UNIT 5: VERBAL MOODS ENGLISH/SPANISH

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UNIT 5: VERBAL MOODS ENGLISH/SPANISH by Mind Map: UNIT 5: VERBAL MOODS ENGLISH/SPANISH

1. 4. Subjunctive Mood: This mood is used to express a wish, doubt, demand, or a hypothetical situation. The verb in the subjunctive mood always changes. Examples: -     If I were in her situation, I would never drive. (Expresses a hypothetical situation).

2. WORD ORDER ENGLISH

2.1. Is important, because it can change the spirit, meaning or fluency of a sentence. The order of wording of compound verbs and idioms ties back to the usual Subject-Verb-Object construction of the English tongue, with added complexity. The object in the last sample sentence is the something, i.e. the “attitude”, so it has a specific place in the phrase.

2.2. 5 most important basic rules of word order in English.

2.2.1. 1. Subject + predicate + direct object: In an ordinary affirmative sentence, the subject is placed directly before a word that defines its action, so-called predicate or verb. Direct object, if in general an object is present in a sentence, follows the verb directly, i.e. it is placed rights after it. For example: “They bought a car”; “We can not do that”; “The girl in a blue dress was watching TV” and so on.

2.2.2. 2. Predicate The rest unity of sentence members is called “predicate”, since it does not have relation to the subject. For example: “The girl in a blue dress was playing the piano”.

2.2.3. 3. Indirect object Indirect object is placed after direct object if it contains preposition “to”. Indirect object is placed before direct object if preposition “to” misses. For example: “The teacher gave dictionaries to the pupils”, but “The teacher gave them dictionaries”.

2.2.4. 4. Adverbial position An adverbial may have three positions: 1) before subject (usually this is adverbial of time). For example: “In the morning he was reading a book”; 2) after object (here almost any adverb can be placed or adverbial phrase). For example: “He was reading a book at the library”; 3) between auxiliary and main verb. For example: “He has already read this book”.

2.2.5. 5. Irregular word order in the English. a) Use of objects (indirect) without “to” and use of adverbs (usually of frequency). For example: “I sometimes drink coffee in the morning”, “She showed the policeman her driving license”. All you need is to follow the simple rules presented above and you will manage to avoid word order mistakes in an English sentence. b) Stylistic change of word order. Of course, each rule has its exception (and sometimes a lot of them), and many people, especially writers and speakers, often use irregular word order to achieve special effect.

2.3. Tenses in English

2.3.1. Past

2.3.1.1. ■ Simple Past. They are actions or states that began and ended in a certain period of time. It is formed as follows: • Affirmative: Subject + past tense verb + complement = You closed the door. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary did + not + infinitive verb + complement = You did not close the door. • Interrogative: Auxiliary did + Subject + verb in infinitive + complement = Did you close the door?

2.3.1.2. ■ Past Continuous. It is used to declare actions that take place in the past. Its structure is as follows: • Affirmative: Subject + verb to be in the past + verb in gerund + complement = You were playing football. • Negative: Subject + verb to be in the past tense + not + verb in gerund + complement = You were not playing football. • Interrogative: Verb to be in the past + Subject + verb in gerund + object = Were you playing football?

2.3.1.3. ■ Simple Past Perfect. It is used to express sequences of events in the past and to identify what happened first. It is formed as follows: • Affirmative: Subject + auxiliary had + verb in participle + complement = They had done their homework before leaving. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary had + not + participle verb + complement = They had not done their homework before leaving. • Interrogative: Auxiliary had + Subject + participial verb + complement = Had you done your homework before leaving?

2.3.2. Present

2.3.2.1. ■ Simple Present. This tense is used to talk about actions that happen frequently, whether daily or with a specific frequency. It is formed like this: • Affirmative: Subject + verb + complement = I write poems • Negative: Subject + auxiliary do/does + not + verb + complement = I do not write poems • Interrogative: Auxiliary do/does + subject + verb + complement = Do I write poems?

2.3.2.2. ■ Present Continuous. They are actions or states that happen continuously or that are carried out just at the moment of speaking. • Affirmative: Subject + verb to be in present + verb in gerund + complement = She is eating cookies. • Negative: Subject + verb to be in present + not + verb in gerund + complement = She is not eating cookies. • Interrogative: Verb to be in the present + subject + verb in gerund + complement = Is she eating cookies?

