Separation techniques

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Separation techniques by Mind Map: Separation techniques

1. Distillation

1.1. used to separate miscible liquids based on their boiling points.

1.2. distillation- separate liquid from a solution of soluble solid

1.3. fractional distillation- used to separate a mixture of miscible liquids

2. Magnetic separation

2.1. separate magnetic materials (iron, steel, nickel and cobalt from non-magnetic materials)

2.2. Solid-solid mixture

3. Separating funnel

3.1. liquid-liquid mixture

3.2. Separate immiscible liquids

4. Chromatography

4.1. liquid-liquid

4.2. Used to separated soluble liquids. The more soluble liquids will travel further.

4.2.1. If solution is more attracted to stationary phase, then it would travel a shorter distance

4.2.2. If solution is more attracted to mobile phase (solvent), then it would "follow" the solvent and travel a longer distance.

4.3. Column chromatography: stationary phase is like the paper in the paper chromatography, mobile phase will be like the solvent.

4.3.1. Order of polarity: petrol ether, beta carotene < chlorophyll < acetone < paper, silica gel < water

4.3.2. Order: cotton wool, stationary phase, sand, mixture, mobile phase (in order), to allow the mobile phase to "flush through".

5. Crystallisation

5.1. solid-liquid

5.2. Used to separate a soluble soluble from a liquid as the solid does not dissolve during crystallisation

6. Filtration

6.1. solid-liquid

6.2. Used to separate an insoluble solid from liquid (solid remains on paper while liquid flows through)

7. Decanting

7.1. liquid-solid

7.2. To separate an insoluble liquid from a solid:)