Learning Design and Technology Yau Pak Kin (2011872331) MITE6330

MITE6330 Individual Assignment YAU PAK KIN (2011872331)

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Learning Design and Technology Yau Pak Kin (2011872331) MITE6330 by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology  Yau Pak Kin (2011872331) MITE6330

1. Instructional Design

1.1. LT Products

1.1.1. in Education Institutions

1.1.1.1. ICT in Class

1.1.1.2. Partly E-learning

1.1.1.3. Flexible Learning

1.1.1.4. Distance Education

1.1.1.5. Education Staff Development

1.1.2. in Commercial Environment

1.1.2.1. Solve Own Training Needs

1.1.2.2. Provide Specialized e-training

1.1.2.3. Develop Digital Content for sale

1.1.2.4. Develop Custom Solutions for a Client

1.1.3. Examples

1.1.3.1. E-learning

1.1.3.2. Multimedia Packages

1.1.3.3. Educational Digital Video

1.1.3.4. Educational Websites

1.1.3.5. Blended Learning Packages

1.1.3.6. Assessment Systems

1.1.3.7. Learning Objects

1.1.3.8. Educational Games

1.1.3.9. Educational Electronic Devices

1.1.3.10. Podcast, iTunesU, E-books

1.2. Context for Development

1.2.1. Outsourcing

1.2.1.1. Entire Project

1.2.1.2. Parts of A Project

1.2.1.2.1. Partners

1.2.1.2.2. Contractors / Vendors

1.2.1.2.3. Consultants

1.2.1.2.4. Freelancers

1.2.2. In-House

1.2.2.1. One-man Job

1.2.2.2. Team-Work

1.2.2.3. Inter-departmental activity

1.2.3. Buy Exiting Product / Solution

1.2.3.1. Of-the-Shelf

1.2.3.2. Another Company

1.2.3.3. Educational / Training Provider

1.3. Models & Theories

1.3.1. Various Models

1.3.1.1. 1. Linear Model by Dick & Carey (1990)

1.3.1.1.1. Instructional Goals

1.3.1.1.2. Instructional Analysis

1.3.1.1.3. Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics

1.3.1.1.4. Performance Objectives

1.3.1.1.5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items

1.3.1.1.6. Instructional Strategy

1.3.1.1.7. Instructional Meterials

1.3.1.1.8. Formative Evaluation

1.3.1.1.9. Summative Evaluation

1.3.1.2. 2. Spiral Model by Romiszowski (1981)

1.3.1.3. 3. Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)

1.3.1.3.1. Assess needs and analyze content

1.3.1.3.2. Set objectives

1.3.1.3.3. Construct prototypes (design)

1.3.1.3.4. Utilize prototypes (research)

1.3.1.3.5. Install and maintain system

1.3.1.4. 4. Oval Model by Kemp (1985)

1.3.1.5. 5. Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden (1996)

1.3.1.6. 6. Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003)

1.3.1.6.1. Multimedia Principle

1.3.1.6.2. Split-attention principle

1.3.1.6.3. Redundancy principle

1.3.1.6.4. Modality principle

1.3.1.6.5. Segmenting principle

1.3.1.6.6. Pre-training principle

1.3.1.6.7. Coherence

1.3.1.6.8. Signaling

1.3.1.7. 7. The Four-Component Instructional Design model (van Merroenboer. Clark. & Croock. 2002)

1.3.1.7.1. Learning tasks

1.3.1.7.2. Part-task practice

1.3.1.7.3. Supportive information

1.3.1.7.4. JIT information

1.3.1.8. Learning by doing / Case-based Reasoning Model

1.3.1.8.1. 8. Learning by Doing / Case-based Reasoning (Schank, Berman, & Mac Phersoon, 1999)

1.3.1.8.2. 9. Learning Cycle (Kolb)

1.3.1.8.3. 10. Learning by Doing (Dufour)

1.3.1.8.4. 11. Resource-based learning (Churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington, 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001)

1.3.1.8.5. 12. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment (Jonassen 2000)