2.3.2.3. ■ Present Perfect. They are actions or states that began at some point in the past and continue until the moment of speaking. Its structure is as follows: • Affirmative: Subject + auxiliary have/has + participle verb + complement = He has cried all day. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary have/has + not + participle verb + complement = He has not cried all day. • Interrogative: Auxiliary have/has + subject + participle verb + complement = Has he cried all day?

2.3.3. Future

2.3.3.1. ■ Simple Future. With this tense, actions or states are expressed that are thought spontaneously and will happen in the future. It is formed like this: • Affirmative: Subject + auxiliary will + infinitive verb + complement = I will sleep all weekend. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary will + not + infinitive verb + complement = I will not sleep all weekend. • Interrogative: Auxiliary will + Subject + verb in infinitive + complement = Will I sleep all weekend?

2.3.3.2. ■ Future Continuous They are states or actions that will progress in the future. It is formed like this: • Affirmative: Subject + auxiliary will be + gerund verb + complement = I will be watching my favorite series all day tomorrow. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary will + not be + + gerund verb + complement = I will not be watching my favorite series all day tomorrow. • Interrogative: Auxiliary will + subject + be + gerund verb + complement = Will I be watching my favorite series all day tomorrow?

2.3.3.3. ■ Perfect Future These are states or actions that will be completed at some point in the future. Its structure is this: • Affirmative: Subject + auxiliary will + have/has + participle verb + complement = We will have finished university by next year. • Negative: Subject + auxiliary will + not + have/has + participle verb + complement = We will not have finished university by next year. • Interrogative: Auxiliary will + subject + have/has + participle verb + complement = Will we have finished university by next year?

2.4. Moods in English

2.4.1. 1.      Indicative Mood: This mood is used to express a fact statement. The verb in the indicative mood expresses an action as a statement of fact. Examples: -     She likes the gift.

2.4.2. 2.      Imperative Mood: This mood is used to express a command or a request statement. The tone of the sentence is a direct command, not a mild suggestion. Examples: -     Clean your room.

3. ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS EN ESPAÑOL.

3.1. ● Adverbios. En la función de complemento circunstancial, su situación depende del énfasis que se le quiera dar, aunque, por lo común, tiende a estar próximo al verbo (Hoy no hay clase de Geología), siendo su posposición inmediata más frecuente en los en -mente (Lo comprendió perfectamente) y cualitativos en general: Canta bien.

3.2. ● Las lenguas acusativas Las cuales contemplan una clase principal de sustantivos y oraciones entre las que se incluyen el sujeto y el objeto, describen, en su mayoría, el orden de los constituyentes tomando como referencia el verbo conjugado (V) y sus argumentos, el sujeto (S) y el objeto (O).

3.3. Orden

3.3.1. El orden de palabras constituye uno de los temas más debatidos en los estudios lingüísticos. Tradicionalmente se ha aceptado que la colocación de los elementos en español responde a la secuencia sujeto + verbo + objeto + complementos, orden que difiere del latín clásico.

3.3.2. ● Orden sintáctico Para construir una frase hay que tener en cuenta los Principios sintácticos, el orden lógico y la construcción Armoniosa. La construcción sintáctica es la que ordena los Elementos de la frase según su función gramatical: 1ro. El sujeto 2do. El verbo 3ro. Atributo o complementos: a) directo, b) indirecto c) circunstancial El verbo se coloca normalmente intercalado entre el sujeto y el complemento. Lo que no es correcto en castellano es colocar el verbo al final de la frase. Esta construcción o es un latinismo o un germanismo. Luis compró una bicicleta. - Luis una bicicleta compró. - Compró una bicicleta Luis. Compró Luis una bicicleta. - Una bicicleta compró Luis. - Una bicicleta Luis compró.

3.3.3. ● Orden natural Sujeto-Verbo-Objeto-Complementos adverbiales Ejemplo: Los poetas buscan a las musas en el cielo.

3.3.4. ● Orden invertido Complementos adverbiales-Sujeto-Verbo-Objeto Ejemplo: En el cielo, los poetas buscan a las musas

3.4. Modos Verbales en Español.

3.4.1. ■ Indicativo. Se utiliza para expresar acciones que se consideran reales, es decir, que ocurren, ocurrieron u ocurrirán en forma concreta. -Hoy es un día hermoso.

