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Fundamentals of Journalism by Mind Map: Fundamentals of Journalism
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Fundamentals of Journalism

What is journalism?

A skill?

An intellectual pursuit?

Social Epistemology

How is it different from

Propaganda, UN Resolutions, War Crime

Public relations, Framing, 5 million Questions, PR as opposed to Advocacy journalism, Astroturfing

Marketing, FUD, Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt, If it bleeds it leads, Social psychology, Persuasion, Captology, Social Psychology, Accessibility, Salience, Vividness., vividness hypothesis., Cognitive Bias, Resisting persuasion, AdBusters, Social engineering, social marketing, Astroturfing


A social good

Ryerson: New models of news and media literacy

Adamson, G. (n.d.). Like Reaching for the Pen: Towards a Greater Place for Digital News Video in Newsrooms and Journalism Curricula. New Directions in Journalism Education, 2020121.

Stony Brook University Model, Identifying various types of information, knowing your information neighborhood, identifying news and opinion, understanding and identifying bias, understanding how consumer biases influence how they decode media texts., media provides selective versions of the world rather than direct access., media messages created for profit or to exercise power

media literacy, the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and produce communications and information in a variety of media, New literacy includes media literacy plus, the ability to recognize and critically examine hidden meanings in news, identify sources of information in news including those cited in media texts, an understanding of news media consumption habits

Encyclopedia of Journalism

Sterling, C. H. (2009). Encyclopedia of Journalism. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from

Who is a journalist?

Someone who does journalism

Lee, W. E. (2013). Citizen-Critics, Citizen Journalists, and the Perils of Defining the Press. Georgia Law Review, 48, 757.

Research from Spain

Department of Journalism - Universidad de Valladolid, UVA, Spain - pilar.Sá, Sánchez-García, P., Campos-Domínguez, E., & Berrocal Gonzalo, S. (2015). The unalterable functions of journalists in view of the emerging multimedia job profiles. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social. Retrieved from

Writer, reporter, journalist

How is it done?

