Goldstein Chapters 4 and 5

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Goldstein Chapters 4 and 5 by Mind Map: Goldstein Chapters 4 and 5

1. Childhood 1. For the poor: A. hard work at home or jobs first priority, then school B. Older children raise younger; parent(s) busy working C. Choose between "honest work" or joining gangs D. Harsh discipline - beatings, casting out 2. Middle and upper class go to private schools, are coddled

2. Gangs 1. Drug dealing and more A. Alternative "justice" system in favelas B. Good-bandits protect favela from invading bad-bandits, police-bandits C. Level of violence varies by leaders of gangs as well as police 2. Appeal to poor youth - not just rebelliousness A. Employment and better income than honest work B. Carry a gun - manly appeal C. Protect their homes

3. Violence in Rio 1. Homicide A. Highest rates - young men, dark-skinned, lower class, north and west zones (the poor zones) B. Elites, middle class far less at risk 2. Revenge killings A. Anyone remotely close to person vengeance is sought on is a target B. Cyclical - back and forth between groups C. Perpetrators often unknown - could be bandits, police (on or off duty), mixes

4. Police and government 1. Rampant corruption A. Graft is common B. Drugs, gangs tolerated as long as they stay in favelas C. Police brutality - off duty revenge, death squads 2. Different levels of democracy A. Elites and middle class are protected, interests catered to B. Lower class is criminalized, ignored, brutalized

5. Religion 1. On and off affiliation for the poor 2. Somewhat empowering for women as oppositional culture to mens oppositional culture (gangs) 3. Seen as way to distance self from crime 4. Activist groups should reexamine role of religion