Fundamentals of Journalism

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Fundamentals of Journalism by Mind Map: Fundamentals of Journalism

1. What is journalism?

1.1. An intellectual pursuit?

1.1.1. Social Epistemology

1.2. How is it different from

1.2.1. Propaganda

1.2.1.1. UN Resolutions

1.2.1.2. War Crime

1.2.2. Public relations

1.2.2.1. Framing

1.2.2.1.1. 5 million Questions

1.2.2.2. PR as opposed to Advocacy journalism

1.2.2.3. Astroturfing

1.2.2.3.1. Social media trend bots work

1.2.2.4. Ventriloquizing

1.2.3. Marketing

1.2.3.1. FUD

1.2.3.1.1. Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt

1.2.3.2. If it bleeds it leads

1.2.3.3. Social psychology

1.2.3.3.1. Persuasion

1.2.3.3.2. Resisting persuasion

1.2.3.4. Social engineering

1.2.3.4.1. social marketing

1.2.4. Advocacy

1.2.5. Persuasion

1.2.5.1. Captology

1.2.6. Earned, owned and paid media

1.2.7. New Topic

1.3. A social good

1.3.1. Foundation of democracy

1.4. media literacy

1.4.1. the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and produce communications and information in a variety of media

1.4.1.1. New literacy includes media literacy plus

1.4.1.1.1. the ability to recognize and critically examine hidden meanings in news

1.4.1.1.2. identify sources of information in news including those cited in media texts

1.4.1.1.3. an understanding of news media consumption habits

1.5. Stony Brook University Model

1.5.1. Identifying various types of information

1.5.2. knowing your information neighborhood

1.5.3. identifying news and opinion

1.5.4. understanding and identifying bias

1.5.4.1. understanding how consumer biases influence how they decode media texts.

1.5.4.1.1. media provides selective versions of the world rather than direct access.

1.5.4.2. media messages created for profit or to exercise power

1.6. Ryerson: New models of news and media literacy

1.7. Encyclopedia of Journalism

1.8. Elements of Journalism

1.8.1. 1. Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth.

1.8.2. 2. Its first loyalty is to citizens.

1.8.3. 3. Its essence is a discipline of verification.

1.8.4. 4. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover.

1.8.5. 5. It must serve as a monitor of power.

1.8.6. 6. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise.

1.8.7. 7. It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant.

1.8.8. 8. It must present the news in a way that is comprehensive and proportional.

1.8.9. 9. Its practitioners have an obligation to exercise their personal conscience.

1.8.10. 10. Citizens have rights and responsibilities when it comes to the news as well—even more so as they become producers and editors themselves.

2. Who is a journalist?

2.1. A skill?

2.1.1. Vocation

2.2. Someone who does journalism

2.3. Research from Spain

2.4. Writer, reporter, journalist

2.5. Someone who is paid to produce journalism?

2.5.1. New models

2.5.1.1. SocialBlad

2.5.1.2. Patreon

2.5.1.3. Stemmit

2.5.2. Mortgage holders don't make very good investigative journalists

3. How is it done?

3.1. Journalistic writing

3.1.1. Basic News Writing

3.1.1.1. ABC's

3.1.1.1.1. Accuracy

3.1.1.1.2. Brevity

3.1.1.1.3. Clarity

3.1.1.2. The Five W's

3.1.1.2.1. Who

3.1.1.2.2. What

3.1.1.2.3. When

3.1.1.2.4. Where

3.1.1.2.5. Why

3.1.1.2.6. And often....

3.1.1.3. Story elements

3.1.1.3.1. Journalists job

3.1.1.3.2. How to Write Good

3.1.1.3.3. The lead (lede)

3.1.1.3.4. Nut graph

3.1.1.3.5. Transitions

3.1.1.3.6. Endings

3.1.1.4. News Values

3.1.1.4.1. Impact

3.1.1.4.2. Proximity

3.1.1.4.3. Timeliness

3.1.1.4.4. Prominence

3.1.1.4.5. Novelty

3.1.1.4.6. Conflict

3.1.1.4.7. Relevance

3.1.1.4.8. Usefulness

3.1.1.4.9. Human interest

3.1.1.5. Objectivity and Fairness

3.1.1.5.1. Journalists job is to find the truth objectively

3.1.1.5.2. Fairness

3.1.1.5.3. Avoid logical fallacies

3.1.1.5.4. Critical thinking

3.1.1.5.5. The Production of Innocence

3.1.1.5.6. Gonzo journalism

3.1.1.5.7. How close is too close? CAJ report

3.1.1.6. Style Guides

3.1.1.6.1. BBC

3.2. Information gathering

3.2.1. Investigative Dashboard

3.2.1.1. Tutorial

3.2.2. The interview

3.2.2.1. Interviewing principles

3.2.2.1.1. Questionable questioning practices

3.2.2.1.2. What to expect when you are being interviewed by a AP reporter.

3.2.2.1.3. On background vs on the record

3.2.2.1.4. Warning your interviewee about potential blow back on social media and other consequences.

3.2.2.2. Backgrounding

3.2.2.3. Setting the stage

3.2.2.3.1. Professional but comfortable

3.2.2.3.2. Private, quiet

3.2.2.3.3. Safe

3.2.2.3.4. Save your most contentious questions for last, when your notebook and recorder are already full, just in case the question ends the interview.