Journalistic writing

Basic News Writing, ABC's, Accuracy, A false story undercuts public trust, Critical feature of news writing, Brevity, Each word should do its job, Pretend that words cost $1.00 each, Get to the point, Don't be redundant, Clarity, Avoid Jargon and cliches, Explain everything that would not be obvious to an average person, The Five W's, Who, What, When, Where, Why, How, So What?, Story elements, Journalists job, Gatekeeper role-- decide what is news by deciding what to report, Make sure a clear separation exists between the news and the advertising., Present facts without judgement, Reporting vs journalism, the problem with objectivity, Facts vs truths, Make sense out of numbers, offer comparisons, Reporting, writing, meeting deadlines, Story telling is a normal human function, everybody has a story, Interviews, Quotes, Let your sources tell the story, Reporters voice sets the stage, quotes tell the story., Quotation marks indicate the sources own words, Must still confirm the actual meaning of the quote to avoid information "taken out of context", Use full quotes, partial quotes leave room for misinterpretation, Get concise quotes, Indirect quotes convey the speaker meaning rather than replicate the words, Verify questionable statements, You may get the quote right but the person may be wrong., Try not to rely on one source only, How to conduct an interview, Be Straightforward, When you contact an interview subject, state your objective clearly and honestly. The nature of the interview you conduct should be the nature of the interview you described to the subject. Diversions from the stated agenda may upset the subject and undermine the interview. However, do not provide your questions to the subject in advance; tell him or her that any questions you prepare ahead of time are only part of the interview., Choose an interview friendly location, The interview subject’s home or office is generally better than a public location such as a coffee shop, with fewer unfamiliar distractions. A subject in the comfort of his or her own environment will provide you with better material, and you can make light conversation about a photograph, a memento, or some other object or feature to start the interview off on a relaxed footing., Research the subject thoroughly, Find out as much as you can about the person before the interview. Be well prepared, and distinguish between facts and opinions so you can query the subject appropriately about what you’ve learned., Determine a theme, Avoid treating an interview as simply a series of general questions and answers. After conducting research, decide what the tone of the interview will be, and what you expect to get out of it. Develop a narrative flow based on the questions you wish to ask. The resulting content probably won’t follow that scheme, but your interview should have structure, and the questions should be organized logically by topic., Prepare questions, Write down every question you can think of, whether you think you’ll have time to have them answered or not, in the order in which you would like the interview to progress, and then winnow the list to a manageable number of questions (but more than you think you’ll have time for)., Craft simple questions consisting of a single query, and ask the most important ones first, in case the interview is interrupted or halted. Be prepared to jettison some questions, and be flexible enough to digress when the subject goes in an unexpected direction. Continue to follow that lead until it’s no longer productive and you are able to resume your line of questioning, preferably with a smooth transition., Record the interview, If possible, use a recording device, but take notes in writing as well to help you shape the interview and in case the device malfunctions. Before you begin the interview, inform the subject that you are recording it to enhance the accuracy of the final product. Tell him or her that after you begin recording but before the interview begins, you will ask for his or her consent so that you have a record of it, and then do so., Offer a copy of the recording, Ask questions only the subject can answer, Do not waste the subject’s time by asking questions that can be answered through research. Do, however, use quantitative information such as age as a starting point. Instead of asking how old someone is, for example, ask someone who is old enough to have lived through a certain period in the past about his or her experiences during that time., Engage with the subject, Demonstrate that you are interested and that what the subject is saying is important. Maintain eye contact as much as possible, but be objective and use neutral body language and avoid nodding, which may actually inhibit a substantive response., Develop active listening skills, STFU People don't like silence and try to fill it., Be polite but persistent, If some of your questions are provocative or sensitive, word them carefully and ask them diplomatically. If the subject doesn’t answer or provides an inadequate response, ask again in other words. If a response still isn’t forthcoming, return to the topic again later in the interview, explaining why it’s important that the subject respond., Properlining= telling you what he thinks you want to hear or what he thinks the company wants to hear., Be patient, When the subject seems to complete a response to a question, do not immediately move on to the next question, whether scripted or thought up at the time. Continue to be attentive, and patiently await more information. Sometimes, the postscript to a response is the best part. Likewise, when the interview is over, and the subject is more relaxed, take advantage of an opportunity to ask a casual question or two or to comment about something he or she said earlier., How to Write Good, Ten Magic Phrases of Journalism, The lead (lede), Journalistic writing style, The start of the story, Dos, Keep it short never longer than 10 words (blog titles, Tweets), Focus on action, Don't say it happened, -- say who did what to who., Get to the point, No "backing into the lead" starting your story with information of secondary importance, Don't bury the lead, hide the most important fact of the story later in the text., Hook the reader, most interesting, exciting information first Narrative writing builds to a climax. News =climax first, then explanation., Don'ts, Don't begin with the time, date or place, start with action, who did what, Don't use rhetorical questions, If the question is answered in the story, Don't start with a vague generality "According to..", Don't start with a direct quote, Don't overstate the news. Watch for hyperbole and disaster words., Six Things you didn't know about headline writing, Headline type face, Banner Headlines, Nut graph, Nutshell paragraph, Answers the questions "Why am I writing this, and why should the reader be interested?", How does the story affect the reader, Transitions, Paragraphs should flow, Story elements should be in a logical order, often chronological, Introductions between speakers, Setting the scene for new direction in the story, Endings, Rounds out the story, Refers to the information in the lead, News Values, Impact, Number of people affected/number of cars wrecked, Proximity, The closer you are the greater the news value., If it is flooding in Bangladesh is not as interesting as flooding in MB, Timeliness, New is the biggest part of news, Even big stories last only a week, Prominence, Did it happen to the Mayor? To a celebrity?, Novelty, Unusual, bizarre,the first, the last the only --once in a lifetime, Conflict, Nobody wants to read good news, FUD, Can't look away from a train wreck, War, politics and crime, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Death, Famine, Pestilence(Conquest) and War, Relevance, Does it affect me?, Usefulness, Can I use this information?, Human interest, Could be weak on all of the other news values but still interesting. If people are talking (Tweeting) about it, it is news., Objectivity and Fairness, Journalists job is to find the truth objectively, Public needs truth to make effective decisions, Stories must be unbiased (or the bias stated), Selecting words requires judgement which can be affected by bias, Fairness, With a well written lead the story writes itself, Recognize and acknowledge biases, Consciously include other points of view even if you don't agree, Journalists have an obligation to get the other side of the story., The other side must be given an opportunity to respond, Use neutral language, Avoid logical fallacies, Hasty generalizatons, Non Sequitur, logic doesn't follow, False analogy, Either/or falacy, Suggestion that only two choices exist when there are more, Faulty cause and effect reasoning, Circular reasoning, Instead of supporting conclusion with evidence, just restates the conclusion., False equivalence, He said, she said, let's leave it there, John Oliver bit on climate change, Critical thinking, The Production of Innocence, Gonzo journalism, no claims to objectivity, How close is too close? CAJ report, Style Guides, BBC

