Feldman, Edmund Burke. (1996). Philosophy of Art Education. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice-Hall

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Feldman, Edmund Burke. (1996). Philosophy of Art Education. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice-Hall by Mind Map: Feldman, Edmund Burke. (1996). Philosophy of Art Education. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice-Hall

1. Social

1.1. Family: Shifted focus from economical to mechanical efficiency, aesthetic consumption & symbolic display. The crafts thus represent important oppoturnities for learning how form, function and material is connected

1.2. Age appropriateness: Simplicity of expression, not absence of meaning E.g. Beethoven's Fur Elise is easy for beginners, teaches technique but is not a mere exercise, allows mastery but also exist at the level of real music.

1.3. Religion: Multiculturalism approach to religious faith is descriptive in the ethnological sense rather than morally prescriptive. Why holiday art curriculum? 1) Introduces students to religious iconography 2) Connection between visual forms and human values 3) Relates to natural cycle of seasons

1.4. Gender Art is feminine because 1) teaching art is identified with crafts and maternal role of nurturing children, 2) it disassociates from traditional masculine activity, 3) hierarchies of curriculum theory assigns subordinate role to art education Why men disassociate from art? -Psychologically: Insecure masculinity -Economic: Art is not well paid -Aesthetic: It does not fulfil physiological needs -Sociological: Western division of labour assigns art to women -Cultural: Women art not ready for harsh reality, hence gentle and sensitive art is for them. -Philosophic: Art is not a reliable source of knowledge.

1.5. Social change: Art history & criticism builds upon idea of artistic and social change. They ascribe differences to evolutionary change from a prior natural stage. It establishes the experiential model for understanding all kinds of human transformation.

2. Economic

2.1. Aesthetics of production: Creative activity cannot be viewed solely as self-expression. Art belongs to a process of communication, to be see and understood. Consequently, social & economic accountability is created.

2.2. Aesthetics of consumption: Appreciation is rooted in Latin word for price (prex). Evaluation of student performance thus has economic component: setting a price on work. Art teachers are therefore art consumers, they complete production process by 'using' and assigning a use value to students imagination & technical effort.

2.3. Why craft?" 1) Development of hand skills, adding value to materials through personal resource e.g. imagination 2) Developing form/ function relationships, awareness of meaning gained/lost through decisions 3) Overcoming recalcitrance of materials 4) Mastery of process: methodology & tools 5) Moral-economic dividend: Honest way vs. adding spurious value to practical objects

2.4. Art & technology: Art education can examine new production methods based on its immediate & intrinsic value, rooted by its nature in present experience. Dewey, 1918: 'Art, in a word, is industry unusually conscious of its own meaning.' Without work, there is not art. Without meaning, art is only work. The value of meaningful work resides in the present. Meaning id meaningful for humans alone.

3. Political

3.1. Improvement of mass taste: Instead of indoctrination, we teachers provide students with alternatives of taste to make choices. If we cannot persuade students to enlarge their range of artistic affections, do not at least pander to their Philistinism. Importance of 21st CC: Visual literacy.

3.2. Goal setting for Art Depts -Attitude comes first -The best goals is comprehensible to intelligent non-art people -Goals should be logically related to general school and curricular objectives while retaining a distinctive artistic and aesthetic character. -Goals should be realistic and ambitious: acceptable yet without excessive rhetoric. -All goals should be acceptable to good teachers of any subject, developmental or general. -Operational language should be used to facilitate achieving objectives: artist/ artworks/ process/ concepts. -Responsive to contemporary development but flexible to change -Organic wholeness: Separate objectives are related by logic, sequence and mutually reinforcing parts/ processes

4. Psychological

4.1. Perception: Art teaching is the business of studying perceptual variation by focusing on how students see, organise what they see in the course of making an artistic statement. We guide students expenditure of aesthetic capital as they negotiate and invest in art work. 21st CC: Self-awareness & self-mangement (both teacher & student)

4.2. Procedural vs. Propositional knowledge -Ease of testing propositional knowledge makes technical expertise as a low-order knowledge. Yet it tests connections between from technique and expression, demanding artistic experience and critical insight. -Knowledge about art: knowledge leads to experience. Because it is not contested, it is easily lost. Knowledge through art: experience leads to knowledge. Has power to rearrange our thinking, it is a perceptual grasp: knowing related facts that add up to an image, which embodies insight that impacts the knower.

4.3. Perceptual outcomes 1) Seeing is a way of knowing: organisation of sensory events 2) Seeing is a way of solving problems: being, purpose, meaning, goodness & value 3) Visualise processes, relationships & theoretical conditions: Metaphorical learning for transfer to non artistic thinking 4) Ability to see visual forms as cognitive products: abstraction from sense data, construction of symbols/ concepts, selective perception, distortion by affect, reasoning by analogy.

5. Cognitive/ Moral

5.1. Morality internalised: An image represents a set of decisions, decisions that the creator is willing to be judged according to the goodness of it.

5.2. Media & Morals: Media embody moral meanings in their formal structure 1) Character is something that we build through a medium. Traditional medium never loses its character-building utility, even with old materials and outdated skills. 2) Old mediums makes a statement about new medium, enriching learning about art and life. 3) The media explain each other as they build upon each other, media interactions create new aesthetic facts, from which important cognitive and moral consequences flow. 21st CC: Information and Communication skills, Responsible Decision Making