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The Industrial Revolution 1750 - 1914 by Mind Map: The Industrial Revolution
1750 - 1914
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The Industrial Revolution 1750 - 1914

2. The agricultural revolution in Britain.

New machines - seed drilling machine which allowed seeds to be sown quickly

Invention of mechanical ploughs, reaping machines and threshing machines

Farm workers became replaced by machines -- had to move to cities for industrial work

More efficient uses of land

Inclosure movement - the use of fences and boundaries to divide properties amongst people rather than the use of common land

1. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?

Success of overseas colonies

Masses of resources drawn from empires as a result, Could produce goods cheaply and sell for huge profit, Colonies provided new markets for manufactured goods

Success of the slave trade

Slaves bought in Africa and sold to tobacco and cotton plantations in America, Cotton and tobacco was in turn sent back to Britain to be sold

Changes to energy, machinery, and scale

Human and animal labour replaced by steam, Steam followed by gas and electricity

New inventions and techniques that changed the way coal and steel were formed

Many small workshops employing few people turned into large factories employing hundreds of people

Change to transport

Creation of railways and canals allowed materials to be moved quickly and easily.

3. The growth and extent of the British Empire from 1750 to 1900.

MAP HERE

By 1900 Britain's empire covered a quarter of the world's land surface

Two stages - old colonial system and new imperialism

From 1750 - mid 19th C, main reason for empire building was to improve trade. The aim was to set up colonies in the Americas and Asia to provide goods,

Towards end of nineteenth century the empire became popular with the British people. Slavery abolished and colonies began to want self-government. Empire continued to grow into Africa (the 'white man's burden').

4. Raw materials Britain obtained from its Empire and the places they came from.

Wool from Australia

Sugar from Jamaica

Cotton and tea from India

5. Key inventors and their inventions - how did they affect transport and manufacturing?

Jethro Tull invents mechanical seed drill c.1701

Newcomen engine invented 1710-12

Britain's first canal 1757

James Hargreaves invents spinning jenny 1764

James Watt condensing steam engine 1763-75

World's first railway line in Britain 1830

6. How industrialisation contributed to the development of Britain and Australia

Coal, textiles, transport

Mining increased

Employment increased, Technology improved production

Textiles -- Wool became a boom industry in Australia with the development of the Merino breed

Factory system and new machines made the production of textiles quicker, more efficient

Railway and canals allowed for the movement of goods and people to be quicker and more efficient

7. Population movement during the Industrial Revolution

People moved from country villages to towns and cities

Wealthy people emigrated to other countries in the Empire to try and build business (eg Australia) as free settlers

Other people were forced to move to cities in search for work - agricultural revolution left many people without jobs

8. Changes to the way of life

With the move to towns and cities living conditions got very crowded and unsanitary

Water was dirty, food was increasingly expensive and poor quality, eg. The River Thames was so polluted it could no longer sustain any fish or plant life - yet people still bathed in it and drank from it!

Whole families of up to ten lived in a single room without running water, There was often no running water and sewage systems were not invented until the early 1900's.

9. Working conditions

There were very little safety considerations

Workers were considered an expendable source - it was cheaper to replace a worker than install safety devices

Children were forced to work from the age of three to help provide food

Children were often used in cotton factories to clean out clogged machines - many lost limbs or their lives in the process

Women and children preferred as workers as they were paid less and could get into tight spaces in machinery

Those who fell asleep severely punished if they were lucky enough to escape death by falling into a machine

'The Poor Law'

10. Positive and negative impacts of the Industrial Revolution

Increased use of fossil fuels and increased emission of greenhouse gases - led to smog and air pollution

Increase in consumption and waste - land fill

Increased awareness for sustainability

New technologies

Population growth

Water pollution

Urbanisation

Industry

Forest clearing

11. Short-term and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution

Global landscape growth and change

Transport

Communication

Social revolution