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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Technology Theories

1.1. SCOT

1.1.1. Two Key Theorists:Biijker & Pinch Social Construction Of Technology

1.1.2. Social Constructivists argue that technology does not determine human action, but rather, human action shapes technology. Society as well as human action influence technology OPPOSITE of media ecologies view of technology and how it is influenced

1.1.3. Belief that the way technology is used depends on the social context In order for us to understand the reason for the success or failure of a technology, we need to look at the social world.

1.1.4. Draws on work done in the constructivist school

1.2. Media Ecology

1.2.1. Two Key Theorists: Postman & McLuhan "The study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs".

1.2.2. Media Ecology includes all forms of technology Tries to determine the role media forces us to play Media Ecology Association

1.2.3. Looks at how media communication affects human perception, understanding, feelings and values. (Postman)


2.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

2.1.1. Identifies the knowledge teachers need to effectively teach with technology

2.1.2. 3 primary forms of knowledge: #1 Content (CK) #2 Pedagogy (PK) #3 Technology (TK)

2.1.3. There are 4 more knowledge bases: 1) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) 2) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) 3)Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) The intersection of all 3 is: TPACK

3. Two key theorists:George Siemens & Stephen Downes

3.1. “Connectivism presents learning as a connection/network-forming process” (Siemens, 2005)

3.1.1. REFERENCE: Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: Learning as network-creation. American Society for Training & Development. Retrieved from

4. Learning Theories

4.1. Connectivism

4.1.1. Current research and up-to date knowledge Knowing where to locate information is more important than knowing information (Siemens, 2004) REFERENCE: Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved from

4.1.2. Learning is the process of making connections between specialized nodes of information sources. Encouraging and nurturing connections is needed to ensure continual growth of knowledge and learning The ability to determine connections between multiple fields, ideas, and concepts is fundamental (Siemens, 2004) The ability to access information is more important than the information itself

4.1.3. Connections within a network must be maintained and nurtured to facilitate continual learning (Siemens, n.d.) This is important as educators because this makes us responsible in terms of nurturing the networks that may exist within or classroom or school community. Also as educators we need to realize that encouraging our students to use social media and online resources has its down sides, and we must make them aware that not all information found online is credible, and so we must give them skills as to how to decipher between reliable and unreliable information sources.

4.1.4. Examples: Facebook Twitter Online forumes Wikipedia

4.2. Constructivism

4.2.1. Key Theorist: Jean Piaget Learning occurs when the learner is actively participating rather than passively receiving information.

4.2.2. Focuses on interactive, student centred learning rather than teacher centred. This means that the teachers are not standing at the front of the room giving instruction the whole duration of the class, instead they provide the necessary amount of guidance, and the students are then responsible and actively partaking in their learning process. Example: -Science class experiment; students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results rather than watching the teacher do it.

4.2.3. Teachers act as role models who coach and model the skills that are expected from the students Teachers act as the facilitator Problem and project based learning Authentic tasks Discovery learning Case-base learning Collaborative learning Active learning through creating Technology acts as a learning tool

4.2.4. Challenges Difficult to assess the learner Time consuming Subjective learning

4.3. Cognitive Load

4.3.1. Four Key Theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky & Bruner This theory is a response to the "Behaviourism" theory

4.3.2. Memory systems are active Prior knowledge is a key component to learning

4.3.3. Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model Sensory memory Short term memory Working memory Long term memory

4.3.4. Over-load/ Under- Load While doing complex learning activities the amount of interactions and information to be processed can over/ under-load the amount of memory one possesses. This theory believes that all elements of an activity or learning activity must be processed and comprehended before meaningful learning can continue

4.3.5. Organization and mental maps can serve as useful learning tools to accomplish the learning objectives accordingly

5. Philosophy of Teaching

5.1. Is a teachers personal theory or philosophy of how they use technology as a tool and asset in their classroom

5.2. Technology should be used for a purpose

5.3. Technology should be accessible

5.4. Technology should be used as a learning and teaching tool that will help reinforce what you are teaching

5.5. Teachers can and should develop a statement about how they plan to use technology in their classroom

5.5.1. By doing this, you can develop how you can effectively use technology as a tool for teaching

5.6. Looks at the use of technology in the classroom and professional development