3.2.2.4. The questions

3.2.2.4.1. StoryCorps

3.2.2.5. Questioning Technique

3.2.2.5.1. Open ended questions

3.2.2.5.2. Closed questions

3.2.2.5.3. Grand tour questions

3.2.2.6. Paying attention to details

3.2.2.6.1. response types

3.2.2.6.2. Body language (tells)

3.2.2.6.3. Strategies for lie detection

3.2.3. Google Alerts

3.2.4. Document Cloud

3.3. Newspaper layout

3.3.1. Glossary of Terms

3.3.1.1. UK Glossary

3.3.1.2. Tombstoning

3.3.1.2.1. or

3.3.2. Types of Stories

3.3.2.1. Lead story/splash the most important news story of the day. It is supported by the main headline and sometimes the main photograph.

3.3.2.2. Page lead main story on a newspaper page. Usually the longest story on that page with the biggest headline.

3.3.2.3. Support usually the second longest story on a page supporting the main story.

3.3.2.4. Leader main editorial column where the opinion of the newspaper is expressed on leading/main news stories.

3.3.2.5. Op ed/facing page faces/opposite the leader page, carries columns and letters.

3.3.2.6. Features subjective and reflective articles. They contain material such as in-depth analysis of people and events, opinion, advice or ssessment.

3.3.2.7. NAG stands for news at a glance. Short news summaries giving the main points of a story.

3.3.2.8. NIB stands for news in brief. One or two paragraph stories which only give basic facts. Often arranged in a list with small headlines.

3.3.2.9. Fills - stories of no more than one or two paragraphs used to fill a page.

3.3.2.10. Shorts stories between three and eight paragraphs in length.

3.3.2.11. Basement story/piece story at the bottom of the page which can often be quirky or amusing.

3.3.3. McGraw Hill glossary

3.4. Writing vs Reporting vs. journalism

3.4.1. Court reporting

3.5. Sources

3.5.1. Evaluating sources -- "If your mother says she loves you, check it out.

3.5.1.1. Provenance

3.5.1.1.1. Attribution

3.5.1.1.2. Origin

3.5.1.1.3. Trust

3.5.1.2. Online services

3.5.1.2.1. Memento

3.5.1.2.2. Wayback Machine

3.5.1.2.3. Snopes

3.5.1.2.4. Whois

3.5.1.2.5. C.R.A.P test

3.5.1.2.6. FactCheck.org

3.5.1.2.7. Emergent

3.5.1.2.8. Twitter verification tips

3.5.1.2.9. Collection of tools

3.5.1.2.10. Journalist's Toolbox

3.5.1.3. Critical Thinking for Journalists

3.5.1.3.1. Crap detection

3.5.1.3.2. Carl Sagan Baloney Detection kit

3.5.1.3.3. Bad Science

3.5.1.3.4. Logical Falacies

3.5.1.3.5. Web Smell

3.5.1.3.6. Internet crap detection assorted tools

3.5.1.4. Image and video verification

3.5.1.5. Verification : How do you know that?

3.5.1.5.1. Information forensics

3.5.1.6. CUNY Graduate School of Journalism- Fact Checking, Verification & Fake News

3.5.1.7. Chatham House Rule

3.6. Getting started

4. How is it studied?

4.1. Theoretical foundations

4.1.1. Normative theories (the way it ought to be)

4.1.1.1. Fred Seibert: Four Theories of the Press

4.1.1.1.1. Updated 4 theories

4.1.1.2. Communist theory of the press Mass media, under this theory, are instruments of government and integral parts of the State. They are owned and operated by the State and directed by the Communist Party or its agencies. Criticism is permitted in the media (i. e. criticism of failure to achieve goals), but criticism of basic ideology is forbidden.

4.1.1.2.1. Samizdat

4.1.1.3. Authoritarian theory (which applies to early pre-democratic forms of society and also to present- day undemocratic or autocratic social systems). In this view, all media and public communication are subject to the supervision of the ruling authority and expression or opinion which might undermine the established social and political order can be forbidden. Although this `theory' contravenes rights of freedom of expression, it can be invoked under extreme conditions.

4.1.1.3.1. Harold Innes

4.1.1.3.2. William J Bernstein

4.1.1.3.3. Communist Media theory

4.1.1.4. Social responsibility theory (found more in Europe and countries under European influence) is a modified version of free press theory placing greater emphasis upon the accountability of the media (especially broadcasting) to society. Media are free but they should accept obligations to serve the public good. The means of ensuring compliance with these obligations can either be through professional self-regulation or public intervention (or both).

4.1.1.4.1. Jurgen Habermas

4.1.1.4.2. Development media theory (applying in countries at lower levels of economic development and with limited resources) takes various forms but essentially proposes that media freedom, while desirable, should be subordinated (of necessity) to the requirements of economic, social and political development.