1.3.2. Theories

1.3.2.1. Behavorism

1.3.2.1.1. Stimulus & Response

1.3.2.1.2. Mind as a Black Box

1.3.2.1.3. Mind processes not important

1.3.2.1.4. Focus on observable cause and effect relationship

1.3.2.1.5. Students remember and respond

1.3.2.1.6. Teachers present and provide practice and feedback

1.3.2.2. Cognitivism

1.3.2.2.1. Mind as an information processor

1.3.2.2.2. Mind representations and mental models

1.3.2.2.3. Short term, long-term and working memory

1.3.2.2.4. Thinking involves manipulation of representations

1.3.2.2.5. Transfer of knowledge through cognitive strategies

1.3.2.2.6. Students remember rules, patterns and strategies

1.3.2.3. Constructivism

1.3.2.3.1. Knowledge us constructed through assimilation and accommodation

1.3.2.3.2. Knowledge is inspearable from knower

1.3.2.3.3. Learning is active process that Involves personal discoveries

1.3.2.3.4. Social constructivism evolved from cognitive constructivism

1.3.2.4. Learning from Technology

1.3.2.4.1. Drill and Practice

1.3.2.4.2. Computer-based Totorials

1.3.2.4.3. Intelligent tutorial systems

1.3.2.4.4. Gange's 9-events of Instruction

1.3.2.4.5. Reusable Learning Objects

1.3.2.5. Learning with Technology

1.3.2.5.1. Learning environments

1.3.2.5.2. Technology as a tool in a learning activity

1.3.2.5.3. Inquiries and problem solving

1.3.2.5.4. Cognitive tolls

1.3.2.5.5. On-line collaboration and knowledge building

1.3.2.5.6. WebQuest and ActiveLesson

1.3.2.5.7. Interactive Learning Objects

2. Stages in Learning Technology Projects

2.1. 1. Analysis

2.2. 2. Design

2.3. 3. Development

2.4. 4. Implementation

2.5. 5. Evaluation

3. Group Assignment

3.1. Project Mangement

3.2. Analysis and Project Proposal Documentation

3.2.1. Project Proposal

3.2.1.1. Content

3.2.1.1.1. General Introduction

3.2.1.1.2. Statement of what the client wants from a learning technology

3.2.1.1.3. Statement of what the user needs

3.2.1.1.4. Description of the general treatment and reasons for choice

3.2.1.1.5. Variations on the treatment that are possible

3.2.1.1.6. Outline diagram of the proposed structure

3.2.1.1.7. Description of the human resources needed

3.2.1.1.8. Work breakdown and schedule

3.2.1.1.9. Cost / payment structure

3.2.1.1.10. Company statement of the limitations of the proposal

3.2.1.2. Sample

3.3. Flowcharts

3.4. Storyboard and Design Specifications

3.5. Prototype

3.6. Formative evaluation of the documentations and prototype

3.7. Consideration of Design

3.7.1. Opening

3.7.1.1. Gain Attention

3.7.1.2. Collect information about the user (Login)

3.7.1.3. Automatically record date and time of access

3.7.1.4. Inform a user about a lesson and objectives

3.7.1.5. Inform about how to use the courseware

3.7.1.6. Provide main navigation structure

3.7.1.7. Begin from last point access

3.7.2. Content Presentation

3.7.2.1. Content navigation through paging structure

3.7.2.2. Keep information about pages visited and time spent

3.7.2.3. Keep information about sections completed

3.7.2.4. Inform user about current page(s) status (visited, completed, not yet completed)

3.7.2.5. Contain multimedia elements and interactive components

3.7.3. Programmed Instructions

3.7.3.1. Keep track of completation

3.7.3.2. allow only a single access to quiz

3.7.3.3. Prevent entering next section before fulfill the prerequest

3.7.3.4. sections might follow with some questions and remediation

3.7.3.5. Questions might preside a sections

3.7.4. Quiz / Test

3.7.4.1. Variety of questions

3.7.4.2. Variety of interactions for questions

3.7.4.3. Randomized values

3.7.4.4. Multimedia within questions

3.7.4.5. Emjamced omteractovotu om [resemtatopm pf qiestopms

3.7.4.6. Allow access to external tools, sites, information

3.7.4.7. Provide feedback

3.7.4.8. Presenting all questions at random

3.7.4.9. Allow each question to appear once, or allow multiple access to same questions

3.7.4.10. Keep information (questions attended, results, time spend in question, number of tries)

3.7.5. Record of Results

3.7.5.1. Present quantitative feedback

3.7.5.2. Present certificate, voucher and credit points

3.7.5.3. Present qualitative feedback

3.7.5.4. Record results in external document or database

4. Further Readings

4.1. Session 1

4.1.1. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.

4.1.2. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.

