Other useful substances of crude oil

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Other useful substances of crude oil by Mind Map: Other useful substances of crude oil

1. Cracking Hydrocarbons

1.1. Heating the hydrocarbons until they vaporize

1.2. Passing the vapor over a hot catalyst(or mixed with steam)

2. Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons

2.1. As well as forming single bonds with other atoms, carbon atoms can form DOUBLE BONDS

2.2. The general formula for alkenes is Cn H2n

2.3. The simplest alkene is ethene, C2 H4

3. Making Alcohol from Ethene

3.1. ETHANOL is an alcohol. It can be produced by reacting with ethene.

4. Making Alcohol by fermentation

4.1. Ethanol can be produced by the Fermentation of sugar, which is a renewable resource.

4.2. During fermentation, sugar is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

5. Polymerisation

5.1. Because alkenes are unsaturated they are useful for making other molecules, especially Polymers.

5.2. Many small alkene molecules join together to form polymers. This is polymerisatiom

6. Polymers

6.1. Implantable materials=tissue surgey

6.2. Hard wearing anti-bacterial dental cements

6.3. Hydrogels can be used as wound dressings

7. Disposing of platics

7.1. Plastic is a versatile material. Its cheap and easy to produce, but this means a lot of plastic waste is generated

7.2. Plastics can be dumped in LANDFILL SITES. But most are Non-Biodegradable

7.3. Research is currently being carried out on development of BIODEGRABLE PLASTICS.