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Chemical Bonding by Mind Map: Chemical Bonding
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Chemical Bonding

They will try to attain stable electronic configuration, similar to helium, neon and argon

This can be achieved either by gaining or losing or electons (ionic bonding) or by sharing of electrons (covalent bonding)

Ionic Bonding

Ion Formation, Between metal positive ions(cations) and non-metal negative ions (anions), Ionic Bonding involves the formation of charged particles (ions) as a result of gaining or losing elections, Cations are formed from metals, e.g Na+, Ca2- and Fe3+, Anions are formed non-metls, e.g Cl-, O2- and N3-, Metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons

Ionic structure, Solid ionic compound has a giant lattice structure, The cations and anions are in an alternate arrangement held together by strong electrostatic forces

Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds, High melting and boiling poins, A lot of energy is required to break apart the strong electrostatic attration that holds the ions in the lattice, One way of breaking the lattice is to dissolve the ionic compound in water. Water Molecules have the ability to seperate the ions and allow these ions to move freely in the solution, The melting and boiling points are dependent on the strength of the electrostatic attractions. Therefore, the bigger the charge on the ions, the stronger the elctrostatic attraction and the higher the melting and boiling points., Excellent conductor of electricity in molten state or aqeous state, When in molten or aqeous state, onic compounds form mobile ions that are free to move about and conduct electricity. However, they do not conduct electricity in solid form., Most ionic compounds are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents

Covalent Bonding

Between non-metal atoms

Covalent compounds have no ions as covalent bond is formed when an electron pair is shared by both atoms., Examples of formation of Covalent bonds, Between hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form water molecule - O-H-O, Between carbon and and oxygen atms to form carbon dioxide molcule - O=C=O, Structure of Covalent compounds, Covalent compounds can be held together by two types of forces. They are the intra-molecular (within the molecules) and inter-molecular (between molecules) forces, The intra-molecular forces refer to the covalent bonds inside the molecules which are very strong and do not break apart easily, They are much stronger than ionic bonds becuse the shared electrons are actually attracted to the two nuclei directly, The inter-molecular foces refer to the forces that hold these moecules together, Such forces are very weak and can easily be separated from one another, Molecular structures, Simple molecular structures, Covalent compounds can be classified into two groups: the simple covalent structures and the giant covalent structures, In the simple covalent compounds, the molecules are held together by the weak inter-molecular forces, Giant molecular structures, On the contrary, giant covalent compounds are held in a network of covalent bonds. However, unlike the ionic lattices, these networks are insoluble in water, Examples include diamond, graphit and silicon dioxide (sand), Physical Properties, Simple Covalent Compounds, Low melting and boiling points, During melting or boiling, the intra-molecular covalent bonds are not being disturbed, only much weaker inter-molecular forces are affected and thus very little energy is required. This is why simple covalent compounds have low melting point and boiling point, Covalent compounds normally exist either as gases, liquids or as low melting point solids, Most covalent compounds have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds, Covalent compounds are poor conductors of electricity because there are no free and mobile electrons or ions to move about and carry the electric charge, Covalent comounds are soluble in organic solvent but they are insoluble in water, Giant Covalent Compounds, Giant covalent compounds have very high melting and boiling points. In a giant covalent network, all of the atoms are covalently bonded (intra-molecular forces )to each other. As a result, a lotof energy is required to break these forces, Poor conductors of electricity (except graphite), There are no free and mobile electrons or ions to move about and carry the electronic charge, For graphite, electrons can move freely through each carbon layer due to the presence of the delocalised electrons. Hence, graphite is a conductor like a metal. Graphite is used in electrical contacts, e.g electrodes in electrolysis, Giant covalent compunds are insoluble in water and solvent. The bonding network is too strong to allow the atoms to be surrounded by solvent molecules

Covalent bonds cancome in single (sharing of one pair of electrons), double (sharing of two pairs of electrons) and triple (sharing of three pairs of electrons) and so on

Metallic Bonding

Metallic bond: force of attrations between the postive metal ions and sea of delocalised electrons, formed between atoms of metals

Solids in all states except mercury

Insoluble in all solvents

High boiling and melting points as a result of giant mettalic lattice structure

Malleable and ductile

Conducts electricity in the solid and molten state

When atoms react, they will try to rearrange their configuration such that their most outer shells are either completely full or completely empty