3.4.2. ■ Subjuntivo. Se utiliza para expresar acciones deseadas, posibles, hipotéticas, o que no están ocurriendo efectivamente. - Ojalá mañana no llueva.

3.4.3. ■ Imperativo. Se utiliza para expresar órdenes, formular pedidos u ofrecer consejos. -Ve y dile a tu hermano que venga aquí.

3.4.4. ■ Condicional El modo condicional expresa una acción de la cual el cumplimiento depende de una condición. -Si yo comiera más, estaría muy gordo.

3.5. Tiempos verbales del Español

3.5.1. ● Tiempos del indicativos. En español el indicativo es la forma usada para describir hechos reales o seguros, con independencia de si estos hechos son pasados, actuales o se espera que sucederán con certeza. Los nombres usados para los tiempos verbales difieren en España e Hispanoamérica.

3.5.2. ● Presente El presente en la mayoría de sus conjugaciones sigue una forma regular; pero hay algunos verbos irregulares, por ejemplo: el verbo "ir" o "saber", que en la 1ra persona del singular es "sé", que no sigue la forma regular donde los verbos terminan en -o.

3.5.3. ● Pretérito El Pretérito, también llamado Pretérito perfecto simple tiene una conjugación regular en todas sus formas.

3.5.3.1. ■ Pretérito imperfecto Se usa para describir una acción que transcurre en el pasado, sin indicar si se completó o no. Se usa para hablar de acciones habituales en el pasado (Juan comía manzanas a diario); cuando se habla de dos acciones pasadas que ocurren contemporáneamente -(Juan comía una manzana mientras estudiaba);

3.5.3.2. ■ Pretérito indefinido (o perfecto simple) Se utiliza para hablar de situaciones pasadas terminadas. Es posible encontrar el pretérito indefinido y el imperfecto en la misma frase. -Ej: mientras comíamos, llegó Juan con buenas noticias.

3.5.4. ■ Futuro simple o imperfecto Se utiliza para hablar de algo que aún no ha sucedido. -Yo amaré temeré partiré.

3.5.4.1. ■ Futuro perfecto Lo utilizamos para hablar de una acción futura ocurrida con antelación a otra también futura. - Ej: Para cuando llegue Juan, nosotros ya habremos comido.

4. COGNATES / COGNADOS

4.1. 3.      Interrogative Mood: This mood is used to express a sense of uncertainty by asking a question. The question contains an auxiliary verb (helping verb) and then a main verb. Examples: -      Are you coming to the summer camp?

4.2. ■ COGNATES. Are sets of words in different languages that have been inherited in direct descent from an etymological ancestor in a common parent language. Because language change can have very radical effects on both the sound and the meaning of a word, cognates may not be obvious, and often it takes rigorous study of historical sources and the application of the comparative method to establish whether lexemes are cognate or not. Also, cognates do not need to have similar forms: Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately.

4.2.1. ■ Perfect Cognates. As words that are spelt exactly the same in Spanish and English except for maybe an accent over one letter and they mean the same thing in both languages.

4.2.2. ■ Examples. ▪︎ ANALYZE - ANALIZAR ▪︎ CULTURE - CULTURA ▪︎ CAR - CARRO ▪︎ BANANA - BANANO ▪︎ COLLECTION - COLECCION

4.3. ■ FALSE COGNATES False, Accidental, and Partial Cognates False cognates are two words in different languages that appear to be cognates but actually are not The concepts of cognate and false cognate are defined with reference to etymological considerations, reserving the term false friend for semantic problems.

4.3.1. ■ False Cognates or False Friends. They are words that are spelt the same or similar but mean completely different things.

4.3.2. ■ Examples. ▪︎ ANUNCIO- ADVERTISEMENT 《ADVERTENCIA -WARNING》 ▪︎ DECIERTO- DESERT 《DESSERT- POSTRE.》 ▪︎ TARTA- PIE《 PIE- FOOT》 ▪︎ FIRMA- SIGNATURE 《ASIGNATURA- SUBJET》

5. Autor: Carmen Alicia Chica Ulloa.