Up until now, there had been peaceful relations (for once) between England and Scotland, so there had been harmonious cultural exchange, and for a while, their respective architectures had been quite similar. Malcolm III's English wife (Margaret) had been bringing English culture to Scotland. Then in 1290, there is no heir to the Scottish throne, Edward I of England is called in to make an executive decision, he picks a puppet king, making him essentially the king of Scotland. This triggers the War of Independence between Britain and Scotland for 50 - 60 years, during which there is no building in Sccotland. Once it recommences, Scottish and British architecture are markedly different.
Transitional Style, Pointed arches/windows (Gothic), Round arches/windows (Romanesque)
By William of Sens
Choir very similar to that of Sens Cathedral
Mostly built 1245 - 1272
The most French of English cathedrals
Chapter House, c. 1246, Lots of glass, minimum masonry
Early English/ 'First Pointed'
Specific chapel for the Virgin
Purbeck marble (polished limestone)
Simple lancet windows
Two sets of transepts
First Phase of English Decorated: Geometric, Geometrical Tracery
Borrowed Lincoln's order of surface
Only cathedral with two towers
Plan of Notre Dame de Paris
Plan of Lincoln church
Second phase of English Decorative Gothic: Curvolinear
Every statue is headless thanks to the Reformation
Adaptation of Romanesque
Final stage of English Decorative: Perpendicular
Lierne vaulting, Developed into fan vaulting in other parts of the cathedral, like at King's College, Cambridge, 1516
As it goes on, it becomes more flamboyant and loses some of it's coherence and logical structure.
French Gothic is very streamlined
French Gothic is very streamlined
Used in the Italian Renaissance to denote primitiviry and barbarianism who couldn't emulate Roman architecture as Romanesque had.
The pointed arch distributes weight from above more efficiently than a round arch. It also allows for thinner walls and wider spans. It's more flexible as a building element: the arches can be made wider or narrower, whilst still remaining the same height. Many pointed arches can work together to form a groin vault.
Uniformed vaulting of any plan shape
Elimination of non-load bearing walls
These arrived in late Romanesque, and succeed the barrel vault. Again, they are more flexible as a building structure.
Need for smaller windows
Need for smaller windows
Begin Gothic when the Renaissance is well under way in Italy.
Early Gothic: 1140 - 1200
High Gothic: 1200 - 1260
Rayonnant: 1260 - 1300
Engulfs an original 9th Century Carolingian church. Abbot Suger made additions 1135 - 1144.
Ribbed vaulting means that the new structure forms new, innovate shapes which were previously impossible.
Christian Neo-Platonism, Matter = Bad, Pure Form = Good
St John's Gospel: God is light, Choir: Huge stained glass windows
Symbolism in the height: Reaching up to the heavens
Focal window. The Tree of Jesse is the family tree of the ancestors of Christ, starting with Jesse of Bethlehem.
Part of the new front and choir.
Mystical significance of light., Adding a more holy light, Huge contrast to Romanesque churches
Things are built for practical reasons first, but meaning is given to them later.
Peter and Paul are the pillars of the church
12 inner columns of the chevet: with disciples/apostles
Outer columns =minor prophets
Trinity of doors
Like Heavenly Jerusalem from the Book of Revelations Ch. 21
Results in more open space
Survived French Revolution. Like the jewelled walls of heavenly Jerusalem.
Made it intellectually possible to justify Gothic stained glass expenses through marrying Platanism with Christianity: Saying that matter is bad; good is an ideal form and that the earth is a mixture of form and matter.
Matter = bad
Ideal form = good
God is beyond our imagination
God = light
Through separate vaults.
Old design: design changes from East (old section) to West, as they built it, they kept changing the design.
Going with French aims.
Aspiring to heaven: arcades are getting higher and higher.
The Book of Revelations says the walls of Jerusalem are 144 feet high.
Still 144 feet, but taller, because their local feet were longer.
Highest 144 ft of all. Never finished
Very light and rational as a style.
Makes it seem even taller.
