Human Evolution

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Human Evolution by Mind Map: Human Evolution

1. Cultural Evolution

1.1. use of tools (stone, wood, bone)

1.1.1. Oldowan

1.1.2. Acheulean

1.1.3. Mousterian

1.1.4. Upper Palaeolithic

1.2. use of fire

1.3. clothing

1.4. abstract thought (communication, language, art)

1.5. food-gathering: from hunter-gatherers to farming

1.6. shelter (caves, temporary settlement, permanent settlement)

1.6.1. pros

1.6.2. cons

2. Dispersal across the globe

2.1. Origins

2.2. Out of Africa

2.3. Multi-Regional

3. The Lineage

3.1. Orrorin tugenesis

3.2. Ardipithecus ramidus

3.3. Australopithecus africanus

3.4. Paranthropus robustus and boisei

3.5. A. afarensis (Lucy)

3.6. Homo rudolfensis

3.7. H. habilis (handy man)

3.8. H. ergaster

3.9. H. erectus

3.10. H. heidelbergensis

3.11. H. neanderthalensis

3.12. H. florensis

3.13. Denisovans and Red Deer Cave People

3.14. H. sapiens

4. Biological Evolution

4.1. skeletal changes

4.1.1. spine

4.1.2. pelvis

4.1.3. feet and toes

4.1.4. length and rotation of limbs

4.1.5. ribs and chest

4.2. changes in skull and endocranial features

4.2.1. ridges and crests

4.2.2. cranial capacity

4.2.3. reduced pronagathism

4.2.4. Broca's and Wernicke's areas

4.2.5. teeth and jaw shape

4.2.6. forehead

4.2.7. foramen magnum

4.3. changes in the manipulative ability of the hand

4.3.1. thumb - precision grip

4.3.2. phlanges straighter

4.3.3. flexor pollicis longus - thumb muscle