Symbolism: a device that uses symbols to represent ideas and emotions.
Names like Cunegonde,Cacambo, Candide seems like just a name however there are meaning that may symbolize their characteristics.
Personification : a device when a thing is represented as a human
Metaphor : a device that expresses by comparing two things, saying that one is another
In chapter 16 the apes seemed to be the human or men that the women loves. This is a metaphor because apes aren't actual humans however in the book they are treated like humans
Simile : a device that compares two unlike things. Often uses words like or as