4.1.3. Churchill, D. (2006) Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576.

4.1.4. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: and ethnographic study. ETR&D, 46(2), 37-64.

4.1.5. Wiki

4.2. Session 2

4.2.1. Gagne, R. M. (1916), Principles of instructional design: 10 The Events of Instruction. 185 - 204

4.3. Session 3

4.3.1. CISCO RLO Strategy - Reusable Learning Object

5. Stage 1: Analysis

5.1. Need Assessment

5.1.1. What is requires

5.1.2. What gap will be filled

5.2. User / Audience Analysis

5.2.1. Who are final users

5.3. System / Technology Analysis

5.3.1. What kind of technology

5.4. Content Analysis

5.4.1. What content needs

5.4.2. What format of the content is most important

5.4.3. How can this content be articulated

5.5. Feasibility Analysis

5.5.1. Technical

5.5.2. Economical

5.5.3. Human Factors

5.6. Risk Analysis

5.6.1. Any risks

5.6.2. Any limitation

6. Stage 2: Design

6.1. Define a Goals

6.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis (e.g. Performance, Task, Content Analysis

6.2.1. Job Description

6.2.2. Job-related Documents

6.2.3. Observation of people at work, directly or via recording

6.2.4. Discussion with people about specific jobs

6.2.5. Extrapolation of task s from a customer's stated training needs

6.3. Analyze Learners and Context

6.4. Write Performance / Learning Objectives

6.4.1. Performance Objectives

6.4.2. Instructional Objectives

6.4.3. Behavioural Objectives

6.4.4. Specific Instructional Objectives

6.4.5. Learning Outcomes

6.4.5.1. Classifications

6.4.5.1.1. thinking, knowledge (cognitive domain)

6.4.5.1.2. doing, skills (psychomotor domain)

6.4.5.1.3. feeling, attitudes (affective domain)

