Essential for 21st C ed
Support for learners beyond drill and practice games
Support for, Collaborative learning
Provide, Personalised learning experiences
Augment and enhance, Deep learning?
ubiquitous, distributed and connected learning tools
Digitally-Enhanced Monitoring and Assessment
Seamless Learning, easily switch learning contexts, formal/informal or personal / social, control of their own learning, Supplement class learning, Real time web based enquiry, Digital notes
Interface, Finger driven, Motivates and Engages, Interest in content for longer, Allows for group interaction, Same time - synchronously with same object, Enhances simultaneous opportunities for face-to-face social interaction, In ways not possible with other devices
Research suggests, Adoption beyond classroom, augments / enhances ways in which to learn not previously possible or easy to do
Multiple communication features, Benefits, for, Students, Parents, Teachers, of, Easy accessibility, School/home communication better, Routine availability, In combination with other tech, Collection/collation of data wherever learners are, The analysis and representation of this data about learning is vital to formative evaluation, assessment, self-assessment and reflection., with efficient network tech + cloud storage
School Leaders, Pressure to enhance learning, iPads help?
Schools are adopting devices, What can we learn, Research, multiple drivers and implementation models, majority of 1:1 implementation models, driven by government bodies and school leaders, Other groups, Small Scale approaches, Class Sets, shared Ipad groups, Industry Pilots, Individual Teachers, Early adopters fund their own, Late adopters seek funding, Parental contributions, Leasing for Students, Research supported studies, Digital Champions, Individual Schools, Secondary, 1:1 devices, Primary, Shared devices/ class sets more likely, Successful implementation, Careful long term planning, before/during/after event, Involves, Consideration of existing networks, Ownership Models, Tech lifecycle, Broad stakeholder preparation, Ongoing engagement from, parents, teachers, learners, technical managers, Plans for capturing progression/ evaluation, Bars to, Costs especially 1:1, Ownership Models explored, Implications for organising students' learning, Continuity of access for students' work, Access to learning data, Management, maintenance, security of devices, Reviews, Clear rationale for adoption needed
Others looking to do this in future
Technical Support, Implications, Success criteria of ease of transition sometimes masked by, New school buildings/ spend, Ease of use marred by, Integration, Ownership ?, BYOD, Variety of devices, Different OS, School, iPads Strength, Consistency of, Interface, OS, Apps, Security, Backup, Restore, Lifespan, Process of continuing evaluation as devices develop
Teachers, Evidence, Enhanced learning experience, Transformed teaching practice, Ease of use compared to networked computers e.g. booking logins etc, Mobility, Portability, Rapid one-touch access to tools, Enabled routine activities to occur frequently, Benefits, Cloud connection, Wide range of apps, Immediacy of communication, e.g. email / facetime, Exploration of alternative activities, 3d, Interactive, Multimodal, Virtual Tours, Alternative forms of assessment, Enabled teachers, to promote independent learning, Differentiation of learning more easily, Catering to different students' needs, Easily share resources, With students and with each other, Implications for training and development, Recognisable phases in teacher familiarisation, Integration into classroom environment, Identification of these can inform CPD
Parents, Generally positive, Increased engagement, Increased interest in learning, Gains in knowledge and technology skills, More time on homework, More opportunity to make learning relevant and authentic, What does this mean?, Home/ school communication improved, Major benefit > Introduction of 1:1 devices means no heavy school bags!, Some concern about, Anxiety about breakage, Theft, Loss, Misuse, Costs / inconsistencies in rollout?, Different parental contribution etc
Learners, Attractive, Easy to use, Research overwhelmingly points to increased student engagement with learning., Increased, motivation, enthusiasm, interest, engagement, independence, self-regulation, creativity, improved productivity
Evidence that they can help teachers, learners and parents in multiple ways to be more effective.
So learning benefits which IPads can leverage
Ipad plays a supporting role in these benefits
How can ipads be used to do this?
One of a range of tools
1) BIG DATA: DIGITALLY-ENHANCED MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, "Overall, however, it seems that the rollout of tablet devices like the iPad may still be too new for impact in the area of assessment and feedback to have been fully investigated."
2) PERSONALISED, Burden et al. (2012) found that personalised access and individual ownership is a crucial element in successful adoption and effective use of the iPads in their study.
3) COLLABORATIVE, "Research evidence suggests that ‘Post-PC’ tablet devices like the iPad can contribute to better quality collaborative, co-operative or cross-contextual learning experiences for students.
5) UBIQUITOUS, DISTRIBUTED AND CONNECTED, In many studies, teachers, students and parents reported that the multiple communication features, routine availability and easy accessibility of iPads in the classroom and in students’ homes made communication between teachers and students and school and home easier and more routine (Heinrich, 2012; Burden et al., 2012; Clarke, 2012).
