photosynthesis

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photosynthesis by Mind Map: photosynthesis

1. Photosystem II clusters do the same thing except with light that has a smaller wavelength.s the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria

2. Photosystem I

2.1. in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria. Photosystem I clusters boost electrons to a higher energy state by absorbing light.

3. light waves and chlorophyll

3.1. Light is a electromagnetic wave. This wave has a wavelength that can be measured in meters. Of course light waves are very small. Shown below is a chart showing the relationship between the length of the light wave in nanometers as a function of the color of light we humans are able to observe. It turns out that plants respond to these wavelengths

3.2. While chlorophyll a plays a very important role in photosynthesis, plants have additional pigments that participate in photosynthesis. These are indeed called antenna pigments. The green pigment, chlorophyll, plays a central role in photosynthesis. The fact that it is green means that it absorbs blue and red light and reflects green when it is illuminated by white llight.

4. Photosystem II

5. Chloroplasts

5.1. are organelles, specialised subunits, in plant and algal cells. Their main role is to conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight, and stores it in the energy storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water. They then use the ATP and NADPH to make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants.

6. calvin cycle

6.1. Photosynthesis occurs in two stages in a cell. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage and transport molecules ATP and NADPH. The light-independent Calvin cycle uses the energy from short-lived electronically excited carriers to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds that can be used by the organism. This set of reactions is also called carbon fixation. The key enzyme of the cycle is called RuBisCO. In the following biochemical equations, the chemical species exist in equilibria among their various ionized states as governed by the pH.

7. atp synthase and electron transport chain

7.1. ATP production occurs because of chemiosmosis, the diffusion of hydrogen ions across the membrane using the ATP synthase (a transport protein). This protein uses the power of hydrogen ions sandwiched between the inner and outer membranes, as a result of the electron transport chain, of the mitochondria to drive ATP synthesis. The mechanism of action of ATP synthase resembles a spinning rotor that uses hydrogen to generate ATP.