cultures (Burt, 128).

12.2. Archaeologists are able to decipher an artifact by the cultural context of the ignography being studied. In this chapter we get a glimpse of the ancient Moche and Nasca cultures by studying and interpreting images by historical and anthropological analogy.

13. Chapter 11

13.1. "...artefacts treated as art gain value from the practice of collecting, as a pervasive feature of the Western culture of material consumption" (Burt,167).

13.2. Western art consists of artefacts that are valued due to the superiority rank of that artist. The artist's class and gender helps determine the importance of that art. Also Westerners tend to collect art by auctions which shows the value of that art being sold. As well as the Westerners value to obtain the art.

14. Chapter 13

14.1. "This put them at a disadvantage in negotiating the artistic categories that affected the commercial value of their products by continuing to distinguish "tourist" or "souvenir" goods and "craft" from the pretigious and profitable "fine arts" (Burt, 194).

14.2. While many ‘primitive’ communities were being colonized by the Europeans they started to experience the exotic art market. It made it difficult for natives to sell their authentic artwork due to the idea of being a fake. Since many tourists see the same artwork around just like it, thanks to the exoctic art market.

15. Chapter 15

15.1. "Many cultural minorities around the world are under pressure to adopt global culture while selling their own culture as commodity and spectacle" (Burt, 223).

15.2. The history of the western world is marked with the experiences of colonialism. Many cultures have a mass commodification of art due to the Europeans colonizing them. Which globalization reduces the artistic diversity of the world.