Information gathering

Investigative Dashboard, Tutorial

The interview, Interviewing principles, Questionable questioning practices, What to expect when you are being interviewed by a AP reporter., On background vs on the record, Backgrounding, Setting the stage, Professional but comfortable, Private, quiet, Safe, Their job might be at stake, Save your most contentious questions for last, when your notebook and recorder are already full, just in case the question ends the interview., The questions, StoryCorps, Questioning Technique, Open ended questions, Can't be answered with a one word answer, Closed questions, Can be answered with one word answer, Grand tour questions, Non specific, Instill the spill, Paying attention to details, response types, proper-lining, straight data, interpreted, vague, Body language (tells), eye contact, micro-expressions, touching mouth/nose, lips twitching, nose itching, signs of distress, eye movements, right handed people look to the left to remember to the right to fabricate, eye flutter-eye rubbing, body signs, sweating, dry mouth, swallowing, squirming fidgeting, congruence say no and nod yes, leaning, lean forward when telling the truth, backward when fabricating, verbal language, tone,pace, pitch, stuttering, stammering, exaggeration, over-sharing, impulsive emotional responses, psychological pressure, rehearsed answers, defensiveness on follow up, pauses, honest answers come quickly, lies require a mental review, word choices, frankly, to be honest with you, let me be perfectly clear, repetition, stalling, liars avoid contractions, muddle up, start over, Mid sentence jump, How about those Riders?, Strategies for lie detection

Google Alerts

Document Cloud

Newspaper layout

To sell the news (offer / sell the news) To grade the news set the tone (determine the ranking of news) To guide the readers (guides the reader to the things that should be read first)

Glossary of Terms, UK Glossary, Tombstoning, or

Types of Stories, Lead story/splash the most important news story of the day. It is supported by the main headline and sometimes the main photograph., Page lead main story on a newspaper page. Usually the longest story on that page with the biggest headline., Support usually the second longest story on a page supporting the main story., Leader main editorial column where the opinion of the newspaper is expressed on leading/main news stories., Op ed/facing page faces/opposite the leader page, carries columns and letters., Features subjective and reflective articles. They contain material such as in-depth analysis of people and events, opinion, advice or ssessment., NAG stands for news at a glance. Short news summaries giving the main points of a story., NIB stands for news in brief. One or two paragraph stories which only give basic facts. Often arranged in a list with small headlines., Fills stories of no more than one or two paragraphs used to fill a page., Shorts stories between three and eight paragraphs in length., Basement story/piece story at the bottom of the page which can often be quirky or amusing.

McGraw Hill glossary

Evaluating sources -- "If your mother says she loves you, check it out.