.."whilst, as indicated above, evidence about learning in schools with iPads is gradually beginning to emerge, what there is remains variable in quality. What is clear is that little is certain when it comes to the future of tablet computing in schools. It is against just such a context that Heinrich (2012) suggests that the key lesson from the research is that schools need to have a ‘clear vision and strategy’ for implementing any ‘Post-PC’ tablet scheme – and that means knowing what you want, why you want it, how to get it and how to implement it when you do.`'
RATIONALE FOR ADOPTION, A review of the literature suggests that schools wishing to use tablets should have a clear rationale for adopting this technology, Whatever the rationale, this suggests that any adoption of such tools for schools, requires a particular focus on teaching and learning, school management systems, and added value for learners and parents, especially where parental contribution to leasing agreements is requested. Additionally, as with any new technology, these devices require significant strategic planning to ensure adequate and appropriate integration with existing systems and negotiation of the general lifecycle of the technology. Whilst one teacher at Longfield, for example, has claimed that “iPads have revolutionised learning” at the school, the school management team responsible for implementing the roll out were also quick to establish that “effective project management has been critical to the success of this development” (Heinrich, 2012)
ROLLOUT MODELS, The team at Longfield, for example, suggest a nine-lesson model (Heinrich, 2012)., 1. Develop a clear vision and strategy., 2. Define your learning culture., 3. Define and create your user experience and support model., 4. Work with a traffic light and reporting system., 5. Evaluate your existing position, 6. Know how many staff/students already own an iOS device., 7. Involve all stakeholders – don’t let a perception grow that it is a ‘done deal’., 8. Get devices into the hands of teachers and learners as soon as possible., 9. Record and share your experiences.
OWNERSHIP MODELS, The range and variety of ownership models do, however, have implications for organising students’ learning, continuity of access to students’ work and learning data, as well as to management, maintenance and security of the devices.
NETWORK MANAGERS, The level of resourcing for technical support in schools is often low and the prospect of multiple devices moving in and out of a school or college and then re-connecting to a network can be challenging., the rapid pace of development in the area of tablet computing is a key issue for schools as they plan for future technology needs and one that requires a ‘robust and systematic approach’ (Burden et al., 2012) and a process of continuous evaluation.
TEACHERS, Teachers have been quick to take up iPad type applications and there are many examples of their use to be found in practitioner blogs (Swanson, 2013; Page Burdick, 2013; Andrews, 2013), discussion forums and informal practitioner networks (Gliksman, 2013). This presents a challenge as well as an opportunity: authors rarely discuss how the applications they have used were integrated into practice effectively and it can be hard for teachers to know which of the many options available would be best for them and their learners, TEACHER PERCEPTIONS ON IPAD USE - CPD, Whilst some (Heinrich, 2012; Henderson & Yeow, 2012) identify teacher training as a necessary support for effective integration of tablet devices in classrooms (covering technical, pedagogic, social and economic aspects of the device), Burden et al., (2012) suggest that requirements for ‘formal’ training of teachers should be minimal, with teachers learning instead through experiential learning, virtual practitioner networks and communities of practice. They did, however, feel that some form of initial familiarisation with the device was important in getting teachers started.
PARENTS, They found that most parents felt confident in helping their children use the iPad to support learning in the home. One important finding, echoed also in the South Korean tablet initiative (Saenz, 2011), was a concern in some parents (not held at the baseline survey stage) of young primary school learners that their children’s increased use of technology at home and school might actually be detrimental to their academic work more generally., Perhaps unsurprisingly in the current climate of austerity, a key concern for parents was costs, with nearly half of responding parents feeling that the scheme did not represent good value for money.
LEARNERS, The research on iPad use and adoption overwhelmingly reports that tablet devices like these have a positive impact on students’ engagement with learning. Whilst there are some minor concerns raised about potential overuse or distracting influence (Saenz, 2011), misuse (Clarke, 2012) and a lack of confidence or skills in some students (BBC, 2013; Henderson & Yeow, 2012) these findings are far outweighed by those which report on increased motivation, enthusiasm, interest, engagement, independence and self-regulation, creativity and improved productivity (NMC, 2012; Burden et al., 2012). Many report, more specifically, on students’ ability to control their own learning in ways not possible before (Gasparini, 2011; Heinrich, 2012; NMC, 2012), In terms of learner confidence with tablet devices like the iPad, a majority of recent studies suggest that most students find them easy to use (e.g. Heinrich, 2012). Others suggest that some students, and particularly younger learners, may require initial support not only in dealing with the features and functionality of the device – including how to find, download and use apps (Gasparini, 2011) as well as how to create and access accounts and storage in ‘the cloud’ (Allen, 2011), e.g. using dropbox (Heinrich, 2012) - but also in terms of how, when and where tablet devices can be used to support learning (BBC, 2013; Henderson & Yeow, 2012).
The recent Horizon report on emerging technologies in K-12 education (NMC, 2012) provides useful examples of how iPads are being used in such schools: • for interactive learning (Pleasant City Elementary School, Florida) real-time communication and feedback between teachers, students and parents; • use of apps to support students with special needs, e.g. autism (Belle View Elementary School, Virginia); • social and communication needs (Auburn School, Maryland) and • for homework, assessment and grading (Lodi Unified School District, California)
The digital textbook program (South Korean) has, however, also led to: • concerns about possible damage to student health (Internet addiction, depression, vision problems); • a perception that these ‘digital devices are too pervasive’, and that a ‘young generation of tablet-carrying,smartphone-obsessed students might benefit from less exposure to gadgets, not more’ (Harlan, 2012).
It is clear, however, that there is an emerging battle for tablet-based education, which has yet to be fought in the ‘Post-PC’ tablet arena. Whilst iPads continue to be regarded as ‘leading edge’ costs are high on the agenda and, insofar as schools generally have tight budgets and limited resources, it remains to be seen who will win the battle.
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