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Weather and Climate by Mind Map: Weather and Climate
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Weather and Climate

Solutions taken

International

Mitigation, Government takes step to reduce greenhouse gases, Kyoto protocol, Agreed to reduce emissions by 5% in 2012, Signed in Japan in December, Montreal protocol, Limit the production and use of CFCs

National

Pass laws to help reduce the impact of climate change, Singapore NEA, Made it compulsory for all vehicles to pass a smoke emission test, Ensure gases emitted are within acceptable range, Must install catalytic convertors, Covert carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide into less harmful gases

Individual

Switching off lights and lamps when not in use

Reuse products like old bottles

Putting newpaper into recycling bins

Be informed of environmental activities, Earth Day 07.07.07

Causes of climate change

Start of industrial revolution (18th Century)

Increase in levels of carbon dioxide by 30%

Increase in levels of methane by 150%

Increase in levels of nitrous oxide by 15%

Enhanced greenhouse effect

Causes a rise in Earth's average temperature, Global warming

Increase in human activities

Greenhouse effect, Natural process whereby greenhouse gases absorb heat from the sun's rays and trap it in the atmosphere, More heat trapped due to increase in greenhouse gases

Greenhouse gases, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Water vapour

Industrial activities

Rapid increase in use of fossil fuels, Vehicles, Factories, Power plants

Leads to the increase of, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide

Usage of chemicals, Chloro-fluro Carbon (CFC), Compounds that are harmful when broken down, Aerosol cans, Refrigerators

Large scale deforestation

Reduced amount of vegetation at an alarming rate, Timber, Mining, Create more land

Trees take in Carbon dioxide and gives out Oxygen, When more trees are cut, less carbon dioxide is taken in, Carbon dioxide levels increase

Agricultural activities

Wet rice cultivation, Use of inorganic fertilizers release, Methane, Nitrous oxide

Cattle ranching, Releases methane

Consequences of global warming

Extreme weather conditions

Severe storms, Regions with wetter climate, Higher relative humidity, Leading to floods, China, Western USA, South East Asia, Warmer ocean temperatures, More intense tropical storms, Higher temperatures, Higher evaporation rates, Sept to Oct 2005, Major hurricanes in USA

Heat waves and droughts, Higher temperatures and evaporation rates, Lakes & rivers dry up, Less water vapour, No rain, Sahel region, Heat waves: A prolonged period of high temperatures, Europe, Milan, Italy, Cause forest fires, Forced animals to migrate, Extinction, Adelie Penguins

Melting ice and rising sea levels

Satellite images from space shows that glaciers are retreating, Caused sea levels to rise at an average rate of 1mm - 2mm a year

Arctic region, Ice caps cover much of Greenland, Due to global warming 50% of sea ice could disappear by 2050

South pole (Covered by Antarctica), Contain 70% of Earth's ice, Could melt due to global warming

Low-lying coastal countries, Vulnerable to rising sea levels, Lives and property of an estimated 100 million people are threatened by the possibility of going below the rising sea levels

Ice melting in the arctic region, Shrinking ice cover, 1979, Ice cover extended over Arctic ocean, Area of coverage has decreased by 9% per decade, 2003, Ice cover dramatically reduced, Large areas of open oceans, Russia, Alaska, Canada, No ice to reflect heat back to space, Large open oceans absorb more heat