Logical Falacies, Dictionary of Logical Fallacies, Stephen's Guide to Logical Fallacies, The Book of Bad Arguments_Illustrated Guide to Logical Fallacies, Thou Shalt not, YouTube playlist of logical fallacies, Exercises, Dirty Tricks Catalog, Cognitive bias, The curse of knowledge, better-informed parties to find it extremely difficult to think about problems from the perspective of lesser-informed parties, Dunning-Kruger Effect, John Cleese explains, inability of the unskilled to recognize their ineptitude., highly skilled individuals tend to underestimate their relative competence, erroneously assuming that tasks which are easy for them are also easy for others., 12 cognitive biases, Confirmation bias, the often unconscious act of referencing only those perspectives that fuel our pre-existing views, while at the same time ignoring or dismissing opinions — no matter how valid — that threaten our world view., cognitive dissonance, In-group bias, causes us to overestimate the abilities and value of our immediate group at the expense of people we don't really know., Gambler's fallacy, the sense that our luck has to eventually change and that good fortune is on the way., unlucky in love?= it will be different this time, Post purchase rationalization, to avoid cognitive dissonance after a crappy decision., Neglecting probability, –You are 8 times more likely to be killed by a police officer than by a terrorist, Observational selection bias, This is that effect of suddenly noticing things we didn't notice that much before — but we wrongly assume that the frequency has increased., the feeling that the appearance of certain things or events couldn't possibly be a coincidence (even though it is)., Status quo bias, fear of change "If it ain't broke, don't fix it", Negativity Bias, we perceive negative news as being more important or profound and tend to give more credibility to bad news,, Bandwagon effect, our built-in desire to fit in and conform,, Asch conformity experiments, Projection bias, We tend to assume that most people think just like us — though there may be no justification for it., False consensus effect, Current moment bias, We humans have a really hard time imagining ourselves in the future and altering our behaviors and expectations accordingly., Anchoring effect, tendency we have to compare and contrast only a limited set of items, we fixate on a value or number that in turn gets compared to everything else, Cost of a case of beer, a pack of smokes, Normative bias, congenial truth

Bad Science

Provenance, Attribution, Responsibility, Origin, Where did this information come from?, Trust, Reputation, Information quality, Signal to noise ratio

Online services, Memento, Wayback Machine, Snopes, Whois, Dear Faithful, C.R.A.P test, Currency, Reliability, Authority, Purpose/Point of view,, Emergent, Twitter verification tips

Internet crap detection assorted tools, Debunking, pre-bunking, hype and hype busting

Critical Thinking for Journalists

Web Smell, User Generated content

Image and video verification

Verification : How do you know that?, Information forensics

How is it studied?

Theoretical foundations

Normative theories, Fred Seibert: Four Theories of the Press, Updated 4 theories, Communist theory of the press Mass media, under this theory, are instruments of government and integral parts of the State. They are owned and operated by the State and directed by the Communist Party or its agencies. Criticism is permitted in the media (i. e. criticism of failure to achieve goals), but criticism of basic ideology is forbidden., Samizdat, Authoritarian theory (which applies to early pre-democratic forms of society and also to present- day undemocratic or autocratic social systems). In this view, all media and public communication are subject to the supervision of the ruling authority and expression or opinion which might undermine the established social and political order can be forbidden. Although this `theory' contravenes rights of freedom of expression, it can be invoked under extreme conditions., Harold Innes, Two types of media, time-biased, Lasting cultural contibutions, space biased, modern media and multimedia facilitate rapid change, William J Bernstein, Communist Media theory, Mass media, under this theory, are instruments of government and integral parts of the State. They are owned and operated by the State and directed by the Communist Party or its agencies. Criticism is permitted in the media (i. e. criticism of failure to achieve goals), but criticism of basic ideology is forbidden. Communist theory, like that of authoritarianism, is based on the premise that the masses are too fickle and too ignorant and unconcerned with government to be entrusted with governmental responsibilities., Social responsibility theory (found more in Europe and countries under European influence) is a modified version of free press theory placing greater emphasis upon the accountability of the media (especially broadcasting) to society. Media are free but they should accept obligations to serve the public good. The means of ensuring compliance with these obligations can either be through professional self-regulation or public intervention (or both)., Jurgen Habermas, Development media theory (applying in countries at lower levels of economic development and with limited resources) takes various forms but essentially proposes that media freedom, while desirable, should be subordinated (of necessity) to the requirements of economic, social and political development., Constructive or solutions journalism, Free press theory (most fully developed in the United States of America, but applying elsewhere) proclaims complete freedom of public expression and of economic operation of the media and rejects any interference by government in any aspect of the press. A well- functioning market should resolve all issues of media obligation and social need., Essential to Democratic Process, The 5th Estate, Schudson 7 things news can do for democracy, inform the public, keep governments accountable, analysis- make complex stories accessible, Social empathy public interest to create collective yearnings, public forum (especially in web format), advocacy, evangelize for representative democracy, Corporate Media, Cultural imperialism, The public sphere