4.1.1.4.3. Constructive or solutions journalism

4.1.1.5. Free press theory (most fully developed in the United States of America, but applying elsewhere) proclaims complete freedom of public expression and of economic operation of the media and rejects any interference by government in any aspect of the press. A well- functioning market should resolve all issues of media obligation and social need.

4.1.1.5.1. Essential to Democratic Process

4.1.2. Descriptive theories ( the way things are)

4.1.2.1. Herman and Chomsky

4.1.2.1.1. Manufacturing Consent

4.1.2.1.2. Chomsky on Education

4.1.2.1.3. Propaganda Model Today

4.1.2.2. McLuhan

4.1.2.2.1. Understanding Media

4.1.2.2.2. Laws of Media

4.1.2.2.3. McLuhan

4.1.2.2.4. McLuhan in Wired magazine

4.1.2.2.5. McLuhan for Beginners

4.1.2.3. Uses and Gratification theory

4.1.2.4. Overton window

4.1.2.5. Hallin's Three spheres

4.1.3. FON

4.1.3.1. Clay Shirky

4.1.3.1.1. Cognitive Surplus

4.1.3.1.2. Here Comes Everybody

4.1.3.1.3. Post-industrial Journalism

4.1.3.1.4. Journalism After Snowden

4.1.3.1.5. Social Media is breaking the Overton Window

4.1.3.2. Jay Rosen

4.1.3.2.1. Old Testament/New Testament Journalism

4.1.3.3. Howard Reingold

4.1.3.4. Alternative media theory.

4.1.3.4.1. From a social critical perspective the dominant media of the established society are likely to be inadequate by definition in respect of many groups in society and too much under the control of the state and other authorities or elites. This type of theory favours media that are close to the grass-roots of society, small-scale, participative, active and non-commercial. Their role is to speak for and to the social out-groups and also to keep radical criticism alive.

4.1.3.5. Mark Federman

4.1.3.5.1. UCAPP

4.1.3.5.2. New Journalism in a UCPP age

4.1.3.6. Dan Gillmor

4.1.3.7. Jeff Jarvis

4.1.3.8. SteveJ Fox

4.1.3.9. Snowden

4.1.3.9.1. Greenwald, Poitras, Cahill

4.1.3.10. Wikileaks

4.1.3.10.1. Leaks not hacks

4.1.3.11. Marc Schudson, Why Democracies Need an Unlovable Press

4.1.3.11.1. Schudson 7 things news can do for democracy

4.1.3.12. Displacement theory of the news

4.1.3.12.1. Media Displacement Theory

4.1.3.13. Andrew Feenberg

5. How has it changed?

5.1. Post-Industrial Journalism

5.2. Satire

5.2.1. Jon Stewart

5.2.2. Russel Brand

5.2.2.1. Interview

5.2.3. This Hour Has 22 Minutes

5.2.3.1. Marg Delahunty

5.2.3.2. Rick Mercer

5.2.4. The Onion

5.2.5. Stephen Colbert

5.3. News consumption practices research

5.4. How will it change?

5.4.1. New economic models

5.4.1.1. Crowd sourced free

5.4.1.1.1. Freemium

5.4.1.2. Paywall

5.4.1.2.1. Opt in/opt out

5.4.1.3. Crowd funding

5.4.1.3.1. Micro-finance

5.4.1.3.2. Gawker raises $200k for Rob Ford Video through Indiegogo

5.4.1.3.3. Free the TPP campaign to fund Wikileaks

5.4.1.3.4. Alexa O'Brien crowdfunding her coverage of the Manning trial and the PayPal 14 trial on WePay

5.4.1.4. Attention Economy

5.4.1.4.1. Paying attention

5.4.1.5. Cryptocurrencies

5.4.1.5.1. Presscoin

5.4.1.5.2. Steemit

5.4.1.6. Advertisement based

5.4.1.6.1. SocialBlade

5.5. Twitter

5.5.1. Exemplars

5.5.1.1. Library of Congress

5.5.1.2. Calgary Police

5.5.2. How to use Twitter

5.5.2.1. Twitter Help

5.5.2.2. TwitterHow

5.5.2.3. Hashtags

5.5.2.4. Citing a Tweet

5.5.2.5. Curate Tweets

5.5.3. Twitter TrendsMap

5.5.4. Twitter Journalism

5.5.4.1. Social Media integration

5.5.4.2. Media entity

5.5.4.3. Twitter resources for journalists

5.5.5. Canadian Political Journalists who Tweet

5.5.6. Topsy Twitter meta search

6. What is journalism for?

6.1. diagnosing problems

6.2. surfacing issues

6.3. informing a democratic society

6.3.1. Glossary of Political Terms

6.3.2. US First Ammendment

6.3.3. Canadian Constitution Act

6.3.3.1. Charter of Rights and Freedoms

6.4. Persuasion

6.4.1. Captology

6.5. Selling soap, making money

6.6. Advocacy

6.6.1. recommending solutions

6.6.1.1. Constructive journalism

6.6.1.1.1. Saul Alinsky's Rules for Creating Meaningful Social Change

6.6.1.2. Restorative Narrative