Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bonding by Mind Map: Chemical Bonding

1. They will try to attain stable electronic configuration, similar to helium, neon and argon

2. This can be achieved either by gaining or losing or electons (ionic bonding) or by sharing of electrons (covalent bonding)

2.1. Ionic Bonding

2.1.1. Ion Formation Between metal positive ions(cations) and non-metal negative ions (anions) Ionic Bonding involves the formation of charged particles (ions) as a result of gaining or losing elections Metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons

2.1.2. Ionic structure Solid ionic compound has a giant lattice structure The cations and anions are in an alternate arrangement held together by strong electrostatic forces

2.1.3. Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds High melting and boiling poins A lot of energy is required to break apart the strong electrostatic attration that holds the ions in the lattice One way of breaking the lattice is to dissolve the ionic compound in water. Water Molecules have the ability to seperate the ions and allow these ions to move freely in the solution The melting and boiling points are dependent on the strength of the electrostatic attractions. Therefore, the bigger the charge on the ions, the stronger the elctrostatic attraction and the higher the melting and boiling points. Excellent conductor of electricity in molten state or aqeous state When in molten or aqeous state, onic compounds form mobile ions that are free to move about and conduct electricity. However, they do not conduct electricity in solid form. Most ionic compounds are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents

2.2. Covalent Bonding

2.2.1. Between non-metal atoms

2.2.2. Covalent compounds have no ions as covalent bond is formed when an electron pair is shared by both atoms. Examples of formation of Covalent bonds Between hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form water molecule - O-H-O Between carbon and and oxygen atms to form carbon dioxide molcule - O=C=O Structure of Covalent compounds Covalent compounds can be held together by two types of forces. They are the intra-molecular (within the molecules) and inter-molecular (between molecules) forces The intra-molecular forces refer to the covalent bonds inside the molecules which are very strong and do not break apart easily They are much stronger than ionic bonds becuse the shared electrons are actually attracted to the two nuclei directly The inter-molecular foces refer to the forces that hold these moecules together Such forces are very weak and can easily be separated from one another Molecular structures Simple molecular structures Giant molecular structures Physical Properties Simple Covalent Compounds Giant Covalent Compounds

2.2.3. Covalent bonds cancome in single (sharing of one pair of electrons), double (sharing of two pairs of electrons) and triple (sharing of three pairs of electrons) and so on

3. Metallic Bonding

3.1. Metallic bond: force of attrations between the postive metal ions and sea of delocalised electrons, formed between atoms of metals

3.1.1. Solids in all states except mercury

3.1.2. Insoluble in all solvents

3.1.3. High boiling and melting points as a result of giant mettalic lattice structure

3.1.4. Malleable and ductile

3.1.5. Conducts electricity in the solid and molten state

4. When atoms react, they will try to rearrange their configuration such that their most outer shells are either completely full or completely empty