Descriptive theories, Herman and Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent, Propaganda Model 2010, Chapter One -- A Propaganda Model, Five filters of editorial bias that determine what we get as news, Size, ownership and profit orientation, the ownership, size and profit orientation of mainstream media;, Advertisers are the defacto licencing authority of the press, advertising as the principle source of revenue for mainstream media and the corresponding influence of advertising values on news production processes;, Sourcing --mass media power 1% subsidizes media add have special access, Gotta have an enemy, Fascists Communists Socialist terrorists., War rhetoric, War on Drugs, Global war on terror., Red Menace, Evil Hun, War economy and the military industrial complex., Pistachios and the War on Iran, mainstream media’s routine reliance on agents of power as the primary definers of social reality;, embedded journalists, Framing, Unworthy victims, outright villains, Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 U.S.C. sections 2340-2340A, Torture or enhanced interrogation?, "severe pain" must necessarily be pain associated with "death, organ failure, or serious impairment of body functions". It also states that the statute requires "prolonged mental harm" to accompany mental or physical pain, and that "prolonged" means a duration of months or years., Large corporate bureaucracies subsidize and gain special access, various ideological forces, which may be deployed and adapted to correspond to elite interests when required, Flack and enforcers, Blow back, organized flak that represents a mechanism of social control;, Flak is negative responses to a media story, letters to the editor, phone in show comment, Tweets, Intended to discourage anti-elite analysis, Kill the Messenger, Gaslighting, PR spin doctors, Zersatzen, Systematic discrediting, Undermine, subvert and corrode, In Canada it is called "Diffuse and Disrupt", Trust me I'm Lying, Chapter Two -- Worthy and Unworthy Victims, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Pussy Riot, Malala, Children killed in a school by US drone, Chapter 3 -- Legitimizing versus Meaningless: Third world elections in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, Chapter 4 -- The KGB/Bulgarian plot to kill the Pope: Free market disinformation as "News", Chapter Five -- The Indochina Wars: Vietnam, Historic reaction, Iconic images, Naked Napalm girl, Black Blouse girl, Chapter Six -- The Indochina Wars: Laos and Cambodia, Chapter 7 -- Conclusions, Chomsky on Education, McLuhan, Understanding Media, Mark Federman on Mcluhan, On Reading McLuhan, Ideas, Tetrads, What does medium enhance?, The Extensions of Man, What does the medium make obsolete?, Orality to literacy, From scribes to printing press, From print based to electronic, Break boundaries turn society upside down and transform., The obsolesced form doesn't disappear but becomes art, When one medium is enhanced another is diminished, EG Samizdat >Twitter revolutionary communications, What does the medium retrieve that has been obsolesced earlirer?, From Cliche to Archetype, Wine is the medium, Sociability, Sacred, celebration, beligerance, Mobile Phone, Enhances human voice, Obsolesces being physically present., Retrieves the crystal ball fortune teller Allow you to hear voices that are not physically present., What does the medium flip into when pushed to extremes?, Privacy reverses into publicy, Hot and Cool media, A medium that engages you is cool, A medium that disengages you is hot, Principle of medium equivalency, Media, The medium is the message, The personal and social consequences of any medium result from the new scale introduced into our affairs by any new technology, The new scale Facebook introduces into politics is this: all registered American voters, ~150M people, are now a medium-sized group. All voters’ used to be a big number. Now it’s less than 10 percent of Facebook’s audience. “A million users isn’t cool. You know what’s cool? A billion users.”, The medium is the massage, We seek sources that comfort us in our existing beliefs, leave our boats unrocked, Laws of Media, McLuhan, Now a code or a device. Like Northrup Frye, The Great Code., McLuhan in Wired magazine, McLuhan for Beginners, Uses and Gratification theory, Overton window, Hallin's Three spheres