Housing Crown of Thorns. Won from 1204 crusade from Constantinople, sacked for relics. Relics were generally housed away from human eyes, as it was felt that they may defile them.
Order dissolves; flamme - like a flame.
Due to heat - means a return to a Romanesque gloominess, and basically completely defating the rationale of Gothic. Basically, the same elements are being used (pointed arches, flying buttresses etc.) but as means to different ends.
Became more ornate as it grew.Banded towers.Crossing completed 1567.
Almost like a Moorish pattern.
Italians hated Gothic. It was invented in the dawn of the Renaissance and they saw it as ugly and primitive, hence they never really bothered with it properly.
Encrusted like tree trunks, a reference to the idea that Gothic was created by someone walking through a German forest.
Largest secular vaulted hall in Europe. Incredibly intricate v aults. Again, going back to the assumption that Gothic was related to intertwined tree branches.
No Scottish High Gothic: the Wars of Independence interrupted and there ewas very little decorative work in that period. Gothic reaches England and Scotland through monastic orders, especially Cistercian. Similar development until wars of Independenced. Scotland rejects English Perpendicular style, inspired by France.
New religious orders from France
French flamboyant design in the South Transept
Remained intact during reformation. Built on a steep cliff, over the site of St. Mungo.
Lower story for tomb
Simple lancet windows
Paid by Richard II as an apology for sacking
By John Morow, Closer to French flamboyant work, Worked everywhere in Scotland, Scotland fought for France in wars
'walls great and high'
'pure gold, like unto glass' --> Camille: 'crystaline appearance'
Not everyone liked them. Peter the Chanter (d. 1117), canon at Notre Dame de Paris critized this excess as being like the Tower of Babel.
More urban in France and Germany
Unlike French Gothic
Focus on depth of portals
On screen-like canopies with 257 statues
Her body = church From where the connection between God and humanity originated
sculptural elements of the East end show that this is the most sacred and important part of the church
St. Urbain, Troyes, begun 1260, small cathedral, exterior is composed so that all the elements seem deatched, Camille: shows imagination, 'capacity to build castles in the air', so light: no glass in certain parts of the tracery; just air, Rayonnant Gothic 1260 - 1300
Connatations of security
The frame was the locus: 'allowed the viewers to position themselves in relation to the representation within' Figure is elevated to a divine level.
Only gargoyles were ever without canopies: their exterior isolation, draine pipes: an 'ungodly ejection from the church'.
Canopies, alongisde crocketed finials and sharply pointed pinnacles were the image of Holy Jerusalem.
Chartres is very gloomy; filtered, jewel-colored light - 'a vision of that other would "garnished with all manner of precious stones"' (Revelation 21)
Rose windows = Virgin Mary
lumen = light multiplied spacially
lux = light from luminous bodies
splendour = reflected light
lux nova = Suger's choir windows
Pseudo-Dionysius - 5th Century, revival during the 12th Century, Suger was eager to link with St Denis, Christian mystic: God = an "incomprehensible and inaccessible light"
Light quality changed over the years, Chartres is very dark and mysterious, "This latter glass makes the walls of the church seem not so much garnished with a mosaic of precious stones as disappearing altogether in diaphanous radiance.", 13th Century allowed for more light to enter, People becoming more partial to materials such as crystals and diamonds, meanwhile, perspective philosophers were looking at refraction of light through the eye
1300 - silver staining in stained glass develops, white = important
Giotto: instead of transporting viewers to a heavenly realm, he's bringing them down to earth, Fresco: Italian's main way of defining space - Arena Chapel = coherent, painted narrative
Canterbury Cathedral, Pilgrims would literally move down from the dark of the crypts in to the light of the Trinity chapel (1220) where the relics of Thomas Beckett were displayed: v. bright with stained glass windows, each one representing his miracles.', 'New spatial experience'
Louis IX: Sainte-Chapelle, Essentially a huge reliquarium, So much light through windows reflecting off of gilded statues, 'chromatic brilliance of Gothic' lost from most buildings due to austerity of later century's tastes, Like being ain a huge gemstone