6.4.5.2. appropriate action verbs

6.4.5.3. Checklist

6.4.5.3.1. Focus on outcomes, not processes

6.4.5.3.2. Start each outcome with an action verb

6.4.5.3.3. Use only one action verb per learning outcome

6.4.5.3.4. Avoid vague verbs

6.4.5.3.5. Check that the verbs used reflect the level of learning required

6.4.5.3.6. Ensure that outcomes are observable and measurable

6.4.5.3.7. Write the outcomes in terms of what the learner does, not what the structor does

6.4.5.3.8. Check that the outcomes reflect knowledge, skills, or attitudes required in the workplace

6.4.5.3.9. Include outcomes that are woven into the entire course

6.4.5.3.10. Check that there are the appropriate number of outcomes

6.4.5.3.11. List the sub-outcomes for each outcome

6.4.5.3.12. Check that the outcomes fit within program and course goals

6.5. Develop Assessment Strategy

6.5.1. Drill and Practice

6.5.1.1. Multiple Choice

6.5.1.2. True False

6.5.1.3. Fill in the blank

6.5.1.4. Short Answer

6.5.1.5. Drag and Drop

6.5.2. Essays

6.5.3. Problem Solving

6.5.4. Tasks

6.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

6.7. Arrange Instructional Events

6.7.1. Gagne, Briggs and Wager (1992)

6.7.1.1. 1. Gaining Attention

6.7.1.2. 2. Informing learner of the objective

6.7.1.3. 3.Stimulating recall of prerequistie learning

6.7.1.4. 4. Presenting the stimulus material

6.7.1.5. 5. Providing learning guidance

6.7.1.6. 6. Eliciting performance

6.7.1.7. 7. Providing feedback about performance

6.7.1.8. 8. Assessing the performance

6.7.1.9. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer

6.7.2. Learning Objectives

6.7.2.1. Fact

6.7.2.2. Concept

6.7.2.3. Principle

6.7.2.4. Process

6.7.2.5. Procedure

6.8. Develop a set of Flowcharts

6.8.1. Content

6.8.1.1. Level by Level

6.8.1.2. Clear Flow

6.8.1.3. Confirmation by Client (Signature)

6.9. Develop Storyboards

6.9.1. Content

6.9.1.1. Screen Design

6.9.1.2. Version Number Control

6.9.1.3. Text Script

6.9.1.4. Graphic List

6.9.1.5. Audio / Video List

6.9.1.6. Design Instruction

6.9.1.7. Confirmation by Client (Signature)

6.9.2. Evaluate By

6.9.2.1. Project Team

6.9.2.2. Editor

6.9.2.3. Client

6.9.2.4. Content Mater Expert

6.9.2.5. Representative of a real user

6.9.3. Evaluated for

6.9.3.1. Content accuracy, appropriateness, completeness, coverage

6.9.3.2. Media, presentation, interface, interaction and treatment

6.9.3.3. Pedagogical quality / Instructional design

6.9.3.4. Technical issues

6.10. Write Design Specifications Document

6.10.1. Screen area presentation

6.10.2. Authoring platform

6.10.3. Quality and format of graphics, videos, audio and other media

6.10.4. Pedagogical considerations

6.11. Develop a Prototype

6.11.1. Interface Design

6.11.1.1. Layout

6.11.1.2. Size of Display area

6.11.1.3. Resolution

6.11.1.4. Color

6.11.2. Interaction Design

6.11.2.1. Buttons

6.11.2.2. Hot-spot areas

6.11.2.3. Clickable objects

6.11.2.4. Key press and shortcuts

6.11.2.5. Pull-down menus

6.11.2.6. Text entry

6.11.2.7. Drag & drop

6.11.2.8. Sliders, Dialer

6.11.2.9. Check boxes, Radio boxes, Lists

6.11.2.10. Haptic devices

6.11.3. Presentation Design

6.11.3.1. Information Design

6.11.3.2. General Treatments

6.11.3.3. Media Design

6.11.4. Evaluation

6.11.4.1. By Client

6.11.4.2. By Real Users

6.11.4.3. By Design Team

6.11.4.4. By Development Team

6.11.4.5. Must be some kind of sign-off

6.12. Review and Evaluate Project Documentation

7. Stage 3: Development

7.1. Technical Review

7.2. Design and Test Interface

7.3. Collect, Design and Develop Media Components

7.4. Author / program the product

7.5. Deliver and evaluate the prototype

7.6. Review outcomes of prototype and decide improvement

7.7. Develop final product

8. Stage 4: Implementation

8.1. Delivering the final product via appropriate channel

8.2. User training

9. Stage 5: Evaluation

9.1. Formative evaluation

9.1.1. People involve

9.1.1.1. Project team

9.1.1.2. Subject matter expert

9.1.1.3. Client or potential users

9.2. Summative evaluation

9.3. Outcomes

9.3.1. Collect the data

9.3.2. Analysis of data collected

9.3.3. Reflection

10. Project Development Team

10.1. Project Manager

10.2. Instructional Designer

10.3. Interface Designer

10.4. Multimedia Designer

10.5. Programmer

10.6. Others: writer, video producer, sound engineer, narrator, voice artist, artist, composer, graphics artist, 3-d modeler

11. Web 2.0

11.1. General introduction

11.1.1. User control of information

11.1.2. New forms of expression

11.1.3. Web as a point of presence

11.1.4. Internet-mediated social / collective activities

11.1.5. Web as a platform

11.1.6. Rich user experiences

11.1.7. Some speak of media revolution

11.2. Products

11.2.1. Blogs and Wikies

11.2.1.1. Blogs

11.2.1.1.1. Web-based publication

11.2.1.1.2. No technical skills

11.2.1.1.3. Contain text, media, links

11.2.1.1.4. Blogs, mob-logs, v-logs, Audi-log

11.2.1.1.5. Blogosphere- community of bloggers

11.2.1.1.6. Digital Story Telling / Multimedia

11.2.1.1.7. "Citizen Journalism"

11.2.1.2. Wiki

11.2.1.2.1. Collaborative development of an article of common interest to its author

11.2.1.2.2. Most visited website

11.2.2. Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories

11.2.3. RSS Feeds and Podcasting

11.2.3.1. RSS Feeds

11.2.3.1.1. Updated list of content from a site

11.2.3.1.2. Aggregator

11.2.3.2. Podcasting

11.2.3.2.1. Distribute audio programs or video over internet

11.2.3.2.2. Playback on mobile devices and personal computers

11.2.3.2.3. Distributed in RSS or Atom syndication formats

11.2.4. "Web as platform" applications

11.2.5. Mashups and Open Source

11.2.5.1. Open Source

11.2.5.1.1. Syndications, design for hack ability and remixability

11.2.5.1.2. Better when more people are using it and improving it

11.2.6. Social Networking

11.2.7. Possibilities for application in support of research activities

11.3. Mobile Web 2.0

11.3.1. Web services moving in

11.3.2. What opportunities

11.3.3. What ways?