FON, Clay Shirky, Cognitive Surplus, Ushahiti, LOL cats, Shirky on McLuhan, Definition, Here Comes Everybody, Organization of information used to be costly, Scarcity, Coasian Ceiling/Coasian flloor, Needed hierarchical organizations., Empires, Railroads, Newspapers, Organization of information now costs nothing, Abundance, Adhocracy,, DemocracyNow, Citizen's journalism, Post-industrial Journalism, Adapting to the present, Most important job interview question for new hires? "How many followers"?, Journalism After Snowden, Three broad skills required, Encrypted communications, Plan to involve journalists in another jurisdiction, Doomsday Switch, Arrange to be the recipient of info, establish trusted connections, Social Media is breaking the Overton Window, The effect of social media on the political system and the range of ideas the public will accept., Unthinkable >Radical> Acceptable> Sensible> Popular> Policy, Jay Rosen, Old Testament/New Testament Journalism, Howard Reingold, Alternative media theory., From a social critical perspective the dominant media of the established society are likely to be inadequate by definition in respect of many groups in society and too much under the control of the state and other authorities or elites. This type of theory favours media that are close to the grass-roots of society, small-scale, participative, active and non-commercial. Their role is to speak for and to the social out-groups and also to keep radical criticism alive., Mark Federman, UCAPP, New Journalism in a UCPP age, Dan Gillmor, Jeff Jarvis, SteveJ Fox, Snowden, Greewald, Poitras, Cahill, Marc Schudson, Why Democracies Need an Unlovable Press, Schudson 7 things news can do for democracy, inform the public, keep governments accountable, analysis- make complex stories accessible, Social empathy public interest to create collective yearnings, public forum (especially in web format), advocacy, evangelize for representative democracy

How has it changed?

Post-Industrial Journalism


Jon Stewart

Russel Brand, Interview

This Hour Has 22 Minutes, Marg Delahunty, Rick Mercer

The Onion

Stephen Colbert

News consumption practices research

How will it change?

New economic models, Crowd sourced free, Freemium, Twitter, Google, No such thing as free. If you are not the customer you are the product., Paywall, Opt in/opt out, Crowd funding, Micro-finance, Bitcoin, Gawker raises $200k for Rob Ford Video through Indiegogo, Free the TPP campaign to fund Wikileaks, Alexa O'Brien crowdfunding her coverage of the Manning trial and the PayPal 14 trial on WePay


Exemplars, Library of Congress, Calgary Police

How to use Twitter, Twitter Help, TwitterHow, Hashtags, Citing a Tweet, Curate Tweets

Twitter TrendsMap

Twitter Journalism, Social Media integration, Media entity, Twitter resources for journalists

Canadian Political Journalists who Tweet

Topsy Twitter meta search

What is journalism for?

diagnosing problems

surfacing issues

recommending solutions

Constructive journalism

Restorative Narrative

informing a democratic society

Glossary of Political Terms